In this work, a multi-phase cellular automaton (CA) model is extended for the quantitative simulation of peritectic phase transition. First, the effects of cooling rate/supersaturation and temperature on the peritectic transformation kinetics in Fe-C alloys are investigated by utilizing the present CA model. The CA simulations show that supersaturations in the parent phases (liquid and δ-ferrite) increase the L/γ interface growth velocity remarkably, but tinily for the δ/γ interface migration velocity. There exists a transition supersaturation for isothermal transformations, at which the growth rates of the two interfaces are equal. The transition supersaturation is found to increase with decreasing temperature. Microstructural evolution at different cooling rates during peritectic transformation is simulated using the experimental conditions. At low cooling rates, the δ/γ interface propagates at a higher velocity than the L/γ interface. At high cooling rates, however, the γ-phase grows more into the L-phase with a cellular morphology. Then, the proposed CA model is applied to simulate the microstructural evolution during peritectic reaction. It is observed that the γ-phase propagates along the L/δ interface and finally encircles the δ-phase. Meanwhile, the intervenient γ-phase grows in thickness through peritectic transformation. The CA simulations are compared reasonably well with the experimental data and analytical calculations.
In this paper, the fundamental microstructure evolution of M2 high speed steel was investigated during semi-solid controlled cooling and conventional cooling, respectively. Semi-solid controlled cooling was conducted at 1260 °C with cooling rates from 0.1 to 10 °C/s, while conventional cooling was conducted at 1200 °C and 890 °C with different cooling rates. The continuous cooling transformation curves were plot according to the microstructure evolution. The results showed that microstructure transformation behavior of cooling structure in semi-solid temperature range was different from that of conventional process. For semi-solid specimen, the solid austenite dissolved more alloy elements, and the austenite stability was increased. The solid matrix was pearlite structure in the samples with cooling rate of 0.1 °C /s. When the cooling rate reached 1 °C/s, the granular pearlite disappeared and martensite lath was formed. The structure was relatively uniform, on which there were large carbide with regular shape. The solidified liquid phase showed a network shape surrounding the solid particles. The size of solid particles showed a decreasing trend with the increase of cooling rates. For conventional cooling process, the large eutectic M6C carbide and the small precipitated MC carbide could not be dissolved by austenitized at 890 °C. Increasing the austenitization temperature helped dissolving part of the carbides. The hardenability of M2 steel was high. The hardness has increased to a high level for both semi-solid and conventional specimens when cooling rate reached 1 °C/s. No obvious increase happened when cooling rate continued increasing.
Rail foot covered by a fastener will suffer from crevice corrosion, leading to thinning and localized attack of crevice interior posing a risk of failure. This work investigated crevice corrosion behavior of a typical pearlitic high-speed rail steel U75V, focusing for the first time on the effect of pearlitic microstructure refinement achieved by heat treatment with different cooling rates 2, 5, and 10°C/s. Under anodic polarization, localized dissolved spots presented on the as-received sample, where crevice corrosion mostly initiated from. For cooling rates 2 and 5°C/s, localized dissolved spots were also observed but crevice corrosion was mostly presented as general corrosion instead of from local spots, ascribed to enhanced tendency of uniform dissolution due to microstructure refinement and homogenization. For cooling rate 10°C/s, crevice corrosion expanded flocculently, ascribed to preferential dissolution of pearlitic nodules with entangled cementite due to over refinement. Crevice corrosion was obviously accelerated by microstructure refinement. Cooling rates 5 and 10°C/s led to the fastest and slowest expansion of the corroded area, respectively, while the corrosion depth was just the opposite based on the same amount of metal loss. This work provides important information regarding the effect of pearlitic microstructure refinement on crevice corrosion and introduces a facile method for in situ monitoring of crevice corrosion.
Novel fat mimetic materials, such as oleogels, are advancing the personalization of healthier food products and can be developed from low molecular weight compounds such as γ oryzanol and β-sitosterol. Following molecular assembly, the formation of a tubular system ensues, which seems to be influenced by elements such as the oleogelators’ concentration and ratio, cooling rates, and storage periods. Sterol-based oleogels were formulated under distinct environmental conditions, and a comprehensive study aimed to assess the effects of the mentioned factors on oleogel formation and stability, through visual observation and by using techniques such as small-angle X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction, confocal Raman spectroscopy, rheology, and polarized microscopy. The long, rod-like conformations, identified by small-angle X-ray scattering, showed that different cooling rates influence oleogels’ texture. Raman spectra showed that the stabilization time is associated with the interfibrillar aggregation, which occurred differently for 8 and 10 wt%, with a proven relationship between ferulic acid and the tubular formation. This report gives fundamental insight into the critical point of gelation, referring to the time scale of the molecular stabilization. Our results verify that understanding the structuring mechanisms of oleogelation is decisive for the processing and manufacturing of novel foods which integrate oleogels in their structure.
Mg-Fe2+ diffusion patterns in olivine and chromite are useful tools for the study of the thermal history of ultramafic massifs. In the present contribution, we applied the exponential modeling of diffusion patterns to geothermometry and geospeedometry of chromitite ores from two different ophiolite contexts. The Iballe ophiolite (Northern Albania) hosts several chromitite pods within dunites. Primary and re-equilibrated Mg#, estimated by using an exponential function, provided re-equilibration and primary temperatures ranging between 677 and 996 °C for chromitites and between 527 and 806 °C for dunites. Cooling rates for chromitites are higher than for dunites, suggesting a different genesis for the two lithologies, confirmed also by spinel mineral chemistry. Chromitites with MORB affinity formed in a SSZ setting at a proto-forearc early stage, explaining the higher cooling rates, while dunites, with boninitic affinity, were formed deeper in the mantle in a more mature subduction setting. At the Nea Roda ophiolite (Northern Greece) olivine in chromitites do not show Mg-Fe variations, and transformation into ferrian chromite produced “fake” diffusion patterns within chromite. The absence of diffusion patterns and the low estimated temperatures (550–656 °C) suggest that Nea Roda chromitites were completely re-equilibrated during an amphibolite-facies metamorphic event that obliterated all primary features.
To investigate microstructural evolution and plastic deformation under tension conditions, the rapid solidification processes of Ni47Co53 alloy are first simulated by molecular dynamics methods at cooling rates of 1011, 1012...