deficiency anemia
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2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (4) ◽  
pp. 10-15
Ira Febriyanti ◽  
Saifuddin Sirajuddi ◽  
Hasnawati Amqam

Background: Nutrition of pregnant women is very influential on fetal growth, one of which is iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency increases in pregnant women with increasing age in pregnancy. Significantly low intake of nutrients will make pregnant women experience Chronic Energy Deficiency. The nutritional content of tempeh can be used to meet the nutritional needs of pregnant women. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of giving steamed tempeh to the increase in hemoglobin and Body Weight levels in pregnant women at the Kalar-kalar Health Center, Aru Islands Regency. Method: This type of research is a quasi-experimental with a pre-posttest control group design. The intervention was given to the respondents as many as 24 people with 12 people in the control group and 12 people in the treatment group. Sampling purposive sampling. Subjects were taken from two villages in the working area of ​​the Kalar-Kalar Public Health Center which have relatively the same geography and socioeconomic status and only pregnant women with Hb <11 G/dL were selected. The form of treatment was giving 100 G of steamed tempeh 2 times a week for 30 days while the control group was given biscuits for pregnant women 2 times per week 100 G. Data analysis used univariate and bivariate analysis with paired T test and Mann Whitney. Results: Mann Whitney test results of the effect of steamed tempeh on weight gain in the treatment group obtained a p-value of 0.050 (p=0.05). Differences in hemoglobin levels in anemic pregnant women with a p-value of 0.018 (<0.05) with a mean difference of 0.42 G/dL in the pre-posttest treatment group and the control group with a p-value of 0.217 (<0.05) with a mean difference of 0.21 G/d dL. Conclusion: There is an effect of giving steamed tempeh to increase hemoglobin and body weight in pregnant women. Keywords: Anemia, Pregnant women, Hemoglobin, Body Weight, Tempeh.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 81-83
Durga BC

Introduction: Anemia in pregnancy is major health issue of developing countries responsible for adverse maternal and fetal outcome. According to World health organization pregnant women with hemoglobin level less than 11 gm/dl in first trimester and less than 10.5gm/dl in second and third trimester are considered to be anemic. Iron deficiency anemia is common during pregnancy followed by megaloblastic anemia. Aims: To find out the prevalence of anemia during pregnancy. To correlate the maternal and fetal complications associated with anemia during pregnancy. Methods: This is a prospective hospital based study done at department of obstetrics and gynecology Nepalgunj Medical College from July 2020 to January 2021. All pregnant women with hemoglobin level <11 gm/dl were enrolled in the study. Data were collected from antenatal clinic and biochemistry laboratory. Results: In this study maximum participants were of age group 20-25 consisting of 38.5%. Anemia was more common in multiparous i.e. 60% as compared to primipara i.e. 40%. In this study maximum participant had vaginal delivery (57%) followed by LSCS (29%) then instrumental delivery (14%). These ladies had complications like postpartum hemorrhage (27.7%), preterm labor (16.9%), pregnancy induced hypertension (9.2%). similarly 10.8% had sepsis and 20% had no complications. About 23.1% babies delivered by anemic ladies required neonatal intensive care.  Intrauterine growth restriction was seen in 12.3%, preterm birth in 10.3% and 53.8% babies had no complications. Conclusion: The prevalence of anemia during pregnancy is high leading to adverse maternal and fetal outcome.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 117-124
Ali Dani Sheikh ◽  
V. Babienko ◽  
E. Kobolev

The aim of the study is to assess the impact of latent iron deficiency on students' cognitive abilities. Material and methods. The study was conducted during 2018-2021 at the Department of Hygiene and Medical Ecology of Odessa National Medical University. A survey of 188 medical students aged 18-20 was conducted using a screening survey. Estimation of the qualitative content of iron compounds in the diet was performed by a calculation method using the USDA / FDA database. Persons with probable iron deficiency were examined for hemoglobin, erythrocytes, hematocrit (general clinical blood test) and serum ferritin. Additionally, the cognitive abilities of people with latent iron deficiency were assessed using MoSA, TMT, GPB, Schulte tables and TAS-20. As a control, 30 students aged 18-20 years who showed no signs of latent or overt iron deficiency were interviewed. Statistical processing was performed by methods of variance and correlation anamnesis using the software Statistica 13.0 (TIBCO, USA). Results. When evaluating diets, probable iron deficiency was identified in 69 (36.7%) students surveyed. A significant number of students reported signs of iron deficiency, namely general weakness (27 or 14.4%), increased fatigue (30 cases or 15.9%), pale skin and mucous membranes (6 or 3.2%), drowsiness (8 or 4.3%), dry mouth (11 or 5.9%), brittle hair (4 or 2.1%), bleeding gums (3 or 1.6%). In isolated cases, hyposmia, dysgeusia and dysphagia have occurred. Probable iron deficiency was found at the previous stage of the study in 29 (15.4%) patients, they subsequently underwent verifying laboratory tests. In the analysis of the obtained data, the diagnosis of mild iron deficiency anemia was confirmed in 2 (6.9%) girls. Latent iron deficiency was identified in 16 (55.2%) students, among whom girls predominated (10 people or 62.5%). Subsequent studies have shown that a significant number of students with latent iron deficiency showed moderate signs of decreased cognition. Conclusions: 1. The frequency of latent iron deficiency in the surveyed contingent was 8.5%, with an absolute predominance of girls (62.5%). 2. Latent iron deficiency in student youth can be manifested by cognitive impairment, and therefore affect academic performance. 3. The most pronounced correlation was found for ferritin content and severity of alexithymia (r = -0.61).

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (3) ◽  
pp. 1455-1459
Widodo Adi Prasetyo ◽  
Armen Ahmad

Background. Ancylostomiasis is an infection caused by hookworms. It is estimated that hookworms infect 1.2 billion people worldwide and cause higher morbidity than other types, mainly due to iron deficiency anemia. Hookworm infection increases with age. The main clinical manifestations are abdominal pain, features of iron deficiency anemia and hypoproteinemia. Diagnosis is based on the finding of characteristic eggs in the stool. Case presentation. A 67-year-old female patient had been administered into the Internal Medicine Ward of Dr. M. Djamil Padang Hospital with the main complaint of weakness, fatigue, and lethargy which had increased since 3 days before being admitted to the hospital. The patient also had complaints of pale skin, fever, heartburn, decreased appetite and weight loss. The patient was admitted to the hospital with awareness of compost mentis, cooperative, and his general condition appeared to be moderately ill, blood pressure 130/90 mmHg, pulse rate 104 x/minute, regular pulse, adequate filling, respiratory rate 22 x/minute, temperature 37.8 C. On physical examination, the conjunctiva of the pantient’s eyes were anemic. Laboratory examination revealed Hemoglobin 4 g/dl, Hematocrit 16%, MCV/MCH/MCHC 62fl/15pg/25g/dL, Reticulocytes 0.5%, SI/TIBC 22/315 mg/dL, Ferritin 8.5 ng/mL, and peripheral blood smear showing severe hypochromic microcytic anemia and relative eosinofilia. Ancylostoma duodenale worm eggs were found on routine stool examination. Final diagnosis was Severe microcytic hypochromic anemia caused by an iron deficiency and Ancylostomiasis. Severe microcytic hypochromic anemia caused by iron deficiency and ancylostomiasis was established based on the patient’s history, physical examination and laboratory investigations. Conclusions. Hookworms infect many people worldwide and cause high morbidity, mainly due to iron deficiency anemia. The highest prevalence is found in the tropics and subtropics, including Indonesia. The main clinical manifestations are abdominal pain, features of iron deficiency anemia and hypoproteinemia. Diagnosis is based on the finding of characteristic eggs in the stool. Albendazole 400 mg single dose resulted in 80% cure and a dose of 200 mg/day for 3 days gave 100% cure. Treatment of anemia is by administering ferrous sulfate or ferrous gluconate orally 200 mg three times a day and continued for up to 3 months after normal hemoglobin levels are achieved to maintain iron stores.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Yan Ma ◽  
Yanbo Ma ◽  
Xiuqing Zhang ◽  
Xuejing Wang ◽  
Zhigang Sun

Objective. The purpose was to evaluate the treatment effect of iron proteinsuccinylate oral solution combined with vitamin A and D drops on children with nutritional iron deficiency anemia. Methods. 124 children treated in the outpatient department of our hospital from January 2017 to January 2020 were selected as the study subjects. They were randomly divided into control and observation two groups. The control group was treated with iron proteinsuccinylate oral solution (1.5 mL/kg) in the morning and evening, respectively. The observation group received adjuvant treatment with oral vitamin A and D drops based on the treatment of the control group. The treatment effect of proteinsuccinylate oral solution combined with vitamin A and D drops was evaluated by the serum iron (SI), serum ferritin (SF), and transferrin (TRF) levels, the values of CD3+, CD4+, and CD4+/CD8+, and other evaluation indicators. Results. After treatment, the SI and SF levels of children in both groups significantly increased ( P < 0.01 ) while the TRF level significantly decreased ( P < 0.01 ), and the SI and SF levels in the observation group increased more significantly, and the TRF level decreased more significantly compared with those in the control group ( P < 0.01 ). After treatment, the values of CD3+, CD4+, and CD4+/CD8+ of children in both groups significantly increased compared with those before treatment ( P < 0.01 ), and the values of CD3+, CD4+, and CD4+/CD8+ increased more significantly in the observation group compared with those in the control group ( P < 0.01 ). In addition, the evaluation results of treatment effect showed that the markedly effective rate in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group ( P < 0.01 ). Conclusion. Iron proteinsuccinylate oral solution combined with vitamin A and D drops can better improve the anemia symptoms in children, with high application value.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 277
Ali Sungkar ◽  
Saptawati Bardosono ◽  
Rima Irwinda ◽  
Nurul R. M. Manikam ◽  
Rini Sekartini ◽  

Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) has a long-term impact on each life stage and remains worldwide a major public health problem. Eleven experts were invited to participate in a virtual meeting to discuss the present situation and the available intervention to prevent iron deficiency anemia in Indonesia. The experts consisted of obstetric gynecologists, pediatricians, nutritionists, midwives, a clinical psychologist, and an education expert. Existing interventions focus attention on preconception and early childhood stages. Considering the inter-generational effects of IDA, we call attention to expanding strategies to all life stages through integrating political, educational, and nutritional interventions. The experts agreed that health education and nutritional intervention should be started since adolescence. Further research to explore the effectiveness of these interventions would be important for many regions in the world. The outcome of this Indonesian consensus is applicable worldwide.

2022 ◽  
Michael Auerbach ◽  
Maureen M. Achebe ◽  
Lars L. Thomsen ◽  
Richard J. Derman

Abstract Purpose Iron deficiency is common following bariatric surgery, and treatment with intravenous iron is often required. This post hoc analysis of data from two randomized, open-label, multicenter trials evaluated the efficacy and safety of ferric derisomaltose (FDI; formerly iron isomaltoside 1000) versus iron sucrose (IS) over 4 weeks in adults with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) resulting from prior bariatric surgery. Materials and methods Data were pooled for participants who received FDI or IS in the PROVIDE or FERWON-IDA trials for the treatment of IDA post bariatric surgery. Efficacy outcomes included changes in hemoglobin (Hb) and iron parameters; safety outcomes included the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), serious or severe hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs), and hypophosphatemia. Results The analysis included 159 patients. Mean (standard deviation) cumulative iron doses were 1199 (± 347) mg for FDI and 937 (± 209) mg for IS. Compared with IS, FDI resulted in a faster and more pronounced Hb response, and a higher proportion of responders (Hb level increase ≥ 2 g/dL from baseline) at all time points. The incidence of ADRs was similar with FDI and IS (15.1% and 18.2%, respectively), with no serious ADRs or serious or severe HSRs reported. The incidence of hypophosphatemia was low and similar in both treatment groups, with no cases of severe hypophosphatemia observed. Conclusions In patients with IDA resulting from bariatric surgery, FDI produced a faster and more pronounced Hb response than IS. Both FDI and IS were well tolerated. Graphical abstract

Yasmen A. Mohamed ◽  
Mohamed Hussien Meabed ◽  
Khadiga Mohamed Abougaba ◽  
Fatma Ali Sayed ◽  
Nermeen N. Welson ◽  

Abstract Background The uncontrolled long-term exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides is hazardous to health especially in children. The present study aimed to determine the acetyl cholinesterase enzyme serum level in exposure and non-exposure children groups, to explore other clinical and laboratory outcomes of organophosphorus pesticides exposure on children living in rural versus urban areas, and to establish the hemotoxic alterations as a result of the exposure. A ninety clinically free children—forty-five from rural areas and forty-five children from urban areas—were assessed, and the clinical and laboratory effects of their exposure to organophosphorus pesticides were evaluated via measuring acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) enzyme activity. Results Significant differences between the two areas of residence were found in weight %, visits to the field, eating vegetables without washing, presence of insecticides at home, and previous organophosphorus pesticides toxicity of the patients and their families. Eye, respiratory, cardiac, nervous, muscle, gastrointestinal, and urinary symptoms were more common in the rural residence group which shows more exposure to pesticides. The mean level of the AChE enzyme was less in the rural residence group than the other one, and it showed significant correlations with the anemia indicating parameters. A weak positive correlation was found with platelets count. Conclusions Chronic organophosphorus toxicity that is more prevalent in rural areas may result in many transient neglected symptoms, unrevealed acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) enzyme deficiency, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Acetyl cholinesterase enzyme serum level can be used as a screening test for organophosphorus pesticides exposure.

Blood ◽  
2022 ◽  
Nupur K Das ◽  
Chesta Jain ◽  
Amanda D. Sankar ◽  
Andrew J Schwartz ◽  
Naiara Santana-Codina ◽  

Intestinal iron absorption is activated during increased systemic iron demand. The best-studied example is iron-deficiency anemia, which increases intestinal iron absorption. Interestingly, the intestinal response to anemia is very similar to that of iron overload disorders, as both the conditions activate a transcriptional program that leads to a hyperabsorption of iron via the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)2a. However, pathways to selectively target intestinal-mediated iron overload remain unknown. Nuclear receptor co-activator 4 (NCOA4) is a critical cargo receptor for autophagic breakdown of ferritin (FTN) and subsequent release of iron, in a process termed ferritinophagy. Our work demonstrates that NCOA4-mediated intestinal ferritinophagy is integrated to systemic iron demand via HIF2a. To demonstrate the importance of intestinal HIF2a/ferritinophagy axis in systemic iron homeostasis, whole body and intestine-specific NCOA4-null mouse lines were generated and assessed. These analyses revealed that the intestinal and systemic response to iron deficiency was not altered following disruption of intestinal NCOA4. However, in a mouse model of hemochromatosis, ablation of intestinal NCOA4 was protective against iron overload. Therefore, NCOA4 can be selectively targeted for the management of iron overload disorders without disrupting the physiological processes involved in the response to systemic iron deficiency.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 224
Kaitlyn L. I. Samson ◽  
Jordie A. J. Fischer ◽  
Marion L. Roche

In adolescents, iron-deficiency anemia is the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years lost. The World Health Organization recommends delivering iron supplementation through school-based platforms, requiring partnerships with the education sector. This anemia-reduction intervention is valued for the perceived benefits of improved learning and school performance. This article aims to systematically review the available evidence on the relationship between iron status and anemia and impacts of iron interventions on cognitive and academic performance in adolescents. Fifty studies were included: n = 26 cross-sectional and n = 24 iron-containing interventions. Our review suggests that iron status and anemia may be associated with academic performance in some contexts and that iron supplementation during adolescence may improve school performance, attention, and concentration. However, nearly all supplementation trials were judged to have moderate or high risk of bias. We did not find evidence suggesting that iron status and anemia influenced or were associated with attention, intelligence, nor memory in adolescents. Further, iron supplementation did not improve memory and recall or intelligence. Overall, more high-quality research is needed to guide programmers and policy makers to understand the relationships between anemia and educational performance and the potential impacts of iron interventions, which effectively reduce anemia, on adolescents’ learning and school performance.

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