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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Michael Butzner ◽  
Douglas L. Leslie ◽  
Yendelela Cuffee ◽  
Christopher S. Hollenbeak ◽  
Christopher Sciamanna ◽  

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common genetic heart disease in the US, with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 500. However, the extent to which obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is clinically recognized is not well-established. Therefore, the objective of this study was to estimate the annual prevalence of clinically diagnosed oHCM in the US from 2016 to 2018. Data from the MarketScan® database were queried from years 2016 to 2018 to identify patients with ≥1 claim of oHCM (International Statistical Classification of Disease and Related Health Problems diagnosis code: I42.1). Prevalence rates for oHCM were calculated and stratified by sex and age. In 2016, 4,612 unique patients had clinical diagnosis of oHCM, resulting in an estimated oHCM prevalence of 1.65 per 10,000. The prevalence of oHCM in males and females was 2.07 and 1.26, respectively. Prevalence of oHCM was highest in patients 55–64 years of age (4.82). Prevalence of oHCM generally increased with age, from 0.36 per 10,000 in those under 18 to 4.82 per 10,000 in those 55–65. Trends in prevalence of oHCM over time, including by sex and age group, remained similar and consistent in 2017 and 2018. The prevalence of oHCM was stable over the 3-year time period, including higher rates of oHCM in males and patients aged 55–64 years. These results suggest that the majority of privately insured patients with oHCM are undiagnosed in the US and reinforce the need for policies and research to improve the clinical identification of oHCM patients in the US.

2022 ◽  
Alessandra Ferrario ◽  
Fang Zhang ◽  
Dennis Ross-Degnan ◽  
J. Frank Wharam ◽  
Martha L. Twaddle ◽  

PURPOSE: Early palliative care, concomitant with disease-directed treatments, is recommended for all patients with advanced cancer. This study assesses population-level trends in palliative care use among a large cohort of commercially insured patients with metastatic cancer, applying an expanded definition of palliative care services based on claims data. METHODS: Using nationally representative commercial insurance claims data, we identified patients with metastatic breast, colorectal, lung, bronchus, trachea, ovarian, esophageal, pancreatic, and liver cancers and melanoma between 2001 and 2016. We assessed the annual proportions of these patients who received services specified as, or indicative of, palliative care. Using Cox proportional hazard models, we assessed whether the time from diagnosis of metastatic cancer to first encounter of palliative care differed by demographic characteristics, socioeconomic factors, or region. RESULTS: In 2016, 36% of patients with very poor prognosis cancers received a service specified as, or indicative of, palliative care versus 18% of those with poor prognosis cancers. Being diagnosed in more recent years (2009-2016 v 2001-2008: hazard ratio [HR], 1.8; P < .001); a diagnosis of metastatic esophagus, liver, lung, or pancreatic cancer, or melanoma ( v breast cancer, eg, esophagus HR, 1.89; P < .001); a greater number of comorbidities (American Hospital Formulary Service classes > 10 v 0: HR, 1.71; P < .001); and living in the Northeast (HR, 1.43; P < .001) or Midwest ( v South: HR, 1.39; P < .001) were the strongest predictors of shorter time from diagnosis to palliative care. CONCLUSION: Use of palliative care among commercially insured patients with advanced cancers has increased since 2001. However, even with an expanded definition of services specified as, or indicative of, palliative care, < 40% of patients with advanced cancers received palliative care in 2016.

2021 ◽  
pp. 105566562110698
Alexandra Junn ◽  
Jacob Dinis ◽  
Aaron Long ◽  
Sacha Hauc ◽  
Sarah Phillips ◽  

Objective Moderate to severe cases of deformational plagiocephaly (DP) may be treated with cranial remolding orthoses (CRO). This study investigated the socioeconomic disparities in access to care for CRO for DP correction. Design This was a retrospective review of medical records from a single CRO company in Connecticut from 2014 to 2020. Methods Demographic variables were collected from all patients. Univariable logistic regressions were used to identify differences for presenting age at consultation, whether CRO was pursued, and length of CRO treatment by insurance payor and household income quartile. Results Of the 5620 patients identified, 4100 (73.0%) received CRO, with 674 (12.0%) receiving a second helmet. Of those receiving CRO, 1536 (37.5%) had Medicaid insurance while 2558 (62.4%) were commercially insured. Patients on Medicaid were 1.30 times more likely to have delayed presentation ( P  =  .017), while patients from the lowest income quartile were 1.26 1.50 ( P < .001) and 1.58 ( P < .001) times more likely to have a delayed presentation relative to those in the highest and second-highest income quartiles, respectively. Patients in the highest and second-highest income quartiles were also 1.55 ( P < .001) and 1.45 ( P < .001) more likely, respectively, to receive CRO after consultation than those from the lowest income quartile. Conclusions Lower income and Medicaid-insured patients had delayed presentation for CRO consultation. Those from the lowest income quartile were more likely to never receive CRO than those from wealthier backgrounds. Low socioeconomic status and Medicaid insurance, which can have more restrictive coverage policies for CRO, may result in the delayed treatment of DP.

2021 ◽  
Hanno Riess ◽  
Albrecht Kretzschmar ◽  
Andreas Heinken ◽  
Damon Mohebbi ◽  
Melanie May ◽  

Abstract Objective This article aims to investigate the reality of anticoagulation treatment for cancer patients with thrombosis in the outpatient sector of Germany. Methods For the analysis period 2012 to 2015, anonymized data from 4.1 million statutory insured patients were analyzed. Cancer patients with incident thrombosis and an outpatient prescription of anticoagulant drugs were identified and evaluated for three subsequent quarters with regard to anticoagulant use. Results A total of 7,313 cancer patients with incident thrombosis (ICD-10: I80*) were evaluated. About, 90% of patients with thromboses were diagnosed and treated in the ambulatory sector. More than 80% of the prescriptions were issued by general practitioners. And 57% of patients were anticoagulated predominantly (>50% of the time) with different low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs), 24% predominantly with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), and 17% with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). Anticoagulants were prescribed for an average of 4.5 months. LMWH had a substantially longer prescription period (90–135 days) than VKA (53 days) or DOAC (47 days). Gastrointestinal bleeding in conjunction with hospitalization was documented in 1.76% of patients with a range of 1.3 to 3% for the different LMWHs. Conclusion The prescription practice documented by this representative and comprehensive evaluation demonstrates an anticoagulation duration in accordance with the guidelines, although the choice of the respective anticoagulant was often not in compliance with the contemporary label or guidelines.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0260921
Patricia K. Palmer ◽  
Kathryn Wehrmeyer ◽  
Marianne P. Florian ◽  
Charles Raison ◽  
Ellen Idler ◽  

Anxiety is prevalent among hospital inpatients and it has harmful effects on patient well-being and clinical outcomes. We aimed to characterize the sources of hospital distress and their relationship to anxiety. We conducted a cross-sectional study of inpatients (n = 271) throughout two Southeastern U.S. metropolitan hospitals. Participants completed a survey to identify which of 38 stressors they were experiencing. They also completed the State Trait Anxiety Inventory six-item scale. We evaluated the prevalence of stressors, their distribution, and crude association with anxiety. We then used multivariate logistic regression to estimate the association between stressors and clinically relevant anxiety, with and without adjusting for demographic variables. We used factor analysis to describe the interrelationships among stressors and to examine whether groups of stressors tend to be endorsed together. The following stressors were highly endorsed across all unit types: pain, being unable to sleep, feelings of frustration, being overwhelmed, and fear of the unknown. Stressors relating to isolation/meaninglessness and fear/frustration tend to be endorsed together. Stressors were more frequently endorsed by younger, female, and uninsured or Medicaid-insured patients and being female and uninsured was associated with anxiety in bivariate analysis. After controlling for the sources of distress in multivariate linear analysis, gender and insurance status no longer predicted anxiety. Feelings of isolation, lack of meaning, frustration, fear, or a loss of control were predictive. Study results suggest that multiple stressors are prevalent among hospital inpatients and relatively consistent across hospital unit and disease type. Interventions for anxiety or emotional/spiritual burden may be best targeted to stressors that are frequently endorsed or associated with anxiety, especially among young and female patients.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Arash Harzand ◽  
Aaron C. Weidman ◽  
Kenneth R. Rayl ◽  
Adelanwa Adesanya ◽  
Ericka Holmstrand ◽  

Background: Participation in cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is recommended for all patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) following hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome or stenting. Yet, few patients participate due to the inconvenience and high cost of attending a facility-based program, factors which have been magnified during the ongoing COVID pandemic. Based on a retrospective analysis of CR utilization and cost in a third-party payer environment, we forecasted the potential clinical and economic benefits of delivering a home-based, virtual CR program, with the goal of guiding future implementation efforts to expand CR access.Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study using insurance claims data from a large, third-party payer in the state of Pennsylvania. Primary diagnostic and procedural codes were used to identify patients admitted for CAD between October 1, 2016, and September 30, 2018. Rates of enrollment in facility-based CR, as well as all-cause and cardiovascular hospital readmission and associated costs, were calculated during the 12-months following discharge.Results: Only 37% of the 7,264 identified eligible insured patients enrolled in a facility-based CR program within 12 months, incurring a mean delivery cost of $2,922 per participating patient. The 12-month all-cause readmission rate among these patients was 24%, compared to 31% among patients who did not participate in CR. Furthermore, among those readmitted, CR patients were readmitted less frequently than non-CR patients within this time period. The average per-patient cost from hospital readmissions was $30,814 per annum. Based on these trends, we forecasted that adoption of virtual CR among patients who previously declined CR would result in an annual cost savings between $1 and $9 million in the third-party healthcare system from a combination of increased overall CR enrollment and fewer hospital readmissions among new HBCR participants.Conclusions: Among insured patients eligible for CR in a third-party payer environment, implementation of a home-based virtual CR program is forecasted to yield significant cost savings through a combination of increased CR participation and a consequent reduction in downstream healthcare utilization.

Kathy C. Matthews ◽  
Andrew S. Quinn ◽  
Stephen T. Chasen

Background Prior cesarean delivery is a well-known risk factor for placenta accreta spectrum disorders. While primary cesarean section is unavoidable in some patients, in others it may not be clearly indicated. Objective The aim of the study is to determine the proportion of patients with placenta accreta spectrum who had a potentially preventable primary cesarean section and to identify factors associated with preventable placenta accreta spectrum. Study Design This was a single-center retrospective cohort study of women with pathology-confirmed placenta accreta spectrum from 2007 to 2019. Primary cesarean sections were categorized as potentially preventable or unpreventable based on practice consistent with the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the Society for Maternal–Fetal Medicine “Safe Prevention of the Primary Cesarean Delivery” recommendations. Fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney U-test were used for comparison with p <0.05 considered statistically significant. Results Seventy-two patients had pathology-confirmed placenta accreta spectrum over the course of the study period, 15 (20.8%) of whom required a cesarean hysterectomy at the time of primary cesarean section. Fifty-seven patients had placenta accreta spectrum in a pregnancy following their primary cesarean section. Of these, 29 (50.9%) were considered potentially preventable. Most were performed without clear medical indication (37.9%) or for fetal malpresentation without attempted external cephalic version (37.9%). The remainder were due to arrest of labor not meeting criteria (17.2%) and abnormal or indeterminate fetal heart patterns with documented recovery (6.9%). Of the 11 patients without clear medical indication for primary cesarean section, eight (72.7%) were patient-choice cesarean sections and three (27.3%) were for suspected fetal macrosomia with estimated fetal weights not meeting criteria for cesarean delivery. There was no difference in the incidence of potentially preventable primary cesarean sections before and after the ACOG-SMFM “Safe Prevention of the Primary Cesarean Delivery” publication (48.8 vs. 57.1%, p = 0.59). Privately insured patients were more likely to have a potentially preventable primary cesarean section than those with Medicaid (62.5 vs. 23.5%, p = 0.008) and were more likely to have a primary cesarean section without clear medical indication (81.8 vs. 18.2%, p = 0.004). Conclusion Many patients with placenta accreta spectrum had a potentially preventable primary cesarean section. Most were performed without clear medical indication or for malpresentation without attempted external cephalic version, suggesting that at least a subset of placenta accreta spectrum cases may be preventable. This was particularly true for privately insured patients. These findings call for continued investigation of potentially preventable primary cesarean sections with initiatives to address concerns at the patient, provider, and hospital level. Key Points

2021 ◽  
pp. ijgc-2021-002949
Roni Nitecki ◽  
Shuangshuang Fu ◽  
Kirsten A Jorgensen ◽  
Lauren Gray ◽  
Carolyn Lefkowits ◽  

BackgroundAdverse employment outcomes pose significant challenges for cancer patients, though data patients with gynecologic cancers are sparse. We evaluated the decrease in employment among patients in the year following the diagnosis of a gynecologic cancer compared with population-based controls.MethodsPatients aged 18 to 63 years old, who were diagnosed with cervical, ovarian, endometrial, or vulvar cancer between January 2009 and December 2017, were identified in Truven MarketScan, an insurance claims database of commercially insured patients in the USA. Patients working full- or part-time at diagnosis were matched to population-based controls in a 1:4 ratio via propensity score. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the risk of employment disruption in patients versus controls.ResultsWe identified 7446 women with gynecologic cancers (191 vulvar, 941 cervical, 1839 ovarian, and 4475 endometrial). Although most continued working following diagnosis, 1579 (21.2%) changed from full- or part-time employment to long-term disability, retirement, or work cessation. In an adjusted model, older age, the presence of comorbidities, and treatment with surgery plus adjuvant therapy versus surgery alone were associated with an increased risk of employment disruption (p<0.0003, p=0.01, and p<0.0001, respectively) among patients with gynecologic cancer. In the propensity-matched cohort, patients with gynecologic cancers had over a threefold increased risk of employment disruption relative to controls (HR 3.67, 95% CI 3.44 to 3.95).ConclusionApproximately 21% of patients with gynecologic cancer experienced a decrease in employment in the year after diagnosis. These patients had over a threefold increased risk of employment disruption compared with controls.

2021 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Grace F. Chao ◽  
Jie Yang ◽  
Jyothi R. Thumma ◽  
Karan R. Chhabra ◽  
David E. Arterburn ◽  

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