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2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-25
Ryan Williams ◽  
Tongwei Ren ◽  
Lorenzo De Carli ◽  
Long Lu ◽  
Gillian Smith

IoT firmware oftentimes incorporates third-party components, such as network-oriented middleware and media encoders/decoders. These components consist of large and mature codebases, shipping with a variety of non-critical features. Feature bloat increases code size, complicates auditing/debugging, and reduces stability. This is problematic for IoT devices, which are severely resource-constrained and must remain operational in the field for years. Unfortunately, identification and complete removal of code related to unwanted features requires familiarity with codebases of interest, cumbersome manual effort, and may introduce bugs. We address these difficulties by introducing PRAT, a system that takes as input the codebase of software of interest, identifies and maps features to code, presents this information to a human analyst, and removes all code belonging to unwanted features. PRAT solves the challenge of identifying feature-related code through a novel form of differential dynamic analysis and visualizes results as user-friendly feature graphs . Evaluation on diverse codebases shows superior code removal compared to both manual feature deactivation and state-of-art debloating tools, and generality across programming languages. Furthermore, a user study comparing PRAT to manual code analysis shows that it can significantly simplify the feature identification workflow.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (3) ◽  

BACKGROUND Coccydynia refers to debilitating pain in the coccygeal region of the spine. Treatment strategies range from conservative measures (e.g., ergonomic adaptations, physical therapy, nerve block injections) to partial or complete removal of the coccyx (coccygectomy). Because the surgical intervention is situated in a high-pressure location close to the anus, a possible complication is the formation of sacral pressure ulcers and infection at the incision site. OBSERVATIONS In this case report, the authors presented a minimally invasive, fully endoscopic approach to safely perform complete coccygectomy for treatment of refractory posttraumatic coccydynia. LESSONS Although this is a single case report, the authors hope that this novel endoscopic approach may achieve improved wound healing, reduced infection rates, and lower risk of penetration injury to retroperitoneal organs in patients requiring coccygectomy.

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 339
Matías Jeldres ◽  
Norman Toro ◽  
Sandra Gallegos ◽  
Pedro Robles ◽  
Iván Salazar ◽  

In areas where access to water for mineral processing is limited, the direct use of seawater in processing has been considered as an alternative to the expense of its desalination. However, efficient flotation of copper sulfides from non-valuable phases is best achieved at a pH > 10.5, and raising the pH of seawater leads to magnesium precipitates that adversely affect subsequent tailings dewatering. Seawater pre-treatment with lime can precipitate the majority of magnesium present, with these solids then being removed by filtration. To understand how such treatment may aid tailings dewatering, treated seawater (TSw) was mixed with raw seawater (Rsw) at different ratios, analyzing the impact on the flocculated settling rate, aggregate size as measured by focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM), and vane yield stress for two synthetic clay-based tailings. A higher proportion of Tsw (10 mg/L Mg2+) led to larger aggregates and higher settling rates at a fixed dosage, with FBRM suggesting that higher calcium concentrations in Tsw may also favor fines coagulation. The yield stress of concentrated suspensions formed after flocculation decreased with higher proportions of Tsw, a consequence of lower flocculant demand and the reduced presence of precipitates; while the latter is a minor phase by mass, their high impact on rheology reflects a small particle size. Reducing magnesium concentrations in seawater in advance of use in processing offers advantages in the water return from thickening and subsequent underflow transport. However, this may not require complete removal, with blending Tsw and Rsw an option to obtain acceptable industrial performance.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 215
Niels Michiel Moed ◽  
Young Ku

The interaction between metal chlorides and electrocoagulation was tested. Precipitation of As(V) was found to be optimal at pH 4.9 using FeCl2, 2.6 for FeCl3, 3.8 using AlCl3, 11.6 using CaCl2 and 8.6 using MgCl2. As(V) removal through electrocoagulation went down as initial pH (pHi) of the solution increased. Addition of FeCl2 increased removal of As(V) at all pHi but was not able to achieve full removal at pHi 7. FeCl3 had a similar effect but a lower Fe(III) concentration of 30 mg/L was not sufficient for full removal at pHi 5 either. AlCl3 addition reduced removal efficiency at pHi 3 but removed all or most As(V) through precipitation at pHi 5 and 7, with complete removal followed through electrocoagulation. The addition of CaCl2 and MgCl2 resulted in nearly identical behavior. Addition of either at pHi 3 had no influence, but at pHi 5 and 7 caused complete removal to take place.

2022 ◽  
John S Decker ◽  
Romel Menacho-Melgar ◽  
Michael D Lynch

Across the biomanufacturing industry, innovations are needed to improve efficiency and flexibility, especially in the face of challenges such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Here we report an improved bioprocess for Q-Griffithsin, a broad-spectrum antiviral currently in clinical trials for COVID-19. Q-Griffithsin is produced at high titer in E. coli and purified to anticipated clinical grade without conventional chromatography or the need for any fixed downstream equipment. The process is thus both low-cost and highly flexible, facilitating low sales prices and agile modifications of production capacity, two key features for pandemic response. The simplicity of this process is enabled by a novel unit operation that integrates cellular autolysis, autohydrolysis of nucleic acids, and contaminant precipitation, giving essentially complete removal of host cell DNA as well as reducing host cell proteins and endotoxin by 3.6 and 2.4 log10 units, respectively. This unit operation can be performed rapidly and in the fermentation vessel, such that Q-GRFT is obtained with 100% yield and >99.9% purity immediately after fermentation and requires only a flow-through membrane chromatography step for further contaminant removal. Using this operation or variations of it may enable improved bioprocesses for a range of other high-value proteins in E. coli.

Benjamin Basanta ◽  
Marscha M. Hirschi ◽  
Danielle A. Grotjahn ◽  
Gabriel C. Lander

Buffer-composition and sample-preparation guidelines for cryo-electron microscopy are geared towards maximizing imaging contrast and reducing electron-beam-induced motion. These pursuits often involve the minimization or the complete removal of additives that are commonly used to facilitate proper protein folding and minimize aggregation. Among these admonished additives is glycerol, a widely used osmolyte that aids protein stability. In this work, it is shown that the inclusion of glycerol does not preclude high-resolution structure determination by cryoEM, as demonstrated by an ∼2.3 Å resolution reconstruction of mouse apoferritin (∼500 kDa) and an ∼3.3 Å resolution reconstruction of rabbit muscle aldolase (∼160 kDa) in the presence of 20%(v/v) glycerol. While it was found that generating thin ice that is amenable to high-resolution imaging requires long blot times, the addition of glycerol did not result in increased beam-induced motion or an inability to pick particles. Overall, these findings indicate that glycerol should not be discounted as a cryoEM sample-buffer additive, particularly for large, fragile complexes that are prone to disassembly or aggregation upon its removal.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 (1) ◽  
pp. pdb.prot100701
Michael R. Green ◽  
Joseph Sambrook

If labeled oligonucleotides are to be used only as probes in hybridization experiments, complete removal of unincorporated label is generally not necessary. However, to reduce background to a minimum, the bulk of the unincorporated label should be separated from the labeled oligonucleotide. Most of the residual unincorporated precursors can be removed from the preparation by differential precipitation with ethanol, as described in this protocol, if the oligonucleotide is >18 nt in length.

2021 ◽  
pp. 194338752110670
Paolo Priore ◽  
Filippo Giovanetti ◽  
Andrea Battisti ◽  
Danilo Di Giorgio ◽  
Marco Della Monaca ◽  

Objective En-bloc maxillectomy with removal of the nasal septum is a rare procedure; preservation of the nasal bones and integrity of the alveolar ridge is even rarer. These procedures traditionally required a combined transfacial-transoral approach based on lateral rhinotomy. We describe a combined endoscopic transnasal-transoral approach for treatment of nasal septal malignancies that involve the hard palate. Study Design Description and validation of a surgical technique. Methods Excision of malignant tumours arising from the nasal septum was achieved in 4 patients using a transnasal-transoral endoscopic approach. Using 4-mm optics angled at 0° and 30°, the septum was freed from the ethmoid and removed en-bloc with the hard palate, by pulling the septum down through the hard palate. Results Of the 4 patients, 2 underwent complete removal of septal chondrosarcomas, one removal of a sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma and one removal of a mucoepidermoid carcinoma. In two cases, the palatal mucosa was spared and repositioned to restore separation between the nose and oral cavity. The remaining two cases underwent complete resection of the hard palate; one palate was reconstructed using a pedicled temporalis muscle flap and the other by employing an obturator. No infection was encountered. Partial ethmoidectomy was performed in all four cases. The mean hospital stay was 5 days. All patients are free of disease after a mean follow-up of 4 years (range: 2–7 years). Conclusions Our new approach allows for minimally invasive resection of nasal septal malignancies that extend to the palate. Our maxillary pull-through technique is a valuable new surgical procedure for malignant pathologies of the nasal septum; the only drawback is that endoscopic surgery has a steep learning curve.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (4) ◽  
pp. 498-507
Ozioma L. Ugwu ◽  
Michael U. Orji ◽  
Odera R. Umeh ◽  
Benjamin Nma Yisa ◽  
Anthonia O. Oyegue

The removal of hydrocarbon compounds from the environment has always been a difficult undertaking for people all over the world. As a result, remedial efforts are required to safeguard the environment as well as to restore agriculture. This study looked at how poultry manure (dung) could help in the bioremediation of Veritas University's intentionally crude oil polluted soil. The physical properties of the soil and total petroleum hydrocarbon content of the crude oil polluted soil were determined, followed by the isolation and identification of microorganisms present in the soil and poultry manure before and after pollution with crude oil. These analyses were done according to standard operating procedures. Within a six-month timeframe, the natural attenuation and poultry manure amendment option for remediating the crude oil-polluted soil were monitored and the residual hydrocarbon content of the polluted soil after remediation evaluated. There was an overall decrease in pH level during the experimental units containing 4 g amendment, 2 g amendment and the untreated polluted soil in the order 8.4 to 7.1, 8.4 to 7.2 and 8.1 to 6.7, respectively. Temperature was within 27oC and 31oC, the treated soil that contained 4 g dung had an initial moisture content of 58%, and 35% after remediation. The hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria isolated were Pseudomonas species, Staphylococcus species, and Bacillus species, while the hydrocarbon utilizing fungi isolated were Aspergillus niger, Fusarium solani and Candida albicans. There was more significant microbial increase in the sample containing 4 g poultry manure treatment than 2 g poultry manure treatment and natural attenuation. Total hydrocarbon quantity significantly decreased after six months with the complete removal of C4, C7, C19 and C37 from the treated sample containing 4 g poultry manure. This indicated that the negative effects of crude oil on the environment can be mitigated by adding poultry manure.

Nikhil Oliveira ◽  
Georgi Tchernev ◽  
Lorraine Joseph Kandathil

Introduction: Giant basal cell carcinomas (GBCCs) are extremely rare and typically more aggressive than their predecessor subtype. GBCCs with mushroom-like morphology have rarely been reported, with only one other case identified in the literature. Here we present a unique case of a neglected giant mushroom-like BCC that was treated successfully. Case description: An 81-year-old male patient presented with a large ulcerative mass on his back. He had a medical history of chronic heart failure and atrial fibrillation, which were controlled with heart medication. During a routine visit to change the dressing of the lesion, the central pedunculated stalk underwent spontaneous haemorrhaging which led to massive blood loss. The patient was treated for shock and the lesion was completely excised under emergency surgery. The tumour was sent for histopathological assessment after complete surgical removal. Recovery was successful with good postoperative results and no recurrence was reported in the 12 months following discharge. Discussion: The patient was under long-standing anticoagulant therapy that contributed to the untimely rupture of the pedunculated lesion and led to spontaneous heavy haemorrhaging. Treatment for such giant lesions can be complex, especially in patients with co-morbid conditions. Careful assessment and early treatment are paramount for successful results. Conclusion: Complete removal of such lesions is very successful for treating GBCCs.

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