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Author(s):  
Zheng Wang ◽  
Yue Huang ◽  
Tie Liu ◽  
Chanjuan Zan ◽  
Yunan Ling ◽  
...  

Lower reaches of the Amu Darya River Basin (LADB) is one of the typical regions which is facing the problem of water shortage in Central Asia. During the past decades, water resources demand far exceeds that supplied by the mainstream of the Amu Darya River, and has resulted in a continuous decrease in the amount of water flowing into the Aral Sea. Clarifying the dynamic relationship between the water supply and demand is important for the optimal allocation and sustainable management of regional water resources. In this study, the relationship and its variations between the water supply and demand in the LADB from the 1970s to 2010s were analyzed by detailed calculation of multi-users water demand and multi-sources water supply, and the water scarcity indices were used for evaluating the status of water resources utilization. The results indicated that (1) during the past 50 years, the average total water supply (TWS) was 271.88 × 108 m3/y, and the average total water demand (TWD) was 467.85 × 108 m3/y; both the volume of water supply and demand was decreased in the LADB, with rates of −1.87 × 108 m3/y and −15.59 × 108 m3/y. (2) percentages of the rainfall in TWS were increased due to the decrease of inflow from the Amu Darya River; percentage of agriculture water demand was increased obviously, from 11.04% in the 1970s to 44.34% in 2010s, and the water demand from ecological sector reduced because of the Aral Sea shrinking. (3) the supply and demand of water resources of the LADB were generally in an unbalanced state, and water demand exceeded water supply except in the 2010s; the water scarcity index decreased from 2.69 to 0.94, indicating the status changed from awful to serious water scarcity. A vulnerable balanced state has been reached in the region, and that water shortages remain serious in the future, which requires special attention to the decision-makers of the authority.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 249
Author(s):  
Zhibin Liu ◽  
Tie Liu ◽  
Yue Huang ◽  
Yangchao Duan ◽  
Xiaohui Pan ◽  
...  

The intensity of agricultural activities and the characteristics of water consumption affect the hydrological processes of inland river basins in Central Asia. The crop water requirements and water productivity are different between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya river basins due to the different water resource development and utilization policies of Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan, which have resulted in more severe agricultural water consumption of the Amu Darya delta than the Syr Darya delta, and the differences in the surface runoff are injected into the Aral Sea. To reveal the difference in water resource dissipation, water productivity, and its influencing factors between the two basins, this study selected the irrigation areas of Amu Darya delta (IAAD) and Syr Darya delta (IASD) as typical examples; the actual evapotranspiration (ETa) was retrieved by using the modified surface energy balance algorithm for land model (SEBAL) based on high spatial resolution Landsat images from 2000 to 2020. Land use and cover change (LUCC) and streamflow data were obtained to analyze the reasons for the spatio-temporal heterogeneity of regional ETa. The water productivity of typical crops in two irrigation areas was compared and combined with statistical data. The results indicate that: (1) the ETa simulated by the SEBAL model matched the crop evapotranspiration (ETc) calculated by the Penman–Monteith method and ground-measured data well, with all the correlation coefficients higher than 0.7. (2) In IAAD, the average ETa was 1150 mm, and the ETa had shown a decreasing trend; for the IASD, the average ETa was 800 mm. The ETa showed an increasing trend with low stability due to a large amount of developable cultivated land. The change of cultivated land dominated the spatio-temporal characteristics of ETa in the two irrigation areas (3). Combined with high spatial resolution ETa inversion results, the water productivity of cotton and rice in IAAD was significantly lower than in IASD, and wheat was not significantly different, but all were far lower than the international average. This study can provide useful information for agricultural water management in the Aral Sea region.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (4) ◽  
pp. 912-922
Author(s):  
Yuri A. Zeleneev ◽  
◽  
Iskander L. Izmailov ◽  
Leonard F. Nedashkovsky ◽  
◽  
...  

Research objectives: To consider the creative path and main views of L.T. Yablonsky, as well as his influence on ideas about the ethnic history of the Golden Horde population and theoretical problems of ethnogenesis. Research materials: The authors of the article were based on numerous publications by L.T. Yablonsky, as well as personal impressions from meetings with the researcher on expeditions and at academic conferences. Results and novelty of the research: The authors consider the formation of L.T. Yablonsky as a unique specialist who combined archaeological training and professional study of physical anthropology. This allowed him to draw important conclusions about the formation of the Golden Horde population. Later, he resorted to this method to study the early nomads of the Aral Sea region and the South Urals. His works became an event in the research field, since they positively differed from others not only by an interdisciplinary approach to the problem under study – at the junction of archaeology and ethnogenetics – but also by the wide use of anthropological materials. Prior to these works, all information about the population of the Jochid ulus was fragmentary and unsystematic, and he was the very researcher who first connected the data of paleoanthropology and the analysis of the burial rite in medieval burial grounds. He proved the fact that the Golden Horde population consisted of mixed population groups, and identified those population groups that, in his opinion, came from Central Asia. L.T. Yablonsky attached great importance to the methodology of research on ethnogenesis and ethnic history. He advocated an integrated scientific approach to their study and emphasized the huge role of paleoanthropology and archaeology in solving ethnogenetic problems. In his opinion, the rapid divergence of various scientific disciplines – ethnology, archaeology, physical anthropology, and genetics – was the main problem that hindered the development of scientific ethnogenetic research. L.T. Yablonsky, therefore, believed that expanding comprehensive research would help solve this problem.


Author(s):  
Tareq W. M. Amen ◽  
Meng Sun ◽  
Mitsuharu Terashima ◽  
Hidenari Yasui

Halophytes are unique in that they can thrive in a wide range of soil conditions, from normal to extremely saline. This has recently prompted researchers to consider using halophytes as a phytoremediation end-product as a source for biogas generation. Therefore, applying the anaerobic digestion process for halophytes may have the potential advantage in terms of efficient land utilization, soil remediation, and biogas production. Based on this, the anaerobic digestion efficiency of high saline biomass was investigated in continuous laboratory-scale anaerobic reactors at two different sludge residence times (SRT) of 40 and 80 days. Under mesophilic atmosphere, two reactors were operated, one reactor used organic substrate with 30 g-Na+.L-1 originating from sodium chloride whereas the other was operated with the presence of sodium bicarbonate and sodium sulfate. The salt-tolerant microorganism was gradually developed and the salt concentrations were selected based on the elemental analyses results of 30 species of wild halophyte plants taken from the saline-affected area of the Aral Sea in Uzbekistan during the early phase of the operation. For 40 and 80 days of SRT, respectively, 65.56 percent and 60.42 percent of the feed COD were converted into methane gas by the chloride system. However, only about 60% of the feed COD was converted into methane for bicarbonate, and the remaining fraction of gas was assigned to sulfide as a final product of increased sulfate reduction bacteria activity. These findings showed that the salt-tolerant microorganism could be incubated and the anaerobic digestion process could be adapted for a high-saline substrate, implying that the biodegradability of phytoremediation end-products may be used for methane production.


Zootaxa ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 2291 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
YURI M. MARUSIK ◽  
MYKOLA M. KOVBLYUK

Minosiella Dalmas, 1921 is a small genus of Gnaphosinae spiders comprising only six species known from western Palaearctic, ranging from Algeria to Afghanistan (Platnick, 2009). Males of this genus can be easily recognized thanks to strong cymbial spines (Figs 1–3, 9–11). Four species of Minosiella are known from both sexes, and two from females only. One of the latter, Minosiella intermedia Denis, 1958 was reported from Turkmenistan and from the Aral Sea (Ovtsharenko & Fet, 1980; Krivokhatski & Fet, 1982; Mikhailov, 1997). Although this species was reported several times from the former Soviet Union and not less than 450 specimens of M. intermedia have been collected in Karakum Desert (Krivokhatski & Fet, 1982), the male of this species was not described yet.


PeerJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. e12623
Author(s):  
Chao liang Chen ◽  
Xi Chen ◽  
Jing Qian ◽  
Zengyun Hu ◽  
Jun Liu ◽  
...  

Intense human activities in the Aral Sea Basin have changed its natural distribution of land use. Although they provide certain economic benefits, these anthropogenic influences have led to the rapid shrinkage of the Aral Sea, severely affecting the region’s ecosystem. However, the spatiotemporal variability of the Aral Sea Basin’s Ecosystem Service Values (ESVs) is not well understood. In this study, we used 300-meter resolution land use maps from 1995, 2005, and 2015 and the Patch-generating Land Use Simulation (PLUS) model to predict the future land use patterns of the Aral Sea Basin in 2025. Simultaneously, we divided the Aral Sea Basin into three regions (upstream, midstream, and downstream) and evaluated the dynamic responses of their ESVs to Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) changes. The changes in the types of ecosystem services provided by the Aral Sea Basin, their trade-off, and synergistic relationships were analyzed by weighting their associations. The results showed that from 1995 to 2025, the grassland, urban, and cropland areas in the Aral Sea Basin will expand rapidly, while the areas covered by water bodies will shrink rapidly, causing a total loss of 31.97 billion USD. The downstream loss of 27.79 billion USD of the total amount is mainly caused by the conversion of water bodies to bare land. The ESVs of the middle region will increase by 6.81 billion USD, mainly due to the large amount of water extracted from the Amu Darya and Syr Darya Rivers in the middle regions of the Aral Sea Basin that are used to reclaim cultivated land and expand urban areas. The ESVs and areas experiencing land use changes in the upper regions are relatively small. At the same time, our results show that biodiversity, food production, and water regulation are the major ecosystem service functions, and account for 79.46% of the total ESVs. Of the ecosystem service relationships in the Aral Sea Basin, synergy accounts for 55.56% of the interactions, with a fewer amount of trade-off exchanges. This synergy mainly exists in the relationships involving water regulation, waste treatment and recreation, and culture and tourism. We propose protection measures that will coordinate eco-environmental protection efforts with socioeconomic development in the region in order to achieve the United Nations’ sustainable development goals.


2021 ◽  
Vol 48 (7) ◽  
pp. 967-983
Author(s):  
N. V. Aladin ◽  
I. S. Plotnikov ◽  
A. O. Smurov ◽  
A. V. Makrushin
Keyword(s):  

2021 ◽  
Vol 103 (4) ◽  
Author(s):  
I. S. Kurmaniyazov ◽  
L. A. Agybaeva ◽  
Z. Т. Sydykova
Keyword(s):  

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