navier stokes equation
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2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Sribhashyam K. Kireeti ◽  
Ravikiran Sastry Gadepalli ◽  
Santhosh K. Gugulothu

Abstract In this study, the flow dynamics with finite volume approach on commercial software Ansys-Fluent 20.0 to solve the compressible two-dimensional fluid flow with Reynolds Average Navier Stokes equation (RANS) equation by considering the density-based solver with Shaer stress transport model (SST) k- ω turbulent model. The species transport model with volumetric reaction and finite rate/eddy dissipation turbulence chemistry interaction is adopted to study the combustion phenomena. Additionally, the effect of spacing between the struts on the flow characters and performance of the combustor is studied by increasing the spacing of struts from 1 mm to 4 mm for each increment of 1 mm. It is found that the multi strut improves the mixing and combustion efficiency compared with that of the single strut owing to the formation of a significant separation layer, resulting in multiple shocks, vortices, and a larger recirculation zone. However, when the spacing of struts is increased further, the performance of the combustor is found to be deteriorating owing to the formation of larger separation layers. The recirculation zone is significant when the strut spacing is minimal and shrinks and restricts itself within the cavity when spacing is increased. So, for better performance of combustor, multi strut with minimum spacing is preferable.

2022 ◽  
Vikrant Chandrakar ◽  
Arnab Mukherjee ◽  
Jnana Ranjan Senapati ◽  
Ashok Kumar Barik

Abstract A convection system can be designed as an energy-efficient one by making a considerable reduction in exergy losses. In this context, entropy generation analysis is performed on the infrared suppression system numerically. In addition, results due to heat transfer are also shown. The numerical solution of the Navier-stokes equation, energy equation, and turbulence equation is executed using ANSYS Fluent 15.0. To perform the numerical analysis, different parameters such as the number of funnels, Rayleigh number (Ra), inner surface temperature, and geometric ratio are varied in the practical range. Results are shown in terms of heat transfer, entropy generation, irreversibility (due to heat transfer and fluid friction), and Bejan number with some relevant parameters. Streamlines and temperature contours are also provided for better visualization of temperature and flow field around the device. Results show that heat transfer and mass flow rate increase with the increase in Ra. Entropy generation and the irreversibility rise with an increase in the number of funnels and geometric ratio. Also, the Bejan number decreases with an increase in Ra and the number of funnels. A cooling time is also obtained using the lumped capacitance method.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Lifang Yan ◽  
Shiteng Wang ◽  
Yi Cheng

The mixing process between miscible fluids in a splitting-and-recombination microreactor is analyzed numerically by solving the Navier–Stokes equation and species transfer equation. The commercial microreactor combines rectangular channels with comb-shaped inserts to achieve the splitting-and-recombination effect. The results show that the microreactor with three-layer standard inserts have the highest mixing rate as well as good mixing efficiency within a wide range of Reynolds numbers from 0.1 to 160. The size parameters of the inserts, both the ratio of the width of comb tooth (marked as l) and the spacing distance (marked as s) between two comb teeth, and the ratio of the vertical distance (marked as V) of comb teeth and the horizontal distance (marked as H) are essential for influencing the liquid–liquid mixing process at low Reynolds numbers (e.g., Re ≤ 2). With the increase of s/l from 1 to 4, the mixing efficiency drops from 0.99 to 0.45 at Re = 0.2. Similarly, the increase in V/H is not beneficial to promote the mixing between fluids. When the ratio of V/H changes from 10:10 to 10:4, the splitting and recombination cycles reduce so that the uniform mixing between different fluids can be hardly achieved. The width of comb tooth (marked as l) is 1 mm and the spacing distance (marked as s) between two comb teeth is 2 mm. The vertical distance (marked as V) of comb teeth and the horizontal distance (marked as H) are both 10 mm.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 105-127
Jingyuan Li ◽  
Qinghe Zhang ◽  
Tongqing Chen

Abstract. A numerical model, ISWFoam, for simulating internal solitary waves (ISWs) in continuously stratified, incompressible, viscous fluids is developed based on a fully three-dimensional (3D) Navier–Stokes equation using the open-source code OpenFOAM®. This model combines the density transport equation with the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equation with the Coriolis force, and the model discrete equation adopts the finite-volume method. The k–ω SST turbulence model has also been modified according to the variable density field. ISWFoam provides two initial wave generation methods to generate an ISW in continuously stratified fluids, including solving the weakly nonlinear models of the extended Korteweg–de Vries (eKdV) equation and the fully nonlinear models of the Dubreil–Jacotin–Long (DJL) equation. Grid independence tests for ISWFoam are performed, and considering the accuracy and computing efficiency, the appropriate grid size of the ISW simulation is recommended to be 1/150th of the characteristic length and 1/25th of the ISW amplitude. Model verifications are conducted through comparisons between the simulated and experimental data for ISW propagation examples over a flat bottom section, including laboratory scale and actual ocean scale, a submerged triangular ridge, a Gaussian ridge, and slope. The laboratory test results, including the ISW profile, wave breaking location, ISW arrival time, and the spatial and temporal changes in the mixture region, are well reproduced by ISWFoam. The ISWFoam model with unstructured grids and local mesh refinement can effectively simulate the evolution of ISWs, the ISW breaking phenomenon, waveform inversion of ISWs, and the interaction between ISWs and complex topography.

2021 ◽  
Manpreet Kaur ◽  
Jyoti Bharj ◽  
Rabinder S. Bharj ◽  
Rajan Kumar ◽  

This work presents the numerical simulation of biogas and LPG fuelled diffusion flames in an axisymmetric chamber to study in-depth, the formation mechanism of soot and carbon nanostructures in these flames. The simulation is formulated on the set of transport equations that involve the equations for conservation of mass (the continuity equation), momentum (Navier-Stokes equation), energy, and chemical species. The governing equations are solved using ANSYS FLUENT, which is centered on the finite volume method. To predict the soot formation, one step soot model has been incorporated. The solution of these equations permits the estimation of temperature field and species concentrations inside the flame. Simulation is conducted at fixed fuel flow rate and varied oxygen flow rates. The results reveal that the formation of soot and carbon nanostructures is strongly dependent on peak flame temperature and concentration of precursor species formed in the flame. Since two fuels produce an exclusive chemical environment in the flame, the flame temperature and CO concentration that is conducive to the growth of carbon nanostructures is higher for LPG fuel as compared to that for biogas. Hence, the nucleation process of carbon nanostructures is faster for LPG than biogas. Moreover, the reactions taking place inside the flame at different locations can also be predicted from flame temperature and species concentration at that location. Pyrolysis of fuel occur near the burner exit, followed by the nucleation and surface growth of carbon nanostructures in the nearby region and oxidation of formed carbon nanostructures near the flame tip.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (24) ◽  
pp. 12090
Roman G. Szafran ◽  
Mikita Davykoza

The dye-sensitized solar cells microfluidically integrated with a redox flow battery (µDSSC-RFB) belong to a new emerging class of green energy sources with an inherent opportunity for energy storage. The successful engineering of microfluidically linked systems is, however, a challenging subject, as the hydrodynamics of electrolyte flow influences the electron and species transport in the system in several ways. In the article, we have analyzed the microflows hydrodynamics by means of the lattice-Boltzmann method, using the algebraic solution of the Navier-Stokes equation for a duct flow and experimentally by the micro particle image velocimetry method. Several prototypes of µDSSC were prepared and tested under different flow conditions. The efficiency of serpentine µDSSC raised from 2.8% for stationary conditions to 3.1% for electrolyte flow above 20 mL/h, while the fill factor increased about 13% and open-circuit voltage from an initial 0.715 V to 0.745 V. Although the hexagonal or circular configurations are the straightforward extensions of standard photo chambers of solar cells, those configurations are hydrodynamically less predictable and unfavorable due to large velocity gradients. The serpentine channel configuration with silver fingers would allow for the scaling of the µDSSC-RFB systems to the industrial scale without loss of performance. Furthermore, the deterioration of cell performance over time can be inhibited by the periodic sensitizer regeneration, which is the inherent advantage of µDSSC.

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