soil characteristics
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Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 191
Jan Adriaan Reijneveld ◽  
Martijn Jasper van Oostrum ◽  
Karst Michiel Brolsma ◽  
Dale Fletcher ◽  
Oene Oenema

Conventional soil tests are commonly used to assess single soil characteristics. Thus, many different tests are needed for a full soil fertility/soil quality assessment, which is laborious and expensive. New broad-spectrum soil tests offer the potential to assess many soil characteristics quickly, but often face challenges with calibration, validation, and acceptance in practice. Here, we describe the results of a 20 year research program aimed at overcoming the aforementioned challenges. A three-step approach was applied: (1) selecting and establishing two contrasting rapid broad-spectrum soil tests, (2) relating the results of these new tests to the results of conventional soil tests for a wide variety of soils, and (3) validating the results of the new soil tests through field trials and communicating the results. We selected Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) and multi-nutrient 0.01 M CaCl2 extraction (1:10 soil to solution ratio; w/v) as broad-spectrum techniques. NIRS was extensively calibrated and validated for the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of soil. The CaCl2 extraction technique was extensively calibrated and validated for ‘plant available’ nutrients, often in combination with the results of NIRS. The results indicate that the accuracy of NIRS determinations is high for SOM, clay, SOC, ECEC, Ca-CEC, N-total, sand, and inorganic-C (R2 ≥ 0.95) and good for pH, Mg-CEC, and S-total (R2 ≥ 0.90). The combination of the CaCl2 extraction technique and NIRS gave results that related well (R2 > 0.80) to the results of conventional soil tests for P, K, Mg, Na, Mn, Cu, Co, and pH. In conclusion, the three-step approach has revolutionized soil testing in The Netherlands. These two broad-spectrum soil tests have improved soil testing; have contributed to increased insights into the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of soil; and have thereby led to more sustainable soil management and cropping systems.

Geology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Christopher B. DuRoss ◽  
Ryan D. Gold ◽  
Harrison J. Gray ◽  
Sylvia R. Nicovich

The quality and quantity of geochronologic data used to constrain the history of major earthquakes in a region exerts a first-order control on the accuracy of seismic hazard assessments that affect millions of people. However, evaluations of geochronological data are limited by uncertainties related to inherently complex depositional processes that may vary spatially and temporally. To improve confidence in models of earthquake timing, we use a high-density suite of radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages with a grid of 342 portable OSL samples to explore spatiotemporal trends in geochronological data across an exemplary normal fault colluvial wedge exposure. The data reveal a two-dimensional age map of the paleoseismic exposure and demonstrate how vertical and horizontal trends in age relate to dominant sedimentary facies and soil characteristics at the site. Portable OSL data provide critical context for the interpretation of 14C and OSL ages, show that geochronologic age boundaries between pre- and post-earthquake deposits do not match stratigraphic contacts, and provide the basis for selecting alternate Bayesian models of earthquake timing. Our results demonstrate the potential to use emergent, portable OSL methods to dramatically improve paleoseismic constraints on earthquake timing.

Mycorrhiza ◽  
2022 ◽  
Bolaji Thanni ◽  
Roel Merckx ◽  
Pieterjan De Bauw ◽  
Margaux Boeraeve ◽  
Gerrit Peeters ◽  

AbstractCassava, forming starch-rich, tuberous roots, is an important staple crop in smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa. Its relatively good tolerance to drought and nutrient-poor soils may be partly attributed to the crop’s association with arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF). Yet insights into AMF-community composition and richness of cassava, and knowledge of its environmental drivers are still limited. Here, we sampled 60 cassava fields across three major cassava-growing agro-ecological zones in Nigeria and used a DNA meta-barcoding approach to quantify large-scale spatial variation and evaluate the effects of soil characteristics and common agricultural practices on AMF community composition, richness and Shannon diversity. We identified 515 AMF operational taxonomic units (OTUs), dominated by Glomus, with large variation across agro-ecological zones, and with soil pH explaining most of the variation in AMF community composition. High levels of soil available phosphorus reduced OTU richness without affecting Shannon diversity. Long fallow periods (> 5 years) reduced AMF richness compared with short fallows, whereas both zero tillage and tractor tillage reduced AMF diversity compared with hoe tillage. This study reveals that the symbiotic relationship between cassava and AMF is strongly influenced by soil characteristics and agricultural management and that it is possible to adjust cassava cultivation practices to modify AMF diversity and community structure. Graphical abstract

2022 ◽  
pp. 112-131
Tatjana D. Golubović

Soil is one of the most valuable natural resources. Despite soil importance, the pressures on soil have increased in recent decades. Soil degradation is a critical and growing problem, whereby soil erosion presents a prevailing process compared to other degradative processes. The intensity of erosion depends on the topography, climate conditions, soil characteristics, human activities, and the presence of vegetation. In this chapter, the diverse factors that cause soil erosion have been evaluated. The level of damage associated with soil erosion has been analyzed, with emphasis on the impacts they may have on the global carbon cycle, phosphorus loss, dust emissions, eutrophication, and soil biodiversity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 69-81
Muhammad Fikri Baihaqi ◽  
Mochtar Lutfi Rayes ◽  
Christanti Agustina

A study of soil characteristics dryland productivity of the Supiturung Micro Watershed, Kediri Regency, was conducted by observing the physical conditions of the environment and identifying the morphological and physical properties of the soil in each horizon in the soil profile. Parameters observed were physical properties (texture, bulk density) and chemical properties (CEC, total N, organic C, and base saturation). Data on soil characteristics and plant productivity were then analyzed by correlation and regression to determine the relationship between the two. The results showed that the soil in the study area belongs to the order Inceptisols and Entisols with the dominant subgroup Typic Humudepts. Pineapple plants were spread at SST 5, 7, 9, and 10 with the productivity of 71.18%, 76.35%, 75.76%, and 72%, respectively. Meanwhile, sugarcane was spread in SPL 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 with the productivity of 71%, 77%, 73.43%, 76.29, and 70.81%, respectively. The results of the analysis show that the land characteristics that affect the productivity of pineapple plants are sand texture with a correlation coefficient value of 0.84 and a regression of 0.71 with a linear equation y= -0.07x + 67.57 R² = 0.53 Land with a sand texture class increasingly has low productivity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 961 (1) ◽  
pp. 012089
Najwa Wasif Jassim ◽  
Shaymaa alsafi

Abstract Study the consequence of adding fly ash (FA) on the Atterberg limit; cohesions and internal friction of angles of the verified soil was the aim of this search. The tested soil according to the system of unified soil classification was (CH) group. Fly ash (FA) was added to the tested soil samples in 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 & 18 % by weight of samples. This study shows that once the tested soil mixed with (FA); the values of cohesion reduced; while the values of the angles of internal frictions increases. The drop in the soil sample cohesion when mixed with 18% of (FA) was 34%, were noteworthy increase in the angles of internal friction. For all soil samples as the percentages of adding (FA) increase, the decrease in the index of plasticity amounts increase also at different rates. The adding of (FA) produced a reduction in the liquid limits; plastic limits and henceforth the plasticity index of the tested soil sample at rate of 43%, 48% and 37% correspondingly. The plasticity index losses took place at the first 3%, at a lesser rate, then the rate increased at 18% of additive and because nearly constant.

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