antibiotic therapy
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2022 ◽  
Vol 102 (1) ◽  
pp. 159-167
Mehreen Kisat ◽  
Ben Zarzaur

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 948
Urszula Wójcik-Bojek ◽  
Barbara Różalska ◽  
Beata Sadowska

The main purpose of this review is to present justification for the urgent need to implement specific prophylaxis of invasive Staphylococcus aureus infections. We emphasize the difficulties in achieving this goal due to numerous S. aureus virulence factors important for the process of infection and the remarkable ability of these bacteria to avoid host defense mechanisms. We precede these considerations with a brief overview of the global necessitiy to intensify the use of vaccines against other pathogens as well, particularly in light of an impasse in antibiotic therapy. Finally, we point out global trends in research into modern technologies used in the field of molecular microbiology to develop new vaccines. We focus on the vaccines designed to fight the infections caused by S. aureus, which are often resistant to the majority of available therapeutic options.

2022 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Long H. Nguyen ◽  
Yin Cao ◽  
Nurgul Batyrbekova ◽  
Bjorn Roelstraete ◽  
Wenjie Ma ◽  

Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 78
Sebastian Böttger ◽  
Silke Zechel-Gran ◽  
Daniel Schmermund ◽  
Philipp Streckbein ◽  
Jan-Falco Wilbrand ◽  

Necrotizing fasciitis of the head and neck is a rare, very severe disease, which, in most cases, originates from odontogenic infections and frequently ends with the death of the patient. Rapid surgical intervention in combination with a preferably pathogen-specific antibiotic therapy can ensure patients’ survival. The question arises concerning which pathogens are causative for the necrotizing course of odontogenic inflammations. Experimental 16S-rRNA gene analysis with next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics was used to identify the microbiome of patients treated with an odontogenic necrotizing infection and compared to the result of the routine culture. Three of four patients survived the severe infection, and one patient died due to septic multiorgan failure. Microbiome determination revealed findings comparable to typical odontogenic abscesses. A specific pathogen which could be causative for the necrotizing course could not be identified. Early diagnosis and rapid surgical intervention and a preferably pathogen-specific antibiotic therapy, also covering the anaerobic spectrum of odontogenic infections, are the treatments of choice. The 16S-rRNA gene analysis detected significantly more bacteria than conventional methods; therefore, molecular methods should become a part of routine diagnostics in medical microbiology.

Gabriel Schuch Schulz ◽  
Felipe Schütz ◽  
Felipe Valentim Jung Spielmann ◽  
Lucas Uglione da Ros ◽  
Júlia Stüker de Almeida ◽  

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 62
Christopher Kiss ◽  
Declan Connoley ◽  
Kathryn Connelly ◽  
Kylie Horne ◽  
Tony Korman ◽  

Background: Little is known about the impacts at an individual level of long-term antibiotic consumption. We explored health outcomes of long-term antibiotic therapy prescribed to a cohort of patients to suppress infections deemed incurable. Methods: We conducted a 5-year longitudinal study of patients on long-term antibiotics at Monash Health, a metropolitan tertiary-level hospital network in Australia. Adults prescribed antibiotics for >12 months to suppress chronic infection or prevent recurrent infection were included. A retrospective review of medical records and a descriptive analysis was conducted. Results: Twenty-seven patients were followed up during the study period, from 29 patients originally identified in Monash Health in 2014. Seven of the 27 patients (26%) died from causes unrelated to the suppressed infection, six (22%) ceased long-term antibiotic therapy and two (7%) required treatment modification. Fifteen (56%) were colonised with multiresistant microorganisms, including vancomycin resistant Enterococci, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaciae. Conclusions: This work highlights the potential pitfalls of long-term antibiotic therapy, and the frailty of this cohort, who are often ineligible for definitive curative therapy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Johnny Michel ◽  
Luc-Marie Joly ◽  
Virginie Eve Lvovschi

Abstract Background Fusobacterium nucleatum is an anaerobic bacterium mainly responsible for acute or chronic infection of the ear, nose, and throat, potentially bacteremic with a risk of extraoral metastatic infection. Bacteremia occurs mainly in the elderly or in immunodeficient individuals, with high mortality. F. nucleatum is not the first cause of tonsillar infection in emergency departments, which are more often the consequence of a viral or streptococcal infection, but it is a risk factor for severe bacterial infection, especially in a viral pandemic context. Case presentation A 25-year-old European woman with no history presented to the emergency department with fever (38.9 °C), pharyngeal symptoms, intermittent headaches, and alteration of general condition. On examination, she presented odynophagia associated with moderate tonsillar hypertrophy, her neck was painful but flexible. A rapid diagnostic test for beta-hemolytic group streptococcus was negative. First biological analyses revealed an inflammatory syndrome with C-reactive protein of 76 mg/L. Procalcitonin was measured secondarily, and was 2.16 µg/L. Faced with discordant clinical and biological findings, a lumbar puncture was performed, which came back negative. At hour eight, hypotension was observed but corrected after filling with physiological serum. The patient was hospitalized for monitoring, based on a hypothesis of severe viral presentation. At hour 24, pyrexia confirmed this hypothesis. A spontaneous but transient improvement and no new hemodynamic event led to early discharge. At day three, she was rehospitalized for increased and continuous headaches, without hemodynamic severity. A broad-spectrum probabilistic antibiotic therapy of ceftriaxone and metronidazole was started due to first blood cultures positive for anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli, while waiting for identification of the pathogen. Three days later, F. nucleatum was identified. According to the microbiological results, antibiotic therapy was adapted with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, and no further complications were observed during clinical or complementary examinations. The final diagnosis was a F. nucleatum oropharyngeal infection complicated by bacteremia, without metastatic spread. Conclusion The etiologies of tonsillar infection are not limited to benign viruses or bacteria. These should not be overlooked in emergency medicine, especially when the clinical presentation is discrepant. A combination of early bacterial investigations as blood culture and close clinical monitoring is the only safe way to detect bacteremia, especially in immunocompetent patients.

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