delayed presentation
Recently Published Documents





BMC Neurology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Nigul Ilves ◽  
Silva Lõo ◽  
Norman Ilves ◽  
Rael Laugesaar ◽  
Dagmar Loorits ◽  

Abstract Background Perinatal stroke (PS) is the leading cause of hemiparetic cerebral palsy (CP). Involvement of the corticospinal tract on neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is predictive of motor outcome in patients with hemiparetic CP. However, early MRI is not available in patients with delayed presentation of PS and prediction of hemiparesis severity remains a challenge. Aims To evaluate the volumes of the basal ganglia, amygdala, thalamus, and hippocampus following perinatal ischemic stroke in relation to hand motor function in children with a history of PS and to compare the volumes of subcortical structures in children with PS and in healthy controls. Methods Term born PS children with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) (n = 16) and with periventricular venous infarction (PVI) (n = 18) were recruited from the Estonian Pediatric Stroke Database. MRI was accuired during childhood (4-18 years) and the volumes of the basal ganglia, thalamus, amygdala and hippocampus were calculated. The results of stroke patients were compared to the results of 42 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Affected hand function was evaluated by Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA) and classified by the Manual Ability Classification System (MACS). Results Compared to the control group, children with AIS had smaller volumes of the ipsi- and contralesional thalami, ipsilesional globus pallidus, nucleus accumbens and hippocampus (p < 0.005). Affected hand function in children with AIS was correlated with smaller ipsilesional thalamus, putamen, globus pallidus, hippocampus, amygdala and contralesional amygdala (r > 0.5; p < 0.05) and larger volume of the contralesional putamen and hippocampus (r < − 0.5; p < 0.05). In children with PVI, size of the ipsilesional caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, thalamus (p ≤ 0.001) and hippocampus (p < 0.03) was smaller compared to controls. Smaller volume of the ipsi- and contralesional thalami and ipsilesional caudate nucleus was correlated with affected hand function (r > 0.55; p < 0.05) in children with PVI. Conclusions Smaller volume of ipsilesional thalamus was associated with poor affected hand function regardless of the perinatal stroke subtype. The pattern of correlation between hand function and volume differences in the other subcortical structures varied between children with PVI and AIS. Evaluation of subcortical structures is important in predicting motor outcome following perinatal stroke.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-4
C. R. Naotunna ◽  
D. N. Siriwardana ◽  
B. C. Lakmini ◽  
M. Samarasinghe ◽  
N. Atapattu

Leydig cell tumors, most often benign, are a rare cause of isosexual gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty in boys due to secretion of testosterone. Very rarely do these tumors produce estrogen, causing gynecomastia. Testicular sparing surgery is the mainstay of treatment currently although radical orchidectomy was the choice in the past. Following surgery, clinical signs improve along with a revision of biochemical changes. Occasionally, it has been reported few children are progressed to gonadotropin-dependent precocious puberty (GDPP) after initial clinical and biochemical recovery. Gonadotropin receptor analogs have been successful on them to halt the progression of puberty, and growth hormone administration has been used to optimize the adult height. Here, we report a case of a 10-year-old boy who presented very late due to failure in recognition of features of puberty due to a Leydig cell tumor. Even though he underwent successful radical orchidectomy, just within 1 month following surgery, he entered GDPP in contrast to the published cases where it was earliest detected at 3 months.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Perceus Mody ◽  
Paul Wada ◽  
Karen C. Bloch ◽  
Michail S. Lionakis ◽  
Katie D. White ◽  

Abstract Background Fungal brain abscesses in immunocompetent patients are exceedingly rare. Cladophialophora bantiana is the most common cause of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis, a dematiaceous mold. Radiological presentation can mimic other disease states, with diagnosis through surgical aspiration and growth of melanized fungi in culture. Exposure is often unknown, with delayed presentation and diagnosis. Case presentation We present a case of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis in a 24-year-old with no underlying conditions or risk factors for disease. He developed upper respiratory symptoms, fevers, and headaches over the course of 2 months. On admission, he underwent brain MRI which demonstrated three parietotemporal rim-enhancing lesions. Stereotactic aspiration revealed a dematiaceous mold on staining and the patient was treated with liposomal amphotericin B, 5-flucytosine, and posaconazole prior to culture confirmation. He ultimately required surgical excision of the brain abscesses and prolonged course of antifungal therapy, with clinical improvement. Conclusions Culture remains the gold standard for diagnosis of infection. Distinct microbiologic findings can aid in identification and guide antimicrobial therapy. While little guidance exists on treatment, patients have had favorable outcomes with surgery and combination antifungal therapy. In improving awareness, clinicians may accurately diagnose disease and initiate appropriate therapy in a more timely manner.

2021 ◽  
pp. 105566562110698
Alexandra Junn ◽  
Jacob Dinis ◽  
Aaron Long ◽  
Sacha Hauc ◽  
Sarah Phillips ◽  

Objective Moderate to severe cases of deformational plagiocephaly (DP) may be treated with cranial remolding orthoses (CRO). This study investigated the socioeconomic disparities in access to care for CRO for DP correction. Design This was a retrospective review of medical records from a single CRO company in Connecticut from 2014 to 2020. Methods Demographic variables were collected from all patients. Univariable logistic regressions were used to identify differences for presenting age at consultation, whether CRO was pursued, and length of CRO treatment by insurance payor and household income quartile. Results Of the 5620 patients identified, 4100 (73.0%) received CRO, with 674 (12.0%) receiving a second helmet. Of those receiving CRO, 1536 (37.5%) had Medicaid insurance while 2558 (62.4%) were commercially insured. Patients on Medicaid were 1.30 times more likely to have delayed presentation ( P  =  .017), while patients from the lowest income quartile were 1.26 1.50 ( P < .001) and 1.58 ( P < .001) times more likely to have a delayed presentation relative to those in the highest and second-highest income quartiles, respectively. Patients in the highest and second-highest income quartiles were also 1.55 ( P < .001) and 1.45 ( P < .001) more likely, respectively, to receive CRO after consultation than those from the lowest income quartile. Conclusions Lower income and Medicaid-insured patients had delayed presentation for CRO consultation. Those from the lowest income quartile were more likely to never receive CRO than those from wealthier backgrounds. Low socioeconomic status and Medicaid insurance, which can have more restrictive coverage policies for CRO, may result in the delayed treatment of DP.

Hand ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 155894472110632
Colin J. Carroll ◽  
Gonzalo Sumarriva ◽  
Lacey Lavie ◽  
Christopher Sugalski ◽  
Leslie Sisco-Wise ◽  

Catfish have the ability to inflict stings on their victims through spines located on their dorsal and pectoral fins. The stings of catfish can release toxins that have dermonecrotic, edemogenic, and vasospastic factors. In this case, a 56-year-old man suffered a catfish sting to his right thumb, which resulted in acute hand compartment syndrome and resultant hand fasciotomies. His hospital course was complicated by multiple irrigation and debridements, finger amputations, hand fluid cultures positive for Vibrio damsela, and eventual wrist disarticulation. The combination of envenomation, infection, and delayed presentation for treatment ultimately led to a hand amputation.

2021 ◽  
pp. 000313482110679
William T. Head ◽  
Raphael H Parrado ◽  
Robert A Cina

Background Appendicitis is the most common abdominal surgical emergency in children. With the rise of the Coronavirus-19 pandemic, quarantine measures have been enforced to limit the viral transmission of this disease. The purpose of this study was to identify differences in the clinical presentation and outcomes of pediatric acute appendicitis during the Coronavirus-19 pandemic. Methods A single-institution retrospective assessment of all pediatric patients (<18 years old) with acute appendicitis from December 2019 to June 2020 was performed at a tertiary care children’s hospital. Patients were divided into two groups: (1) the Pre-COVID group presented on or before March 15, 2020, and (2) the COVID group presented after March 15, 2020. Demographic, preoperative, and clinical outcomes data were analyzed. Results 45 patients were included with a median age of 13 years [IQR 9.9 - 16.2] and 35 males (78%). 28 patients were in the Pre-COVID group (62%) and 17 in the COVID group (38%). There were no differences in demographics or use of diagnostic imaging. The COVID group did have a significantly delayed presentation from symptom onset (36 vs 24 hours, P < .05), higher Pediatric Appendicitis Scores (8 vs 6, P = .003), and longer hospital stays (2.2 vs 1.3 days, P = .04). There were no significant differences for rates of re-admission, re-operation, surgical site infection, perforation, or abscess formation. Conclusion During the Coronavirus-19 pandemic, the incidence of pediatric acute appendicitis was approximately 40% lower. These children presented in a delayed fashion with longer hospital stays. No differences were noted for postoperative complications.

2021 ◽  
Vol 50 (1) ◽  
pp. 40-40
Jonathan Boyd ◽  
Dustin Hipp ◽  
Julie Stark ◽  
Bevan Londergan ◽  
Nhue Do

Tushar Nagtode ◽  
Y. R. Lamture ◽  
Venktesh Rewale ◽  
P. Tanveer ◽  
Aditya Mundada

Background: Incidence of perforation on posterior wall of stomach is rare throughout world; its occurrence has not been found till now in literature of central India. diffuse symptoms with delayed presentation to health center and poorly skilled faculty with facilities make a way to raise in total number of deaths associated with posterior gastric perforation. Objective: To report a rare case of posterior gastric perforation at a tertiary health care center in Central India, which would be first to be documented. Case Presentation: A 74-year-old male patient was referred to Department of General Surgery, AVBRH, with chief complaint of acute abdominal pain for two days. He had a history of alcohol consumtion which was stopped 2 years back A moderately distended, distinctly tender abdomen accompanied by guarding, rigidity and excluded bowel sounds was unveiled by abdominal examination. Patient has been resuscitated with intravenous fluids, antibiotics and analgesics. Consequently, an emergency exploratory laparotomy revealed a significant collection of purulent peritoneal fluid, 1x1 cm sized perforation on posterior wall of stomach. Perforation was repaired and thus patient recovered in a satisfactory way. Conclusion: And since posterior gastric perforation is extremely uncommon and expected to worsen, associated with increased morbidity and mortality leading to missed presence, this case report indicates that evaluation of patients with gastric perforation, identify risk factors and ability to repair perforations right away along with resuscitation will greatly enhance clinical outcome.

Cureus ◽  
2021 ◽  
Abbas H Alsuwayj ◽  
Ali H Al Nasser ◽  
Abdulaziz M Al Dehailan ◽  
Abdullah Z Alburayman ◽  
Khalid A Alhuwaiji ◽  

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document