chemical species
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2022 ◽  
Jin Li ◽  
William David Jamieson ◽  
Pantelitsa Dimitriou ◽  
Wen Xu ◽  
Paul Rohde ◽  

Intracellular compartments are functional units that support the metabolic processes within living cells, through spatiotemporal regulation of chemical reactions and biological processes. Consequently, as a step forward in the bottom-up creation of artificial cells, building analogous intracellular architectures is essential for the expansion of cell-mimicking functionality. Herein, we report the development of a droplet laboratory platform to engineer customised complex emulsion droplets as a multicompartment artificial cell chassis, using multiphase microfluidics and acoustic levitation. Such levitated constructs provide free-standing, dynamic, definable droplet networks for the encapsulation and organisation of chemical species. Equally, they can be remotely operated with pneumatic, heating, and magnetic elements for post-processing, including the incorporation of membrane proteins; alpha-hemolysin; and large-conductance mechanosensitive channel (MscL) and their activation. The assembly of droplet networks is three-dimensionally patterned with fluidic inputs configurations determining droplet contents and connectivity. Whilst acoustic manipulation can be harnessed to reconfigure the droplet network in situ. In addition, a mechanosensitive channel, MscL, can be repeatedly activated and deactivated in the levitated artificial cell by the application of acoustic and magnetic fields to modulate membrane tension on demand. This offers possibilities beyond one-time chemically mediated activation to provide repeated, non-contact control of membrane protein function. Collectively, this will expand our capability to program and operate increasingly sophisticated artificial cells as life-like materials.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 610
Seung-Ho Choi ◽  
Joon-Seok Lee ◽  
Won-Jun Choi ◽  
Jae-Woo Seo ◽  
Seon-Jin Choi

Herein, state-of-the-art research advances in South Korea regarding the development of chemical sensing materials and fully integrated Internet of Things (IoT) sensing platforms were comprehensively reviewed for verifying the applicability of such sensing systems in point-of-care testing (POCT). Various organic/inorganic nanomaterials were synthesized and characterized to understand their fundamental chemical sensing mechanisms upon exposure to target analytes. Moreover, the applicability of nanomaterials integrated with IoT-based signal transducers for the real-time and on-site analysis of chemical species was verified. In this review, we focused on the development of noble nanostructures and signal transduction techniques for use in IoT sensing platforms, and based on their applications, such systems were classified into gas sensors, ion sensors, and biosensors. A future perspective for the development of chemical sensors was discussed for application to next-generation POCT systems that facilitate rapid and multiplexed screening of various analytes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Dinorah Gambino ◽  
Lucía Otero

Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), Chagas disease or American Trypanosomiasis (CD), and leishmaniases are protozoan infections produced by trypanosomatid parasites belonging to the kinetoplastid order and they constitute an urgent global health problem. In fact, there is an urgent need of more efficient and less toxic chemotherapy for these diseases. Medicinal inorganic chemistry currently offers an attractive option for the rational design of new drugs and, in particular, antiparasitic ones. In this sense, one of the main strategies for the design of metal-based antiparasitic compounds has been the coordination of an organic ligand with known or potential biological activity, to a metal centre or an organometallic core. Classical metal coordination complexes or organometallic compounds could be designed as multifunctional agents joining, in a single molecule, different chemical species that could affect different parasitic targets. This review is focused on the rational design of palladium(II) and platinum(II) compounds with bioactive ligands as prospective drugs against trypanosomatid parasites that has been conducted by our group during the last 20 years.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 3
Wencheng D. Shao ◽  
Xi Zhang ◽  
João Mendonça ◽  
Thérèse Encrenaz

Abstract Observed chemical species in the Venusian mesosphere show local-time variabilities. SO2 at the cloud top exhibits two local maxima over local time, H2O at the cloud top is uniformly distributed, and CO in the upper atmosphere shows a statistical difference between the two terminators. In this study, we investigated these local-time variabilities using a three-dimensional (3D) general circulation model (GCM) in combination with a two-dimensional (2D) chemical transport model (CTM). Our simulation results agree with the observed local-time patterns of SO2, H2O, and CO. The two-maximum pattern of SO2 at the cloud top is caused by the superposition of the semidiurnal thermal tide and the retrograde superrotating zonal (RSZ) flow. SO2 above 85 km shows a large day–night difference resulting from both photochemistry and the subsolar-to-antisolar (SS-AS) circulation. The transition from the RSZ flows to SS-AS circulation can explain the CO difference between two terminators and the displacement of the CO local-time maximum with respect to the antisolar point. H2O is long-lived and exhibits very uniform distribution over space. We also present the local-time variations of HCl, ClO, OCS, and SO simulated by our model and compare to the sparse observations of these species. This study highlights the importance of multidimensional CTMs for understanding the interaction between chemistry and dynamics in the Venusian mesosphere.

2021 ◽  
Vol 37 (6) ◽  
pp. 1429-1433
Gami Girishkumar Bhagavanbhai ◽  
Rawesh Kumar

The rate equations in kinematics are expressed through basic laws under surface reaction as well as non-surface reaction. Rate law is center theme of non-surface reaction whereas Langmuir adsorption isotherms are basis of surface reaction rate expressions. A modified rate equation for bimolecular reaction is presented which considers both catalyst surface affairs as well as fraction of successful collision of different reactant for cracking and forming bonds. The modified rate law for bimolecular reaction for surface as well as non-surface reaction is stated as “Rate of a reaction is directly proportional to concentration as well as catalyst surface affair of each reactant” as r = k ΩA[A] ΩB[B] where catalyst surface affair of ith species is defined as Ωi = Ki/(1+Ki[i] + Kj[j] + …). Here, Ki is the equilibrium constant of “i” species for adsorption-desorption processes over catalyst. i, j,… indicates the different adsorbed chemical species at uniform catalyst sites and the same [i], [j], … indicates the concentration of different adsorbed chemical species at uniform catalyst sites.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Javier Martín‐Torres ◽  
María‐Paz Zorzano‐Mier ◽  
Erik Nyberg ◽  
Abhilash Vakkada-Ramachandran ◽  
Anshuman Bhardwaj

Tribocorrosion is a degradation phenomenon of material surfaces subjected to the combined action of mechanical loading and corrosion attack caused by the environment. Although corrosive chemical species such as materials like chloride atoms, chlorides, and perchlorates have been detected on the Martian surface, there is a lack of studies of its impact on materials for landed spacecraft and structures that will support surface operations on Mars. Here, we present a series of experiments on the stainless-steel material of the ExoMars 2020 Rosalind Franklin rover wheels. We show how tribocorrosion induced by brines accelerates wear on the materials of the wheels. Our results do not compromise the nominal ExoMars mission but have implications for future long-term surface operations in support of future human exploration or extended robotic missions on Mars.

Katarzyna Majerczak ◽  
Ophelie Squillace ◽  
Zhiwei Shi ◽  
Zhanping Zhang ◽  
Zhenyu J. Zhang

AbstractThe diffusion kinetics of a molecular probe—rhodamine B—in ternary aqueous solutions containing poly(vinyl alcohol), glycerol, and surfactants was investigated using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. We show that the diffusion characteristics of rhodamine B in such complex systems is determined by a synergistic effect of molecular crowding and intermolecular interactions between chemical species. The presence of glycerol has no noticeable impact on rhodamine B diffusion at low concentration, but significantly slows down the diffusion of rhodamine B above 3.9% (w/v) due to a dominating steric inhibition effect. Furthermore, introducing surfactants (cationic/nonionic/anionic) to the system results in a decreased diffusion coefficient of the molecular probe. In solutions containing nonionic surfactant, this can be explained by an increased crowding effect. For ternary poly(vinyl alcohol) solutions containing cationic or anionic surfactant, surfactant—polymer and surfactant—rhodamine B interactions alongside the crowding effect of the molecules slow down the overall diffusivity of rhodamine B. The results advance our insight of molecular migration in a broad range of industrial complex formulations that incorporate multiple compounds, and highlight the importance of selecting the appropriate additives and surfactants in formulated products.

2021 ◽  
Manpreet Kaur ◽  
Jyoti Bharj ◽  
Rabinder S. Bharj ◽  
Rajan Kumar ◽  

This work presents the numerical simulation of biogas and LPG fuelled diffusion flames in an axisymmetric chamber to study in-depth, the formation mechanism of soot and carbon nanostructures in these flames. The simulation is formulated on the set of transport equations that involve the equations for conservation of mass (the continuity equation), momentum (Navier-Stokes equation), energy, and chemical species. The governing equations are solved using ANSYS FLUENT, which is centered on the finite volume method. To predict the soot formation, one step soot model has been incorporated. The solution of these equations permits the estimation of temperature field and species concentrations inside the flame. Simulation is conducted at fixed fuel flow rate and varied oxygen flow rates. The results reveal that the formation of soot and carbon nanostructures is strongly dependent on peak flame temperature and concentration of precursor species formed in the flame. Since two fuels produce an exclusive chemical environment in the flame, the flame temperature and CO concentration that is conducive to the growth of carbon nanostructures is higher for LPG fuel as compared to that for biogas. Hence, the nucleation process of carbon nanostructures is faster for LPG than biogas. Moreover, the reactions taking place inside the flame at different locations can also be predicted from flame temperature and species concentration at that location. Pyrolysis of fuel occur near the burner exit, followed by the nucleation and surface growth of carbon nanostructures in the nearby region and oxidation of formed carbon nanostructures near the flame tip.

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