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2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 20-36
Author(s):  
Bruno Costa Feijó ◽  
◽  
Ana Pavlovic ◽  
Luiz Alberto Oliveira Rocha ◽  
Liércio André Isoldi ◽  
...  

Microchannels are important devices to improve the heat exchange in several engineering applications as heat, ventilation and air conditioning, microelectronic cooling, power generation systems and others. The present work performs a numerical study of a microchannel with two trapezoidal blocks subjected to laminar flows, aiming to analyze the influence of the boiling process on the geometric configuration of the microchannel. Constructal Design and Exhaustive Search are used for the geometrical evaluation of the blocks. The Mixture multi-phase model and the Lee phase change model were both employed for the numerical simulation of the boiling process. In this study, the influence of the height and higher width of the first block (H11/L11) over the heat transfer rate and pressure drop for different magnitudes of the ratio between the lower width and higher width (L12/L11) was investigated. It is considered water in monophase cases and water/vapor mixture for multiphase flow. Two different Reynolds numbers (ReH = 0.1 and 10.0) were investigated. Results indicated that, for the present thermal conditions, the consideration of boiling flows were not significant for prediction of optimal configurations. Results also showed that in the cases where the boiling process was enabled, the multi-objective performance was higher than in the cases without boiling, especially for ReH = 0.1.


2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jie Zong ◽  
Jun Yue

Colloidal suspensions of nanoparticles (e.g., metals and oxides) have been considered as a promising working fluid in microreactors for achieving significant process intensification. Existing examples include their uses in microflow as catalysts for enhancing the reaction efficiency, or as additives to mix with the base fluid (i.e., to form the so-called nanofluids) for heat/mass transfer intensification. Thus, hydrodynamic characterization of such suspension flow in microreactors is of high importance for a rational design and operation of the system. In this work, experiments have been conducted to investigate the flow pattern and pressure drop characteristics under slug flow between N2 gas and colloidal suspensions in the presence of TiO2 or Al2O3 nanoparticles through polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) capillary microreactors. The base fluid consisted of water or its mixture with ethylene glycol. The slug flow pattern with nanoparticle addition was characterized by the presence of a lubricating liquid film around N2 bubbles, in contrast to the absence of liquid film in the case of N2-water slug flow. This shows that the addition of nanoparticles has changed the wall wetting property to be more hydrophilic. Furthermore, the measured pressure drop under N2-nanoparticle suspension slug flow is well described by the model of Kreutzer et al. (AIChE J 51(9):2428–2440, 2005) at the mixture Reynolds numbers ca. above 100 and is better predicted by the model of Warnier et al. (Microfluidics and Nanofluidics 8(1):33–45, 2010) at lower Reynolds numbers given a better consideration of the effect of film thickness and bubble velocity under such conditions in the latter model. Therefore, the employed nanoparticle suspension can be considered as a stable and pseudo single phase with proper fluid properties (e.g., viscosity and density) when it comes to the pressure drop estimation.


Mathematics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (2) ◽  
pp. 272
Author(s):  
Chenyu Wu ◽  
Haoran Li ◽  
Yufei Zhang ◽  
Haixin Chen

The accuracy of an airfoil stall prediction heavily depends on the computation of the separated shear layer. Capturing the strong non-equilibrium turbulence in the shear layer is crucial for the accuracy of a stall prediction. In this paper, different Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes turbulence models are adopted and compared for airfoil stall prediction. The results show that the separated shear layer fixed k−v2¯−ω (abbreviated as SPF k−v2¯−ω) turbulence model captures the non-equilibrium turbulence in the separated shear layer well and gives satisfactory predictions of both thin-airfoil stall and trailing-edge stall. At small Reynolds numbers (Re~105), the relative error between the predicted CL,max of NACA64A010 by the SPF k−v2¯−ω model and the experimental data is less than 3.5%. At high Reynolds numbers (Re~106), the CL,max of NACA64A010 and NACA64A006 predicted by the SPF k−v2¯−ω model also has an error of less than 5.5% relative to the experimental data. The stall of the NACA0012 airfoil, which features trailing-edge stall, is also computed by the SPF k−v2¯−ω model. The SPF k−v2¯−ω model is also applied to a NACA0012 airfoil, which features trailing-edge stall and an error of CL relative to the experiment at CL>1.0 is smaller than 3.5%. The SPF k−v2¯−ω model shows higher accuracy than other turbulence models.


Fluids ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 38
Author(s):  
Yukihiro Yonemoto ◽  
Kanta Tashiro ◽  
Minori Yamashita ◽  
Tomoaki Kunugi

Droplet splashing behaviors of water-ethanol binary mixture liquids on roughened solid surfaces were experimentally observed in order to investigate the effects of surface tension, viscosity, and wettability/surface roughness on the splashing occurrence. The range of the droplet volumes was from 1.7 μL to 32.6 μL. The ranges of the surface tension and the viscosity were from 21.1 mN/m to 71.9 mN/m, and from 1 mPas to 2.91 mPas, respectively. The surface roughness range was from 0.03 μm to 1.25 μm for Ra. The present experimental data were evaluated on the basis of the existing models. Resulting from these experiments, a simple model using the Ohnesorge number evaluated by the capillary length was proposed and the accuracy of the predicted critical values such as the critical Weber and Reynolds numbers were discussed. The result indicated that the liquid properties and the quantification of the surface condition such as surface roughness are important factors for the prediction of the splashing behavior.


2022 ◽  
pp. 1-21
Author(s):  
Jack Hutchings ◽  
Cesare A. Hall

Abstract Previous research into axial compressor stall has mainly focused on stall inception and methods to extend the stable operating range. This paper considers the performance of an axial compressor beyond stall and investigates how the characteristics of stall cells depend on Reynolds number. An experimental study has been conducted using a single-stage axial compressor capable of operating across the Reynolds number range of 10,000 – 100,000. Detailed unsteady measurements have been used to measure the behaviour across a range of in-stall flow coefficients. These measurements have been used to extract the stall hysteresis and to determine the size, speed, number, and spanwise extent of the stall cells. The results show that for the stalled compressor, as Reynolds number increases, the size of the minimum stable stall cell decreases. This means that a larger change in throttle area is needed to reduce the stall cell down to a size where the compressor can recover from stall. At the design Reynolds number, the number of stall cells that form transitions from one, to two, and then to four stall cells as the flow coefficient is reduced. At lower Reynolds numbers, the two-stall-cell state becomes unstable; instead, a single stall cell transitions directly into five stall cells. As the number of stall cells increases, so do the speed of the stall cells and the total size. Further reductions in the flow coefficient cause an increase in the total size and a decrease in the stall cell speed.


2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (2) ◽  
pp. 14-28
Author(s):  
A. M. Pavlenko ◽  
A. V. Bykov ◽  
B. Yu. Zanin ◽  
M. M. Katasonov

Investigations of the structure of the flow near the surface of a trapezoidal model of a small unmanned aerial vehicle were carried out when it enters a narrow turbulent wake. All experimental data were obtained in a wind tunnel at subsonic flow velocities. A feature of the work was that the study of the flow around the model was carried out at full-scale (flight) Reynolds numbers. Using the soot-oily visualization method, data on the features of the flow around the model were obtained, taking into account such factors as the angle of attack, the presence and absence of a source of external disturbances that generated a turbulent wake. The experiments were carried out in two flow regimes: at a zero angle of attack, when there are local separation bubbles on the wing, and at a large (supercritical) angle of attack of 18 degrees, when there is a global stall of the flow from the leading edge. It was shown that the turbulent wake has a significant effect on the nature of the flow near the model surface in both cases. Local separation bubbles gradually decrease in size with a decrease in the distance between the sources of disturbances and the wing. Large-scale vortices significantly decrease in geometrical dimensions and shift towards the side edges in the event of a global stall of the flow, thereby increasing the region of the attached flow on the model surface.


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