gamma aminobutyric acid
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Khalid Saad Alharbi

Abstract Desvenlafaxine succinate (DVS) inhibits serotonin reuptake selectively and is approved for major depressive disorders. This research investigated influence of DVS on modulating brain monoamine and oxidative stress in mice. The antiepileptic potential of DVS (10, 20, or 30 mg/kg/i.p.) in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; 85 mg/kg) with i.p. route of administration, strychnine (STR; 75 mg/kg) with i.p. route, pilocarpine (400 mg/kg) with s.c. route and maximal electroshock MES-induced convulsion in mouse models. The activities of oxidative stress, i.e. superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) as well as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brains of PTZ-induced convulsive mice. Treatment with DVS increased the latency to develop siezures and declined mortalities in rodents against PTZ, STR and pilocarpine-induced convulsions. Results of MES-leaded siezures revealed that DVS reduced tonic hind limb extension duration and mortalities significantly. Brain, SOD, GSH and GABA level were significantly (P<0.01) increased and LPO reduced significantly (P<0.01) after DVS treatment. Furthermore, the DVS did not show any motor coordination signs in the rotarod test. We demonstrated that the role of DVS in convulsion genesis in mice under control condition and attenuate the PTZ-induced oxidative damage.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Atefe Ghafurian Nasab ◽  
Sayed Ali Mortazavi ◽  
Farideh Tabatabaei Yazdi ◽  
Mahboobe Sarabi Jamab

In the present research, the production potential of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) using Lactobacillus brevis PML1 was investigated. In addition, the microorganism viability was examined in MAN, ROGOSA, and SHARPE (MRS) after undergoing high hydrostatic pressure at 100, 200, and 300 MPa for 5, 10, and 15 min. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the production conditions of GABA as well as the bacteria viability. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that both the independent variables (pressure and time) significantly influenced the dependent ones (GABA and bacteria viability) ( P < 0.05 ). The optimum extraction conditions to maximize the production of GABA included the pressure of 300 MPa and the time of 15 min. The amount of the compound was quantified using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and spectrophotometry. For the process optimization, a central composite design (CCD) was created using Design Expert with 5 replications at the center point, whereby the highest content of GABA was obtained to be 397.73 ppm which was confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Moreover, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to observe the morphological changes in the microorganism. The results revealed that not only did have Lactobacillus brevis PML1 the potential for the production of GABA under conventional conditions (control sample) but also the content of this bioactive compound could be elevated by optimizing the production parameters.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 834
Chigusa Shimizu-Okabe ◽  
Shiori Kobayashi ◽  
Jeongtae Kim ◽  
Yoshinori Kosaka ◽  
Masanobu Sunagawa ◽  

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine act as inhibitory neurotransmitters. Three types of inhibitory neurons and terminals, GABAergic, GABA/glycine coreleasing, and glycinergic, are orchestrated in the spinal cord neural circuits and play critical roles in regulating pain, locomotive movement, and respiratory rhythms. In this study, we first describe GABAergic and glycinergic transmission and inhibitory networks, consisting of three types of terminals in the mature mouse spinal cord. Second, we describe the developmental formation of GABAergic and glycinergic networks, with a specific focus on the differentiation of neurons, formation of synapses, maturation of removal systems, and changes in their action. GABAergic and glycinergic neurons are derived from the same domains of the ventricular zone. Initially, GABAergic neurons are differentiated, and their axons form synapses. Some of these neurons remain GABAergic in lamina I and II. Many GABAergic neurons convert to a coreleasing state. The coreleasing neurons and terminals remain in the dorsal horn, whereas many ultimately become glycinergic in the ventral horn. During the development of terminals and the transformation from radial glia to astrocytes, GABA and glycine receptor subunit compositions markedly change, removal systems mature, and GABAergic and glycinergic action shifts from excitatory to inhibitory.

2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (3) ◽  
pp. e2109395119
Stephanie Cerceo Page ◽  
Srinidhi Rao Sripathy ◽  
Federica Farinelli ◽  
Zengyou Ye ◽  
Yanhong Wang ◽  

Neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have been used to model basic cellular aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders, but the relationship between the emergent phenotypes and the clinical characteristics of donor individuals has been unclear. We analyzed RNA expression and indices of cellular function in hiPSC-derived neural progenitors and cortical neurons generated from 13 individuals with high polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for schizophrenia (SCZ) and a clinical diagnosis of SCZ, along with 15 neurotypical individuals with low PRS. We identified electrophysiological measures in the patient-derived neurons that implicated altered Na+ channel function, action potential interspike interval, and gamma-aminobutyric acid–ergic neurotransmission. Importantly, electrophysiological measures predicted cardinal clinical and cognitive features found in these SCZ patients. The identification of basic neuronal physiological properties related to core clinical characteristics of illness is a potentially critical step in generating leads for novel therapeutics.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 711
Hiromi Sakaguchi ◽  
Hiroyuki Tsuchiya ◽  
Yutaka Kitagawa ◽  
Tomohiko Tanino ◽  
Kenji Yoshida ◽  

A long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), nuclear enriched abundant transcript 1 (NEAT1) variant 1 (NEAT1v1), is involved in the maintenance of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). CSCs are suggested to play important roles in therapeutic resistance. Therefore, we investigated whether NEAT1v1 is involved in the sensitivity to radiation therapy in HCC. Gene knockdown was performed using short hairpin RNAs, and NEAT1v1-overexpressing HCC cell lines were generated by stable transfection with a NEAT1v1-expressing plasmid DNA. Cells were irradiated using an X-ray generator. We found that NEAT1 knockdown enhanced the radiosensitivity of HCC cell lines and concomitantly inhibited autophagy. NEAT1v1 overexpression enhanced autophagy in the irradiated cells and conferred radioresistance. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein (GABARAP) expression was downregulated by NEAT1 knockdown, whereas it was upregulated in NEAT1v1-overexpressing cells. Moreover, GABARAP was required for NEAT1v1-induced autophagy and radioresistance as its knockdown significantly inhibited autophagy and sensitized the cells to radiation. Since GABARAP is a crucial protein for the autophagosome-lysosome fusion, our results suggest that NEAT1v1 confers radioresistance to HCC by promoting autophagy through GABARAP.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Akshat Goel ◽  
Chris Major Ncho ◽  
Chae-Mi Jeong ◽  
Yang-Ho Choi

Chickens are exposed to numerous types of stress from hatching to shipping, influencing poultry production. Embryonic manipulation may develop resistance against several stressors. This study investigates the effects of thermoneutral temperature (T0; 37.8°C) with no injection (N0) (T0N0), T0 with 0.6 ml of 10% in ovo gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) supplementation (N1) at 17.5th embryonic day (ED) (T0N1), thermal manipulation (T1) at 39.6°C from the 10th to 18th ED (6 h/day) with N0 (T1N0), and T1 with N1 (T1N1) on hatchability parameters and hepatic expression of stress-related genes in day-old Arbor Acres chicks. The parameters determined were hatchability, body weight (BW), organ weight, hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidant-related gene expression. Percent hatchability was calculated on a fertile egg basis. Growth performance was analyzed using each chick as an experimental unit. Eight birds per group were used for organ weight. Two-way ANOVA was used taking temperature and GABA as the main effect for growth performance and gene expression studies. Analysis was performed using an IBM SPSS statistics software package 25.0 (IBM software, Chicago, IL, USA). Hatchability was similar in all the groups and was slightly lower in the T1N1. Higher BW was recorded in both T1 and N1. Intestinal weight and MDA were higher in T0N1 against T0N0 and T1N1, respectively. The expression of HSP70, HSP90, NOX1, and NOX4 genes was higher and SOD and CAT genes were lower in the T1 group. The present results show that T1 and N1 independently improve the BW of broiler chicks at hatch, but T1 strongly regulates stress-related gene expression and suggests that both T1 and N1 during incubation can improve performance and alleviate stress after hatch.

2022 ◽  
Dalia M Mabrouk ◽  
Aida El makawy ◽  
Kawkab A Ahmed ◽  
Faten M Ibrahim

Abstract Background: Topamax® ® has multiple pharmacological mechanisms that are efficient to treat epilepsy and migraine. Ginger has been demonstrated to have gingerols and shogaols compounds that proven to cross the blood-brain barrier causing migraine relief, implying that it is useful in the treatment of migraines. Moreover, Topamax has many off-label uses. So it was necessary to explore the possible neurotoxicity of Topamax®, Ginger oil and their interaction in the mice brain. Methods and Results: Male mice were orally gavage with Topamax®, ginger oil (400mg/kg), and Topamax® plus ginger oil with the same pattern for one month. Oxidative stress markers, acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- α), were analyzed in brain tissue. Histopathological examination by hematoxylin and eosin, immunohistochemical glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and Bax expression analysis were done. The mRNA levels of GABAAR subunits, Gabra1, Gabra3, and Gabra5 were evaluated by RT qPCR. The analysis of data revealed that Topamax® elevated the levels of oxidative stress markers, neurotransmitters, TNF-α, and diminished the level of glutathione reduced (GSH). Topamax® exhibited various neuropathological alterations, strong Bax expression, and GFAP immune-reactivity in the cerebral cortex. The interaction effect of Topamax® plus ginger oil attenuated the changes induced by Topamax® in the abovementioned parameters. Both Topamax® and ginger oil upregulated the mRNA expression of gabra1 and gabra3 while their interaction markedly downregulated them. Conclusion: We can conclude that the Topamax® overdose could possibly cause neurotoxicity, but the interaction with ginger oil can reduce Topamax® -induced neurotoxicity and should be taken in parallel.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Juan Francisco Rodríguez-Landa ◽  
Fabiola Hernández-López ◽  
Lucía Martínez-Mota ◽  
Damiana Scuteri ◽  
Blandina Bernal-Morales ◽  

Systemic injections of the flavonoid chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) exert anxiolytic-like effects in ovariectomised and cycling female rats through actions on gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptors; however, it is unknown if chrysin directly acts on brain structures that are involved in regulating emotional processes, such as the hippocampus. The present study evaluated the effects of intrahippocampal microinjections of 0.25, 0.5, and 1 μg of chrysin on anxiety-like behaviour in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and locomotor activity test (LAT) in female rats in proestrus and dioestrus. Similar doses of the neurosteroid allopregnanolone were used as a reference GABAergic anxiolytic drug. The participation of the GABAA/benzodiazepine receptor complex was evaluated by administering the antagonists picrotoxin, bicuculline and flumazenil. In proestrus, 0.5 and 1 μg of chrysin and allopregnanolone induced anxiogenic-like behaviour. In dioestrus, chrysin, and allopregnanolone (0.5 μg) induced anxiolytic-like effects. Picrotoxin, bicuculline and flumazenil prevented the effects of chrysin and allopregnanolone in both proestrus and dioestrus. None of the treatments significantly affected locomotor activity. These results indicate that the GABAA/benzodiazepine receptor complex in the dorsal hippocampus regulates the effects of chrysin on anxiety-like behaviour, similar to the actions of allopregnanolone. The divergent effects of treatments across the oestrous cycle phases suggest complex interactions between GABAA receptors and compounds with an anxiolytic potential.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 502
Hyesook Lee ◽  
Seon Yeong Ji ◽  
Hyun Hwangbo ◽  
Min Yeong Kim ◽  
Da Hye Kim ◽  

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is one of the inhibitory neurotransmitters. Several studies have suggested that GABA supplements can reduce blood pressure and modulate the renal immune system in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the effect of GABA-enriched salt as an alternative to traditional salt on aggravated renal injury by high salt intake in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity mice. High salt intake accelerated the increase of biomarkers, such as blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels for renal injury in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity mice. However, oral administration of GABA-contained salt notably suppressed serum BUN and creatinine levels. The efficacy of GABA salt was superior to lacto GABA salt and postbiotics GABA salt. Furthermore, GABA-enriched salt markedly restored histological symptoms of nephrotoxicity including renal hypertrophy, tubular dilation, hemorrhage, and collagen deposition aggravated by salt over-loading in cisplatin-exposed mice. Among them, GABA salt showed a higher protective effect against cisplatin-induced renal histological changes than lacto GABA salt and postbiotics GABA salt. In addition, administration of high salt significantly enhanced expression levels of apoptosis and inflammatory mediators in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity mice, while GABA-enriched salt greatly down-regulated the expression of these mediators. Taken together, these results demonstrate the protective effect of GABA against damage caused by high salt intake in cisplatin-induced renal toxicity. Its mechanism may be due to the suppression of hematological and biochemical toxicity, apoptosis, and inflammation. In conclusion, although the protective efficacy of GABA salt on renal injury is different depending on the sterilization and filtration process after fermentation with L. brevis BJ20 and L. plantarum BJ21, our findings suggest that GABA-enriched salt has a beneficial effect against immoderate high salt intake-mediated kidney injury in patients with cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

2022 ◽  
Sebastian M Frank ◽  
Markus Becker ◽  
Andrea Qi ◽  
Patricia Geiger ◽  
Ulrike I Frank ◽  

It is unclear why and how children learn more efficiently than adults, although inhibitory systems, which play an important role in stabilizing learning, are immature in children. Here, we found that despite a lower baseline concentration of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in early visual cortical areas in children (8 to 11 years old) than adults (18 to 35 years old), children exhibited a rapid boost of GABA immediately after visual training, whereas the concentration of GABA in adults remained unchanged after training. Moreover, behavioral experiments showed that children stabilized visual learning much faster than adults, showing rapid development of resilience to retrograde interference. These results together suggest that inhibitory systems in children's brains are more dynamic and adapt more quickly to stabilize learning than in adults.

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