parasitic nematodes
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Medicina ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 58 (1) ◽  
pp. 128
Author(s):  
Radu Pavel ◽  
Sorin Ursoniu ◽  
Ana Alexandra Paduraru ◽  
Rodica Lighezan ◽  
Maria Alina Lupu ◽  
...  

Background and Objectives: Trichinellosis, a serious and sometimes fatal human disease, is a foodborne zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution caused by parasitic nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Humans are infected with Trichinella larvae through the ingestion of meat that has not been properly cooked. Romania reported most of the confirmed cases of trichinellosis among the EU countries. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate, for the first time, the seroprevalence and risk factors of Trichinella infection in blood donors from Western Romania. Materials and Methods: Serum samples of 1347 consecutive blood donors were investigated using an immunoenzymaticassay (ELISA) for the determination of specific IgG class antibodies against T.spiralis. A questionnaire interview was used to obtain information regarding the potential risk factors associated with T. spiralis infection. Mantel–Haenszel chi-squared test or the Fisher exact two-tailed test, as appropriate, were used for comparison between T. spiralis positive and T. spiralis negative blood donors. Student’s t-test was used to evaluate differences between means in studied groups and body mass index was calculated by dividing weight in kilograms by height in meters squared. Statistical analysis was performed using Epi Info Version 7.2 and Stata 16.1. Results: T. spiralis IgG antibodies were detected in 2.00% (27) of 1347 consecutive blood donors. Eating raw and/or undercooked meat, from pigs or wild boars, was found to be the main risk factor (p < 0.001). Strong alcoholic drink consumption was highly associated with T. spiralis infection (p = 0.009). Trichinella seroprevalence was higher among rural residents and males. Subjects identified as Trichinella seropositive were not previously diagnosed and have not been treated for Trichinella infection with any specific therapy. Conclusions: The demonstration of T. spiralis antibodies in healthy blood donors suggests that Trichinella infection may be detected in asymptomatic individuals that were not previously diagnosed with this zoonosis.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Joanna Kud ◽  
Syamkumar Sivasankara Pillai ◽  
Gabriel Raber ◽  
Allan Caplan ◽  
Joseph C. Kuhl ◽  
...  

Understanding belowground chemical interactions between plant roots and plant-parasitic nematodes is immensely important for sustainable crop production and soilborne pest management. Due to metabolic diversity and ever-changing dynamics of root exudate composition, the impact of only certain molecules, such as nematode hatching factors, repellents, and attractants, has been examined in detail. Root exudates are a rich source of biologically active compounds, which plants use to shape their ecological interactions. However, the impact of these compounds on nematode parasitic behavior is poorly understood. In this study, we specifically address this knowledge gap in two cyst nematodes, Globodera pallida, a potato cyst nematode and the newly described species, Globodera ellingtonae. Globodera pallida is a devastating pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum) worldwide, whereas potato is a host for G. ellingtonae, but its pathogenicity remains to be determined. We compared the behavior of juveniles (J2s) hatched in response to root exudates from a susceptible potato cv. Desirée, a resistant potato cv. Innovator, and an immune trap crop Solanum sisymbriifolium (litchi tomato – a wild potato relative). Root secretions from S. sisymbriifolium greatly reduced the infection rate on a susceptible host for both Globodera spp. Juvenile motility was also significantly influenced in a host-dependent manner. However, reproduction on a susceptible host from juveniles hatched in S. sisymbriifolium root exudates was not affected, nor was the number of encysted eggs from progeny cysts. Transcriptome analysis by using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed the molecular basis of root exudate-mediated modulation of nematode behavior. Differentially expressed genes are grouped into two major categories: genes showing characteristics of effectors and genes involved in stress responses and xenobiotic metabolism. To our knowledge, this is the first study that shows genome-wide root exudate-specific transcriptional changes in hatched preparasitic juveniles of plant-parasitic nematodes. This research provides a better understanding of the correlation between exudates from different plants and their impact on nematode behavior prior to the root invasion and supports the hypothesis that root exudates play an important role in plant-nematode interactions.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 784
Author(s):  
Mingwei An ◽  
Xueling Chen ◽  
Zhuhong Yang ◽  
Jianyu Zhou ◽  
Shan Ye ◽  
...  

The voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) β subunit (Cavβ) protein is a kind of cytosolic auxiliary subunit that plays an important role in regulating the surface expression and gating characteristics of high-voltage-activated (HVA) calcium channels. Ditylenchus destructor is an important plant-parasitic nematode. In the present study, the putative Cavβ subunit gene of D. destructor, namely, DdCavβ, was subjected to molecular characterization. In situ hybridization assays showed that DdCavβ was expressed in all nematode tissues. Transcriptional analyses showed that DdCavβ was expressed during each developmental stage of D. destructor, and the highest expression level was recorded in the third-stage juveniles. The crucial role of DdCavβ was verified by dsRNA soaking-mediated RNA interference (RNAi). Silencing of DdCavβ or HVA Cavα1 alone and co-silencing of the DdCavβ and HVA Cavα1 genes resulted in defective locomotion, stylet thrusting, chemotaxis, protein secretion and reproduction in D. destructor. Co-silencing of the HVA Cavα1 and Cavβ subunits showed stronger interference effects than single-gene silencing. This study provides insights for further study of VGCCs in plant-parasitic nematodes.


Author(s):  
Andressa C. Z. Machado

Management of plant parasitic nematodes in Brazil is a challenge and bionematicides are an important tool in the Integrated Nematode Management in several crops. There are 47 commercial bionematicides with 11 microorganisms as active ingredient available for growers in Brazil; Bacillus spp. are the main biological control agents, but fungi are also important for nematode management. Bionematicides reached 82% of the total market of nematicides in 2019/2020 in Brazil and, in soybean, they represented 90% of the area treated with nematicides. Although, the use of bionematicides is considered an emerging market worldwide, some challenges involve the correct use and formulation of organisms with different modes of action, difficulties in laboratory culturing, and the existence of non-regulated bionematicides, which do not ensure the quality, the purity, and the efficiency in the nematode control under field conditions, leading to lack of control and discredit of this tool. Considering the Brazilian biodiversity richness, a universe of new macroand microorganisms can be explored, as well as the metabolites produced by these organisms as the active ingredient of bionematicides. Expectations of an increase in this market are optimistic and may materialize in light of the increasing demand for biological products in Brazil.


2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Author(s):  
Leonardo F. Rocha ◽  
Jason P. Bond ◽  
Ahmad M. Fakhoury

Plant-parasitic nematodes represent a substantial constraint on global food security by reducing the yield potential of all major crops. The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is widely distributed across important soybean production areas of the U.S., being the major soybean yield-limiting factor, especially in the Midwestern U.S. Double cropped (DC) soybean is commonly planted following winter wheat. We previously reported double-cropping soybean fields with reduced SCN counts compared to fallow at both R1 growth stage (beginning of flowering) (−31.8%) and after soybean harvest (−32.7%). To test if higher counts of beneficial and SCN antagonistic microorganisms could be correlated with the suppression of SCN in fields previously planted with wheat, three field locations with noted SCN suppression were selected for a metagenomics study. Ten subplots were selected (5 wheat and 5 fallow pre-soybean) from each location. A total of 90 soil samples were selected: 3 fields ×2 treatments × 3 timepoints × 5 replications. Three DNA markers targeted distinct microbial groups: bacteria (16S V4-V5), fungi (ITS2), and Fusarium (tef1). Amplicons were sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq platform (300 bp paired-end). Sequencing datasets were processed in R using the DADA2 pipeline. Fungal populations were affected by location in all sampling periods and differed significantly between DC and fallow plots at soybean planting and after harvest (P &lt; 0.001). Several enriched fungal and bacterial taxa in wheat plots, including Mortierella, Exophiala, Conocybe, Rhizobacter spp., and others, were previously reported to parasitize SCN and other plant-parasitic nematodes, suggesting a potential role of beneficial microbes in suppression of SCN in soybean fields double-cropped with wheat.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Waresi Tuersong ◽  
Caixian Zhou ◽  
Simin WU ◽  
Peixi Qin ◽  
Chunqun Wang ◽  
...  

Abstract Background: Ivermectin (IVM) is one of the most important and widely used anthelmintics in veterinary medicine. However, its efficacy is increasingly compromised by widespread resistance, and the exact mechanism of IVM resistance remains unclear for most parasitic nematodes including Haemonchus contortus, a blood-sucking parasitic nematode of small ruminants.Methods: In this study, we isolated and assessed an IVM resistant strain from Zhaosu, Xinjiang, China. Subsequently, the comparative analyses on transcriptomics of IVM susceptible and resistant H. contortus adult worms were carried out using RNA sequencing and bioinformatics.Results: In total, 543 and 359 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in male and female adult worms of the resistant strain compared with the susceptible strain, respectively. The DEGs encode molecules involved in receptor activities, transport, detoxification, lipid metabolism and cuticle collagen formation. In addition, Gene Ontology (GO) analysis revealed that transcriptional changes were dominant in genes associated with ligand-gated channel activity, oxidation-reduction process, lipid metabolic process, and structural constituent of cuticle. The results support previous proposal that the IVM resistant mechanism of H. contortus involved in both neuromuscular and non-neuromuscular pathways. Finally, the quantitative RT-PCR results confirmed that the transcriptional profiles of selected DEGs (male: 8 genes, female: 10 genes) were consistent with those obtained by the RNA-Seq.Conclusions: The findings from this work provided valuable information for further studies on the IVM resistance in H. contortus.


Author(s):  
Huang Huang ◽  
Wenchao Zhao ◽  
Hui Qiao ◽  
Chonghua Li ◽  
Xuechun Ma ◽  
...  

Root knot nematode (RKN), a kind of plant parasitic nematodes, leads to large reduction of crop yield, and seriously damages the agricultural production. The phytohormone jasmonates (JAs) act as important signals to regulate resistance against multiple abiotic and biotic stresses. However, little is known about the mechanism of JA-mediated defense responses against RKN in tomato. In this study, we found that the WRKY transcription factor SlWRKY45 interacts with most of the Jasmonate-ZIM domain proteins (JAZs) in yeast and plant. Overexpression of SlWRKY45 decreased plant resistance to RKN Meloidogyne incognita with increased gall index. We further generated slwrky45 mutants using the CRISPR/Cas9 technology, and discovered that the gall index and the number of nematodes and females in slwrky45 mutants are significantly reduced compared with wild type, as inoculated with RKN Meloidogyne incognita. Moreover, the contents of jasmonic acid and JA-isoleucine (JA-Ile) were highly increased in slwrky45 mutants with RKN Meloidogyne incognita infection compared with wild type. Furthermore, EMSA, and Dual-LUC assays demonstrated that SlWRKY45 directly binds and represses jasmonate biosynthesis gene ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE ( AOC). Overall, our findings reveled that JAZ-interaction protein SlWRKY45 negatively controls plant defense against RKN Meloidogyne incognita by the regulation of JA biosynthesis in tomato.


Acta Tropica ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 225 ◽  
pp. 106176
Author(s):  
Milena Lubisch ◽  
Sven Moyzio ◽  
Charlotte Sophia Kaiser ◽  
Isabel Krafeld ◽  
Dustin Leusder ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (6) ◽  
pp. 751-758
Author(s):  
Nishi Keshari ◽  
◽  
R. S. Kanwar ◽  

In this study, the predation behaviour of male and female predatory nematode, Fictor composticola, was studied on five prey nematode species, Aphelenchus avenae, Aphelenchoides swarupi, Ditylenchus myceliophagus, Bursilla sp. and Panagrolaimus sp., found in the white button mushroom compost. The period of the study is of six months. The data recorded on number of encounters, part of the body of prey attacked, stage of the prey attacked, duration of feeding etc. The strike rate and prey susceptibility were calculated. The average number of encounters on all the five preys done by female F. composticola was 3.0 and that of the male was 6.0. Male F. composticola had more number of encounters on the prey nematode species than the females. Both the sexes preferred juvenile stages over adults as prey. The most attacked part by both females and males predator, was the posterior part of the prey body. In 80% of cases, female predators fed on the first encountered prey while males attacked the first encountered prey in 30% of cases only. The strike rate of female F. composticola was more (78.6%) than the male (48.2%). Mycophagous nematodes were more susceptible to predator’s attack than the microbivorous nematodes. The strike rate of the predator on different prey nematode species was found more on mycophagous nematodes than on microbivorous nematodes and minimum on Panagrolaimus sp. The average feeding duration of female F. composticola was 8 min and 31 sec and in the case of males it was 4 min and 11 sec.


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