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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Hiroaki Nakashima ◽  
Shiro Imagama ◽  
Toshitaka Yoshii ◽  
Satoru Egawa ◽  
Kenichiro Sakai ◽  

AbstractThis prospective multicenter study, established by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and involving 27 institutions, aimed to compare postoperative outcomes between laminoplasty (LM) and posterior fusion (PF) for cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL), in order to address the controversy surrounding the role of instrumented fusion in cases of posterior surgical decompression for OPLL. 478 patients were considered for participation in the study; from among them, 189 (137 and 52 patients with LM and PF, respectively) were included and evaluated using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores, the JOA Cervical Myelopathy Evaluation Questionnaire (JOACMEQ), and radiographical measurements. Basic demographic and radiographical data were reviewed, and the propensity to choose a surgical procedure was calculated. Preoperatively, there were no significant differences among the participants in terms of patient backgrounds, radiographical measurements (K-line or cervical alignment on X-ray, OPLL occupation ratio on computed tomography, increased signal intensity change on magnetic resonance imaging), or clinical status (JOA score and JOACMEQ) after adjustments. The overall risk of perioperative complications was found to be lower with LM (odds ratio [OR] 0.40, p = 0.006), and the rate of C5 palsy occurrence was significantly lower with LM (OR 0.11, p = 0.0002) than with PF. The range of motion (20.91° ± 1.05° and 9.38° ± 1.24°, p < 0.0001) in patients who had PF was significantly smaller than in those who had LM. However, multivariable logistic regression analysis showed no significant difference among the participants in JOA score, JOA recovery rate, or JOACMEQ improvement at two years. In contrast, OPLL progression was greater in the LM group than in the PF group (OR 2.73, p = 0.0002). Both LM and PF for cervical myelopathy due to OPLL had resulted in comparable postoperative outcomes at 2 years after surgery.

Abstract Background and aims Food addiction (FA) and substance use (SU) have frequently been reported in patients with eating disorders (EDs). Our study aimed to assess the prevalence rates of FA and/or lifetime problematic alcohol and illicit drug use among patients with specific ED, such as: bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and other specified feeding and eating disorder (OSFED). We sought to identify clinical, psychopathological, and personality profiles involved in these addictive behavior-based phenotypes. Methods The total sample was 527 patients (176 BN, 115 BED, and 236 OSFED). FA was assessed through the Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0. To determine lifetime SU, a semi-structured clinical interview was carried out. Results Patients with BN had the highest rates of FA both with and without SU. No gender differences were obtained for the prevalence of current FA and/or lifetime SU. Patients reporting at least one addictive-related behavior exhibited increased clinical severity compared to those who reported none. Increased impulsivity (such as high lack of premeditation, sensation seeking, and positive urgency) and low self-directedness were differentiating factors for presenting one or two addictive behaviors. Discussion and Conclusions Overall, patients presenting with at least one addictive-like behavior reported a poorer clinical status than those without. Also, patients with FA and SU exhibited a more dysfunctional profile characterized by high impulsivity and low self-directedness. These findings would support the need for targeted treatments to reduce impulsivity and increase self-directedness, especially in patients with any addictive-related behavior, as a step towards improving their treatment outcome.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 106
Aleksandra Szylińska ◽  
Katarzyna Kotfis ◽  
Marta Bott-Olejnik ◽  
Paweł Wańkowicz ◽  
Iwona Rotter

Introduction: Research has shown that patients with ischemic stroke and coexisting obstructive respiratory disorders have worse clinical status on admission and increased long-term mortality. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at increased risk of stroke, and the risk is even greater after exacerbation of COPD. Moreover, COPD and stroke share major risk factors, which are advancing age and smoking. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of complications and mortality in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients with and without COPD. Material and methods: We analyzed prospectively collected data of 1022 patients with acute is-chemic stroke hospitalized in a district general hospital. The patients were divided into two groups—with coexisting COPD and without COPD. Results: Logistic regression analysis, which allowed for potential confounders, showed an association between coexisting COPD and the fol-lowing complications in acute ischemic stroke patients: heart failure (OR = 1.879, p = 0.048), atrial fibrillation (OR = 4.746, p = 0.012), delirium (OR = 2.803, p < 0.001), pneumonia (OR = 2.424, p = 0.005), bronchospasm (OR = 3.400, p = 0.023), and out-hospital mortality (OR = 2.656, p = 0.001). Conclusion: Patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke and coexisting COPD significantly more often had cardiac and pulmonary complications, as well as delirium following stroke. In a long-term follow-up, the probability of one-year survival was significantly lower in AIS patients with co-existing COPD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 803
Alessandro Lazzaro ◽  
Gabriella De Girolamo ◽  
Valeria Filippi ◽  
Giuseppe Pietro Innocenti ◽  
Letizia Santinelli ◽  

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body’s response to an infection injures its own tissues and organs. Despite significant morbidity and mortality throughout the world, its pathogenesis and mechanisms are not clearly understood. In this narrative review, we aimed to summarize the recent developments in our understanding of the hallmarks of sepsis pathogenesis (immune and adaptive immune response, the complement system, the endothelial disfunction, and autophagy) and highlight novel laboratory diagnostic approaches. Clinical management is also discussed with pivotal consideration for antimicrobic therapy management in particular settings, such as intensive care unit, altered renal function, obesity, and burn patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 91
Giuseppe Boriani ◽  
Marco Proietti ◽  
Matteo Bertini ◽  
Igor Diemberger ◽  
Pietro Palmisano ◽  

Background: The incidence of infections associated with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) and patient outcomes are not fully known. Aim: To provide a contemporary assessment of the risk of CIEDs infection and associated clinical outcomes. Methods: In Italy, 18 centres enrolled all consecutive patients undergoing a CIED procedure and entered a 12-months follow-up. CIED infections, as well as a composite clinical event of infection or all-cause death were recorded. Results: A total of 2675 patients (64.3% male, age 78 (70–84)) were enrolled. During follow up 28 (1.1%) CIED infections and 132 (5%) deaths, with 152 (5.7%) composite clinical events were observed. At a multivariate analysis, the type of procedure (revision/upgrading/reimplantation) (OR: 4.08, 95% CI: 1.38–12.08) and diabetes (OR: 2.22, 95% CI: 1.02–4.84) were found as main clinical factors associated to CIED infection. Both the PADIT score and the RI-AIAC Infection score were significantly associated with CIED infections, with the RI-AIAC infection score showing the strongest association (OR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.60–3.55 for each point), with a c-index = 0.64 (0.52–0.75), p = 0.015. Regarding the occurrence of composite clinical events, the Kolek score, the Shariff score and the RI-AIAC Event score all predicted the outcome, with an AUC for the RI-AIAC Event score equal to 0.67 (0.63−0.71) p < 0.001. Conclusions: In this Italian nationwide cohort of patients, while the incidence of CIED infections was substantially low, the rate of the composite clinical outcome of infection or all-cause death was quite high and associated with several clinical factors depicting a more impaired clinical status.

2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (3) ◽  
pp. e2109395119
Stephanie Cerceo Page ◽  
Srinidhi Rao Sripathy ◽  
Federica Farinelli ◽  
Zengyou Ye ◽  
Yanhong Wang ◽  

Neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have been used to model basic cellular aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders, but the relationship between the emergent phenotypes and the clinical characteristics of donor individuals has been unclear. We analyzed RNA expression and indices of cellular function in hiPSC-derived neural progenitors and cortical neurons generated from 13 individuals with high polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for schizophrenia (SCZ) and a clinical diagnosis of SCZ, along with 15 neurotypical individuals with low PRS. We identified electrophysiological measures in the patient-derived neurons that implicated altered Na+ channel function, action potential interspike interval, and gamma-aminobutyric acid–ergic neurotransmission. Importantly, electrophysiological measures predicted cardinal clinical and cognitive features found in these SCZ patients. The identification of basic neuronal physiological properties related to core clinical characteristics of illness is a potentially critical step in generating leads for novel therapeutics.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 2-14
José Carlos Lopes Penha ◽  
Wagner Correia Santos ◽  
Mariana Rodrigues Gazzotti ◽  
Oliver Augusto Nascimento ◽  
José Roberto Jardim

Denise Schlee ◽  
Till-Martin Theilen ◽  
Henning Fiegel ◽  
Martin Hutter ◽  
Udo Rolle

Summary Esophageal atresia (EA) is a rare congenital disease which is usually not of the detected prenatally. Due to the lack of prenatal diagnosis, some newborns with EA are born outside of specialized centers. Nevertheless, centralized care of EA has been proposed, even if a clear volume–outcome association in EA management remains unconfirmed. Furthermore, whether outcomes differ between outborn and inborn patients with EA has not been systematically investigated. Therefore, this single-center, retrospective study aimed to investigate EA management and outcomes with a special focus on inborn versus outborn patients. The following data were extracted from the medical records of infants with EA from 2009 to 2019: EA type, associated anomalies, complications, and long-term outcome. Patients were allocated into inborn and outborn groups. Altogether, 57 patients were included. Five patients were excluded (referral before surgery, loss of data, death before surgery [n = 1], and incorrect diagnosis [diverticulum, n = 1]). Among all patients, the overall survival rate was 96%, with no mortalities among outborn patients. The overall hospitalization period was shorter for outborn patients. The median follow-up durations were 3.8 years and 3.2 years for inborn and outborn patients, respectively. Overall, 15% of patients underwent delayed primary anastomosis (long-gap atresia [n = 4] and other reasons [n = 4]). Early complications included three anastomotic leakages and one post-operative fistula; 28% of patients developed strictures, which required dilatation, and 38% of patients showed relevant gastroesophageal reflux, which required fundoplication, without any differences between the groups. The two groups had comparable low mortality and expected high morbidity with no significant differences in outcome. The outborn group showed nonsignificant trends toward lower morbidity and shorter hospitalization periods, which might be explained by the overall better clinical status.

Assessment ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 107319112110681
Ionut Stelian Florean ◽  
Anca Dobrean ◽  
Robert Balazsi ◽  
Adrian Roșan ◽  
Costina Ruxandra Păsărelu ◽  

This study aimed to investigate the measurement invariance of the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (for both long [APQ-lg] and short [APQ-9] forms) across age, gender, clinical status, and informant (i.e., parent vs. child reports). The sample was composed of adolescents (community sample: N = 1,746; clinical sample: N = 166) and parents ( N = 149). The analyses were conducted in R. Measurement invariance was assessed via multi-group confirmatory factor analysis, equivalence test, and subsampling approach. The original model of APQ-lg (five factors) showed a significantly better fit than other concurrent models (five concurrent models were specified, based on prior literature). For APQ-lg, we found measurement invariance across gender and partial measurement invariance across age, clinical status, and informant. For APQ-9, we confirmed the measurement invariance across gender and clinical status, while across age and informant partial measurement invariance was attested. Overall, our study indicated that APQ-lg and APQ-9 are two valid tools for measuring parenting practices with some caveats.

A. J. Gingele ◽  
L. Brandts ◽  
H. P. Brunner-La Rocca ◽  
G. Cleuren ◽  
C. Knackstedt ◽  

Abstract Introduction Heart failure (HF) poses a burden on specialist care, making referral of clinically stable HF patients to primary care a desirable goal. However, a structured approach to guide patient referral is lacking. Methods The Maastricht Instability Score—Heart Failure (MIS-HF) questionnaire was developed to objectively stratify the clinical status of HF patients: patients with a low MIS-HF (0–2 points, indicating a stable clinical condition) were considered for treatment in primary care, whereas high scores (> 2 points) indicated the need for specialised care. The MIS-HF was evaluated in 637 consecutive HF patients presenting between 2015 and 2018 at Maastricht University Medical Centre. Results Of the 637 patients, 329 (52%) had a low score and 205 of these 329 (62%) patients were referred to primary care. The remaining 124 (38%) patients remained in secondary care. Of the 308 (48%) patients with a high score (> 2 points), 265 (86%) remained in secondary care and 41 (14%) were referred to primary care. The primary composite endpoint (mortality, cardiac hospital admissions) occurred more frequently in patients with a high compared to those with a low MIS-HF after 1 year of follow-up (29.2% vs 10.9%; odds ratio (OR) 3.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.20–5.14). No significant difference in the composite endpoint (9.8% vs 12.9%; OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.36–1.47) was found between patients with a low MIS-HF treated in primary versus secondary care. Conclusion The MIS-HF questionnaire may improve referral policies, as it helps to identify HF patients that can safely be referred to primary care.

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