shell size
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Estefano Muñoz-Moya ◽  
Claudio M. García-Herrera ◽  
Nelson A. Lagos ◽  
Aldo F. Abarca-Ortega ◽  
Antonio G. Checa ◽  

AbstractMollusks have developed a broad diversity of shelled structures to protect against challenges imposed by biological interactions(e.g., predation) and constraints (e.g., $$pCO_2$$ p C O 2 -induced ocean acidification and wave-forces). Although the study of shell biomechanical properties with nacreous microstructure has provided understanding about the role of shell integrity and functionality on mollusk performance and survival, there are no studies, to our knowledge, that delve into the variability of these properties during the mollusk ontogeny, between both shells of bivalves or across the shell length. In this study, using as a model the intertidal mussel Perumytilus purpuratus to obtain, for the first time, the mechanical properties of its shells with nacreous microstructure; we perform uniaxial compression tests oriented in three orthogonal axes corresponding to the orthotropic directions of the shell material behavior (thickness, longitudinal, and transversal). Thus, we evaluated whether the shell material’s stress and strain strength and elastic modulus showed differences in mechanical behavior in mussels of different sizes, between valves, and across the shell length. Our results showed that the biomechanical properties of the material building the P. purpuratus shells are symmetrical in both valves and homogeneous across the shell length. However, uniaxial compression tests performed across the shell thickness showed that biomechanical performance depends on the shell size (aging); and that mechanical properties such as the elastic modulus, maximum stress, and strain become degraded during ontogeny. SEM observations evidenced that compression induced a tortuous fracture with a delamination effect on the aragonite mineralogical structure of the shell. Findings suggest that P. purpuratus may become vulnerable to durophagous predators and wave forces in older stages, with implications in mussel beds ecology and biodiversity of intertidal habitats.

Jean Béguinot

For most conispirally-coiled Gastropods with determinate growth, the geometry of spirally-winding whorls is usually constrained by a strong negative correlation between whorl growth rate and the number of whorls reached at adulthood, as originally reported by the late S.J. Gould. Yet, beyond the tight control of shell-shape at the species level – resulting from this constraint – what about the amplitude of the intra-specific variability of whorl growth-rate, partly contributing to the variability of the overall shell-size at the species level? I address the issue by designing and implementing a new, indirect method for routinely evaluating whorl growth-rate, thereby aiming at considerably saving measurement time, and making it possible to easily achieve repeated measurements across samples large enough to reach statistical significance. This approach was applied to a series of eight common land snail species. The amplitude of intra-specific variability in whorl growth, evaluated this way, proves: (i) being markedly different among the eight investigated species (by a factor that can exceed 2x); (ii) being, yet, high enough, in all cases, to require compensating variations in the adult number of whorls, so as to limit the resulting consequences on the amplitude of the intra-specific variability of adult shell-size. Despite those marked differences in the amplitudes of intra-specific variability of whorl growth-rate among species, no significant relationship was observed between intraspecific variability of whorl growth rate and species-specific shell-shape types (discoidal/globular/elongate) and only weak positive relationship was observed with species-specific typical shell sizes. However, a rather strong positive correlation was found, as expected, between the degree of intra-specific variability of the whorl growth-rate and the degree of intra-specific variability of the number of whorls reached at adulthood (with the yet unexplained exception of one among the eight investigated species).

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 ◽  
pp. 123-135
Nina Gural-Sverlova ◽  
Roman Gural

The first findings of Cornu aspersum in the Lviv region are described, including the shell size and shell colouration variability. A review of the known records of C. aspersum in different regions of Ukraine, from the second half of the 19th century to the present day, is also presented. The most probable ways of penetration and the possibility of further acclimatization of this species in Western Ukraine are discussed. The chronology of the records of introduced species of land molluscs in Western Ukraine is described in tabular form, which, to a large extent, should reflect the chronology of their penetration into this area. It is noted that the majority of alien species began to be found in Western Ukraine only at the end of the 20th or the beginning of the 21st century. Simultaneously several species appeared here, previously known only for the south of the country.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (23) ◽  
pp. 13040
Zaira Gadzhimagomedova ◽  
Vladimir Polyakov ◽  
Ilia Pankin ◽  
Vera Butova ◽  
Daria Kirsanova ◽  

X-ray photodynamic therapy (XPDT) has been recently considered as an efficient alternative to conventional radiotherapy of malignant tissues. Nanocomposites for XPDT typically consist of two components—a nanophosphor which re-emits X-rays into visible light that in turn is absorbed by the second component, a photosensitizer, for further generation of reactive oxygen species. In this study, BaGdF5 nanophosphors doped with different Eu:Gd ratios in the range from 0.01 to 0.50 were synthesized by the microwave route. According to transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the average size of nanophosphors was ~12 nm. Furthermore, different coatings with amorphous SiO2 and citrates were systematically studied. Micro-CT imaging demonstrated superior X-ray attenuation and sufficient contrast in the liver and the spleen after intravenous injection of citric acid-coated nanoparticles. In case of the SiO2 surface, post-treatment core–shell morphology was verified via TEM and the possibility of tunable shell size was reported. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis revealed mesoporous SiO2 formation characterized by the slit-shaped type of pores that should be accessible for methylene blue photosensitizer molecules. It was shown that SiO2 coating subsequently facilitates methylene blue conjugation and results in the formation of the BaGdF5: 10% Eu3+@SiO2@MB nanocomposite as a promising candidate for application in XPDT.

Kohki MUKAI ◽  
Kosuke Ikeda ◽  
Reo Hatta

Abstract Increasing the thickness of the quantum dot silica coating layer reduces monodispersity and shape symmetry. This paper reports three effective ways to solve this problem and achieve a large silica-coated QDs, i.e., proper silanization on the QD surface, control of reverse micelle size by adjusting the amount of QD solvent, and two-step formation of silica shell. Proper substitution of ligands on the QD surface in the early stages of silica shell formation was important for uniform coating reaction. An amount of toluene as QD solvent determined the size of reverse micelles during the silica shell formation. There was an optimum combination of inverse micelle size and silica shell size to obtain silica-coated QDs with good monodispersity and high shape symmetry. We succeeded in growing the thick silica shell with expanding reverse micelle size by additionally supplying toluene with the raw material using the optimum silica-coated QDs as growth nucleus

2021 ◽  
Ihsan Ullah ◽  
Hamed Saghaei ◽  
Said Karim Shah

Abstract Among all the different methods to enhance the optical absorption of photovoltaic devices. The plasmonic effect is one the most prominent and effective ways to capture more incident light and also provide good carrier dynamic management. Here, we systematically introduce spherical gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) with different radii in the absorber layer of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The overall enhanced optical absorption around 14.20% and 20.02% is achieved for incorporated monolayer and bilayer Au NPs, respectively, in the active layer compared to the pure perovskite layer. Moreover, we employ the metal (Au)-dielectric (TiO2 and SiO2) nanoparticles in the absorber layer. The optical absorption increases as the core-shell size decreases. The optical absorption elevates in both Au@TiO2 core-shell and Au@SiO2 core-shell 17.5% and 3.5%, respectively. These results support superior separation and transfer of charge in the existence of plasmonic NPs. In addition, this study presents a very sophisticated approach in the optical enhancement of PSCs and thus helps to boost the overall photovoltaic device performance.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (20) ◽  
pp. 5789-5809
Julie Meilland ◽  
Michael Siccha ◽  
Maike Kaffenberger ◽  
Jelle Bijma ◽  
Michal Kucera

Abstract. It has long been assumed that the population dynamics of planktonic foraminifera is characterised by synchronous reproduction associated with ontogenetic vertical migration. However, due to contradictory observations, this concept became controversial, and subsequent studies provided evidence both in favour and against these phenomena. Here we present new observations from replicated vertically resolved profiles of abundance and shell size variation in four species of planktonic foraminifera from the tropical Atlantic to test for the presence, pattern, and extent of synchronised reproduction and ontogenetic vertical migration in this oceanic region. Specimens of Globigerinita glutinata, Globigerinoides ruber ruber, Globorotalia menardii and Orbulina universa were collected over the first 700 m resolved at nine depth intervals at nine stations over a period of 14 d. Dead specimens were systematically observed irrespective of the depth interval, sampling day and size. Conversely, specimens in the smaller size fractions dominated the sampled populations at all times and were recorded at all depths, indicating that reproduction might have occurred continuously and throughout the occupied part of the water column. However, a closer look at the vertical and temporal size distribution of specimens within each species revealed an overrepresentation of large specimens in depths at the beginning of the sampling (shortly after the full moon) and an overrepresentation of small individuals at the surface and subsurface by the end of the sampling (around new moon). These observations imply that a disproportionately large portion of the population followed for each species a canonical reproductive trajectory, which involved synchronised reproduction and ontogenetic vertical migration with the descent of progressively maturing individuals. This concept is consistent with the initial observations from the Red Sea, on which the reproductive dynamics of planktonic foraminifera has been modelled. Our data extend this model to non-spinose and microperforate symbiont-bearing species, but contrary to the extension of the initial observations on other species of foraminifera, we cannot provide evidence for ontogenetic vertical migration with ascent during maturation. We also show that more than half of the population does not follow the canonical trajectory, which helps to reconcile the existing contrasting observations. Our results imply that the flux of empty shells of planktonic foraminifera in the open ocean should be pulsed, with disproportionately large amounts of disproportionately large specimens being delivered in pulses caused by synchronised reproduction. The presence of a large population reproducing outside of the canonical trajectory implies that individual foraminifera in a fossil sample will record in the calcite of their shells a range of habitat trajectories, with the canonical trajectory emerging statistically from a substantial background range.

Jean Béguinot

As shown, in particular, by the late S.J. Gould, the involvement of a regulation process, aiming at limiting the range of intraspecific variations in adult shell size, in those land snail species with determinate growth, can be indirectly, but conveniently, diagnosed by highlighting a negative covariance between the whorls growth-rate and the whorls number reached at adulthood. However, up to now, such kind of regulation had only been demonstrated in very few cases among land snails and shelled Gastropods in general. Accordingly, quite more extensive checking is required, across both the taxonomic spectrum and the geometrical range of shell profiles. The present report is a very preliminary contribution addressing these issues, which have been neglected for too long. Considering a still limited number of eight species, yet largely encompassing both taxonomic range and shell profiles, it is shown that strong negative covariances between whorls growth-rate and whorls number are systematically highlighted, thereby supporting the involvement of an efficient regulation process of adult shell size and shape in each eight species. Moreover, the degree of regulation of the adult shell size has been quantified and this regulation proves being remarkably effective as a whole, while yet remaining highly species-specific, with very significant disparities among species – and this, somewhat surprisingly, being quite irrespective of the type of geometrical profiles of shells, among the studied species.

Paleobiology ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 1-21
Zhen Guo ◽  
Zhong-Qiang Chen ◽  
David A. T. Harper ◽  
Yuangeng Huang

Abstract The Rhynchonellida is a major group of brachiopods that survived the “big five” mass extinctions and flourished after the Permian/Triassic (P/Tr) crisis. However, phylogenetic and character evolution in the Rhynchonellida across the P/Tr transition is poorly understood. In view of the widespread homoplasy across this order, we employ a tip-dated Bayesian analysis to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships for late Permian–Triassic rhynchonellides. The same data were also analyzed using three other methods: undated Bayesian, equal-weighting, and implied-weighting parsimony. Compared with trees generated by other methods, those constructed by tip-dating best account for the homoplasy in this group and are closer to previous assumptions on the evolution of this order. Based on the analyses of multiple trees, the major increase in lineage richness occurred in the Early and early Middle Triassic. Also, richness in the Anisian almost reached the highest level seen in the Triassic. According to fossil records, a pronounced reduction in shell size and in the development of ornamentation occurred after the P/Tr extinction, which is largely due to the loss of large and highly sculptured genera and the diversification of small-sized and weakly ornamented genera. Ancestral-state estimation of shell size and development of ornamentation, coupled with comparisons of other characters, indicate that the Early–Middle Triassic mature “small-sized taxa” may have characters displayed by juveniles of their ancestors. This suggests that for these genera, paedomorphosis was possibly a strategy to survive and diversify in the harsh environment after the P/Tr extinction.

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