Antibiotic Therapy
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2021 ◽  
pp. 172-177
Author(s):  
S. V. Starostina ◽  
D. A. Sivokhin

Acute rhinosinusitis is one of the most common diseases in the world. According to statistics, about 10 million cases are registered in Russia every year.Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) in most cases develops as a result of an acute respiratory viral disease, proceeds easily and it does not require antibiotic therapy. However, it significantly reduces the patient's quality of life in cases of moderate and severe disease, and in the absence of timely treatment, can lead to intracranial complications (meningitis, encephalitis, intracranial abscesses, etc.) and orbital (reactive edema of the eyelid, phlegmon of the orbit, periorbital abscesses, etc.). To avoid complications, with exacerbation of rhinosinusitis, it is necessary to choose the right antibiotic therapy, taking into account the resistance of the microorganisms that caused the disease.The article describes the differential diagnosticprinciples of bacterial rhinosinusitis according to the latest recommendations and research in this area, the most common antibiotic-resistant pathogens in the practice of an ENT doctor are presented, the issue of choosing the correct systemic antibiotic therapy for the treatment of patients with moderate and severe acute bacterial rhinosinusitis is considered according to modern data on the sensitivity of bacterial pathogens to antibacterial drugs prescribed in the otorhinolaryngologist's practice. The article presents data on a new universal cephalosporin of the 3rd generation (the active ingredient is cefditoren), as a second- and third-line drug, due to its high activity against most causative agents of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis, and clinical observation using the above antibacterial agent within the framework of the considered topics.


2021 ◽  
Vol 1 ◽  
Author(s):  
Hossein Hatami ◽  
Amir Ghaffari Jolfayi ◽  
Ali Ebrahimi ◽  
Saeid Golmohammadi ◽  
Moein Zangiabadian ◽  
...  

IntroductionContact lens wearing has been increased globally during recent decades, which is one of the main risk factors for developing microbial keratitis. Microbial keratitis is a severe and dangerous condition that causes cornea inflammation. It can lead to corneal scarring and perforation or even endophthalmitis and visual loss if it remains untreated. Among bacterial, fungal, protozoal, and viral agents which can cause microbial keratitis, bacteria are the most common cause. Therefore, in this study, we aim to find common causative bacteria, sensitivity, and resistance to antibiotics and the outcome of antibiotic therapy in contact lens-related bacterial keratitis.MethodsA systematic search was carried out in PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, and Web of Science for published studies and medRxiv for preprints up to February 30, 2021, and May 14, 2021, respectively. A combination of the following keywords was used: “Infection”, “Corneal infection”, “Keratitis”, “Microbial keratitis”, and “Contact lens”, Also, we used the “Contact lenses” MeSH term. Lists of references for each selected article and relevant review articles were hand-searched to identify further studies.ResultsTwenty-six articles were included. From 1991 to 2018, 2,916 episodes of contact lens-related microbial keratitis) CLMK(with 1,642 episodes of proven bacterial keratitis have been reviewed in these studies. Studies were conducted in 17 countries with different geographical regions, and four studies were conducted in Iran, which is the highest number of studies among these countries. According to 20 studies, the mean age of patients was 30.77 years. Females with 61.87% were more than males in 19 studies. A percentage of 92.3% of patients used soft contact lenses, and 7.7% of patients used hard contact lenses (including RGP), according to 16 studies. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus spp., and Serratia marcescens were the three most common bacteria isolated from samples of patients with contact lens-related bacterial keratitis. Overall, isolated bacteria were most sensitive to fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides, especially ciprofloxacin and gentamicin respectively, and most resistant against penicillin and cephalosporins especially cefazolin and chloramphenicol. Almost all patients responded well to antibiotic therapy, with some exceptions that needed further surgical interventions.ConclusionAntibiotics are efficient for treating almost all patients with contact lens-related bacterial keratitis if they are appropriately chosen based on common germs in every geographical region and the sensitivity and resistance of these germs against them. In this regard, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common causative germ of contact lens-associated bacterial keratitis all over the world and is almost fully sensitive to ciprofloxacin. Because of some different results about the sensitivity and resistance of germs against some antibiotics like gentamicin, vancomycin, and chloramphenicol in the Middle East region, especially Iran, more in vitro and clinical studies are suggested.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 2492
Author(s):  
Hang Guo ◽  
Leilei Yu ◽  
Fengwei Tian ◽  
Jianxin Zhao ◽  
Hao Zhang ◽  
...  

Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) is a self-limiting disease mediated by antibiotic therapy. In clinical practice, several types of probiotics are used in treating AAD, but minimal research has been done on Bacteroides-based microecologics. Our aim was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Bacteroidetes uniformis FGDLZ48B1, B. intestinalis FJSWX61K18, Bifidobacterium adolescentis FHNFQ48M5, and B. bifidum FGZ30MM3 and their mixture on AAD in mice. The lincomycin hydrochloride-induced AAD models were gavaged with a single strain or a probiotic mixture for a short period to assess the changes in colonic histopathology and cytokine concentrations, intestinal epithelial permeability and integrity, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and the diversity of intestinal microbiota. Our data indicated that both the sole use of Bacteroides and the combination of Bacteroides and Bifidobacterium beneficially weakened systemic inflammation, increased the recovery rate of tissue structures, increased the concentrations of SCFAs, and restored the gut microbiota. Moreover, the probiotic mixture was more effective than the single strain. Specifically, B. uniformis FGDLZ48B1 combined with the B. adolescentis FHNFQ48M5 group was more effective in alleviating the pathological features of the colon, downregulating the concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6, and upregulating the expression of occludin. In summary, our research suggests that administration of a mixture of B. uniformis FGDLZ48B1 and B. adolescentis FHNFQ48M5 is an effective approach for treating AAD.


Antibiotics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 1476
Author(s):  
Se Ju Lee ◽  
Jung Ho Kim ◽  
Hi Jae Lee ◽  
Ki Hyun Lee ◽  
Eun Hwa Lee ◽  
...  

Selection of proper antibiotics for blood culture-negative infective endocarditis (BCNIE) is difficult due to limited data on antibiotic regimens for BCNIE in existing literature. The aim of this study was to compare ampicillin-sulbactam, other β-lactams antibiotics, and vancomycin among patients with BCNIE to determine the proper antibiotic regimens. This retrospective study included adult patients with BCNIE admitted to Severance Hospital from November 2005 to August 2017. Patients were classified into three groups as, treated with ampicillin-sulbactam, other β-lactams, and vancomycin. The primary outcome was 1-year all-cause mortality. A total of 74 cases with BCNIE were enrolled in this study. There were no statistically significant differences in clinical characteristics between the three groups. One-year mortality did not significantly differ between the study groups either. Further, in-hospital mortality, 28-day mortality and overall mortality showed no difference. However, Cox-regression analysis showed nosocomial infective endocarditis as an independent risk factor and a protective effect of surgery on 1-year mortality. This study showed no clear difference in the outcomes of BCNIE as per the antibiotic therapy but suggested the beneficial effect of surgical treatment. With increasing global concern of antimicrobial resistance, it might be reasonable to select ampicillin-sulbactam-based antibiotic therapy while actively considering surgical treatment in BCNIE.


2021 ◽  
pp. 166-171
Author(s):  
A. L. Guseva ◽  
M. L. Derbeneva

Sore throat is a common complaint, which can be caused by a typical viral pharyngitis, or it can be rooted in a life-threatening disease such as epiglottitis or inflammation of the cellular spaces in the throat and neck. The doctor should take a closer look at a patient with a sore throat, immediately make a differential diagnosis and prescribe adequate treatment, including surgical intervention, if necessary.The article discusses the most common causes of a sore throat, including various types of pharyngitis, paratonsillar abscess, parapharyngeal abscess, retropharyngeal abscess, epiglottitis.Viral pharyngitis has a favourable prognosis, resolves without intervention and complications, but bacterial and fungal pharyngitis have a more severe course. Streptococcal pharyngitis caused by group A в-hemolytic streptococcus holds a dominant position in bacterial etiology and requires the use of antibiotic therapy. The differential diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis is based on the modified Centor scores in the routine clinical practice. Antibiotic therapy for streptococcal pharyngitis includes a 10-day course of unprotected penicillins. If a patient has an allergic reaction to penicillins, it is recommended to use clindamycin or clarithromycin. The surgical intervention combined with intramuscular or intravenous antibiotic therapy is recommended for the treatment of purulent processes in the cellular spaces of the neck. These diseases can have life-threatening complications, which include neurological damage, the spread of purulent process in the mediastinum with the development of mediastinitis, laryn-geal stenosis, sepsis, necrotizing fasciitis, jugular vein thrombosis and erosion of the carotid artery. The third generation cephalosporins and protected penicillins are recommended for the treatment of epiglottitis, and respiratory fluoroquinolones are used, if a patient has a history of allergic reactions to penicillins. In severe cases with symptoms of stenosis, intubation can be performed in addition to the use of antibiotics.


2021 ◽  
pp. 2101546
Author(s):  
Ashna Gopal ◽  
Li Yan ◽  
Saima Kashif ◽  
Tasnim Munshi ◽  
Roy AL Vellaisamy ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 100 (6) ◽  
pp. 162-167
Author(s):  
L.N. Mazankova ◽  
◽  
O.V. Molochkova ◽  
O.В. Kovalev ◽  
O.V. Shamsheva ◽  
...  

During the COVID-19 pandemic, it is necessary to be wary of the development of pediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (PMIS) who have had a COVID-19 and had antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The aim of this work is to describe two clinical cases in children with antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 against the background of yersiniosis in a 12-year-old child and salmonellosis in a 3-year-old child, which proceeded with a pronounced inflammatory reaction and required a differential diagnosis with multisystem inflammatory syndrome. These bacterial infections proceeded with severe intoxication and fever, had a polymorphic clinical picture with exanthema syndrome, conjunctivitis/scleritis, swelling of the palms/feet, diarrhea and toxic kidney damage, with a pronounced systemic inflammatory reaction – high leukocytosis with neutrophilia and lymphopenia, a significant increase in C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, hypercoagulability (increased fibrinogen, D-dimer). Etiotropic antibiotic therapy led to recovery in both cases. Conclusions: During the COVID-19 pandemic, if antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 virus are detected in children in the presence of signs of systemic inflammation and corresponding symptoms, the alertness of doctors and a timely comprehensive examination are necessary to exclude bacterial infections, also characterized by signs of systemic inflammation, for the purpose of differential diagnosis of PMIS.


2021 ◽  
Vol 100 (6) ◽  
pp. 173-177
Author(s):  
E.G. Gumeniuk ◽  
◽  
M.E. Ukvalberg ◽  

A clinical case of neonatal listeriosis with an unfavorable outcome is presented. The first symptoms of the disease in a newborn appeared on the 3rd day, intrauterine infection was suspected on the 5th day. A evolving clinical picture with death on day 9 is described. The issues of the ongoing antibiotic therapy are discussed. The diagnosis of neonatal listeriosis was confirmed by the results of postmortem and morphological examination of the deceased newborn. The cause of his death was an early form of listeria infection (septicemia) with damage mainly to the lungs and liver. Specialists who provide care for pregnant women, newborns and children should be alert for listeria infection.


Antibiotics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 1452
Author(s):  
Schrader Nikolas ◽  
Riese Thorsten ◽  
Kurlbaum Max ◽  
Meybohm Patrick ◽  
Kredel Markus ◽  
...  

Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is increasingly relevant for an individualized antibiotic therapy and subsequently a necessary tool to reduce multidrug-resistant pathogens, especially in light of diminishing antimicrobial capabilities. Critical illness is associated with profound pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic alterations, which challenge dose finding and the application of particularly hydrophilic drugs such as β-lactam antibiotics. Methods: Implementation strategy, potential benefit, and practicability of the developed standard operating procedures were retrospectively analyzed from January to December 2020. Furthermore, the efficacy of the proposed dosing target of piperacillin in critically ill patients was evaluated. Results: In total, 160 patients received piperacillin/tazobactam therapy and were subsequently included in the study. Of them, 114 patients received piperacillin/tazobactam by continuous infusion and had at least one measurement of piperacillin serum level according to the standard operating procedure. In total, 271 measurements were performed with an average level of 79.0 ± 46.0 mg/L. Seventy-one piperacillin levels exceeded 100 mg/L and six levels were lower than 22.5 mg/L. The high-level and the low-level group differed significantly in infection laboratory parameters (CRP (mg/dL) 20.18 ± 11.71 vs. 5.75 ± 5.33) and renal function [glomerular filtration rate (mL/min/1.75 m2) 40.85 ± 26.74 vs. 120.50 ± 70.48]. Conclusions: Piperacillin levels are unpredictable in critically ill patients. TDM during piperacillin/tazobactam therapy is highly recommended for all patients. Although our implementation strategy was effective, further strategies implemented into the daily clinical workflow might support the health care staff and increase the clinicians’ alertness.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Bérénice Puech ◽  
Clémence Canivet ◽  
Laura Teysseyre ◽  
Guillaume Miltgen ◽  
Thomas Aujoulat ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is poorly described in the literature. However, it has been shown to be associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Probabilistic antibiotic therapy against S. maltophilia is often ineffective as this pathogen is resistant to many antibiotics. There is no consensus at present on the best therapeutic strategy to adopt (class of antibiotics, antibiotic combination, dosage, treatment duration). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of antibiotic therapy strategy on the prognosis of patients with VAP caused by S. maltophilia. Results This retrospective study evaluated all consecutive patients who developed VAP caused by S. maltophilia between 2010 and 2018 while hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a French university hospital in Reunion Island, in the Indian Ocean region. A total of 130 patients with a median Simplified Acute Physiology Score II of 58 [43–73] had VAP caused by S. maltophilia after a median duration of mechanical ventilation of 12 [5–18] days. Ventilator-associated pneumonia was polymicrobial in 44.6% of cases, and ICU mortality was 50.0%. After multivariate Cox regression analysis, the factors associated with increased ICU mortality were older age (hazard ratio (HR): 1.03; 95% CI 1.01–1.04, p = 0.001) and high Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score on the day of VAP onset (HR: 1.08; 95% CI 1.03–1.14, p = 0.002). Appropriate antibiotic therapy, and in particular trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole, was associated with decreased ICU mortality (HR: 0.42; 95% CI 0.24–0.74, p = 0.003) and decreased hospital mortality (HR: 0.47; 95% CI 0.28–0.79, p = 0.04). Time to start of appropriate antibiotic therapy, combination therapy, and duration of appropriate antibiotic therapy had no effect on ICU mortality (p > 0.5). Conclusion In our study, appropriate antibiotic therapy, and in particular trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole, was associated with decreased ICU and hospital mortality in patients with VAP caused by S. maltophilia.


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