Perceived Benefits
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2021 ◽  
pp. 146144482110230
Tarja Heponiemi ◽  
Kia Gluschkoff ◽  
Lars Leemann ◽  
Kristiina Manderbacka ◽  
Anna-Mari Aalto ◽  

In recent years, digital health care and social welfare services have been spreading rapidly and partly replacing face-to-face services, particularly in developed countries. This may lead to a pronounced digital inequality. This population-based study of Finnish adults ( N = 4495) examined the associations of offline resources with perceived benefits from online services and the mediating effects of access, skills and attitudes in these associations. The results indicated that those with lower personal, economic and social offline resources perceived online services as less beneficial. This was largely explained by poor access to the services, poor digital skills and negative attitudes towards online services. To increase equality, it would be important to improve Internet access and digital skills and implement means to address negative attitudes, especially among vulnerable groups. Moreover, online health and social welfare services should be designed to be more inclusive.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Xunyi Wang ◽  
Yun Zheng ◽  
Gang Li ◽  
Jingzhe Lu ◽  
Yan Yin

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> Outcome assessment for hearing aids (HAs) is an essential part of HA fitting and validation. There is no consensus about the best or standard approach for evaluating HA outcomes. And, the relationship between objective and subjective measures is ambiguous. This study aimed to determine the outcomes after HA fitting, explore correlations between subjective benefit and acoustic gain improvement as well as objective audiologic tests, and investigate several variables that may improve patients’ perceived benefits. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Eighty adults with bilateral symmetrical hearing loss using HAs for at least 1 month were included in this study. All subjects completed the pure tone average (PTA) threshold and word recognition score (WRS) tests in unaided and aided conditions. We also administered the Chinese version of International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA), to measure participants’ subjective benefits. Objective HA benefit (acoustic gain improvement) was defined as the difference in thresholds or scores between aided and unaided conditions indicated with ΔPTA and ΔWRS. Thus, patients’ baseline hearing levels were taken into account. Correlations were assessed among objective audiologic tests (PTA and WRS), acoustic gain improvement (ΔPTA and ΔWRS), multiple potential factors, and IOI-HA overall scores. <b><i>Results:</i></b> PTA decreased significantly, but WRS did not increase when aided listening was compared to unaided listening. Negative correlations between PTAs and IOI-HA scores were significant but weak (<i>r</i> = −0.370 and <i>r</i> = −0.393, all <i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.05). Significant weak positive correlations were found between WRSs and IOI-HA (<i>r</i> = 0.386 and <i>r</i> = 0.309, all <i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.05). However, there was no correlation among ΔPTA, ΔWRS, and IOI-HA (<i>r</i> = 0.056 and <i>r</i> = −0.086, all <i>p</i> &#x3e; 0.05). Moreover, 2 nonaudiological factors (age and daily use time) were significantly correlated with IOI-HA (<i>r</i> = −0.269 and <i>r</i> = 0.242, all <i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.05). <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> Correlations among objective audiologic tests, acoustic gain, and subjective patient-reported outcomes were weak or absent. Subjective questionnaires and objective tests do not reflect the same hearing capability. Therefore, it is advisable to evaluate both objective and subjective outcomes when analyzing HA benefits on a regular basis and pay equal attention to nonaudiological and audiological factors.

Caroline Hendy ◽  
Catherine Bow

Abstract Kriol, an English-lexifier contact language, has approximately 20,000 speakers across northern Australia. It is the primary language of the remote Aboriginal community of Ngukurr. Kriol is a contact language, incorporating features of English and traditional Indigenous languages. The language has been perceived both positively and negatively, although recent literature suggests a shift towards more favorable views. This paper investigates how community members in Ngukurr responded to the question of non-Indigenous residents (known locally as Munanga) learning Kriol. Interviews with local Indigenous residents showed positive attitudes to Kriol, with respondents providing a number of perceived benefits for outsiders learning the language. Our interviews provide empirical evidence for pride in the language, affirming a shift to more positive attitudes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (2) ◽  
pp. 137-147
Ni Made Rai Widiastuti ◽  
Ketut Novia Arini

Nationally, the results of family planning services during the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a decrease in the use of contraceptives reaching. This can cause various problems including an increase in the number of unwanted pregnancies (unwanted pregnancy) and baby booms or an increase in the birth rate. This study aims to determine how the behavior of contraceptive use among couples of childbearing age during the COVID-19 pandemic at the Primary Health Care North Kuta. This research is a survey research with cross sectional analytic research design. The population in this study were all fertile age couples (PUS) in Denpasar City and the number of samples used was 365 respondents with a purposive sampling technique. The results of this study found that most respondents are currently using contraception. Analysis of bivariate data with chi square obtained variables of age, parity, family income, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, availability of service places, and husband's support. Multivariate analysis with logistic regression found that husband's support variable has the most dominant influence on contraceptive use behavior.

2021 ◽  
Vol 29 (6) ◽  
pp. 1-21
Victor Chang ◽  
Waner Chen ◽  
Qianwen Ariel Xu ◽  
Chang Xiong

This research studies the motivation of customers to choose the QR code as a payment tool by developing an integrated model based on UTAUT 424 valid responses were collected from diversified socio-economic backgrounds to validate the proposed framework. Compared with the original UTAUT model, the new one integrates ‘perceived security’, ‘perceived benefits’ and excludes ‘social influence’ to provide more comprehensive and consistent guidance. PLS-SEM technique was performed as in the data analysis process using SmartPLS. Our study concluded that seven of nine hypotheses are supported by the use of PLS-SEM technique. Customers' intention (R2=0.87) to use QR code as the payment tool is jointly contributed by their attitude, perceived usefulness, and subjective norms toward using QR code as the payment method. The formation of customers' attitudes (R2=0.79) towards using QR code is affected by their perceived usefulness, perceived benefits, and subjective norms. Discussion and strategies for the third parties of QR payment providers and future research directions are also presented.

Informatics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (3) ◽  
pp. 48
My Villius Zetterholm ◽  
Yanqing Lin ◽  
Päivi Jokela

Digital contact tracing applications (CTAs) have been one of the most widely discussed technical methods of controlling the COVID-19 outbreak. The effectiveness of this technology and its ethical justification depend highly on public acceptance and adoption. This study aims to describe the current knowledge about public acceptance of CTAs and identify individual perspectives, which are essential to consider concerning CTA acceptance and adoption. In this scoping review, 25 studies from four continents across the globe are compiled, and critical topics are identified and discussed. The results show that public acceptance varies across national cultures and sociodemographic strata. Lower acceptance among people who are mistrusting, socially disadvantaged, or those with low technical skills suggest a risk that CTAs may amplify existing inequities. Regarding determinants of acceptance, eight themes emerged, covering both attitudes and behavioral perspectives that can influence acceptance, including trust, privacy concerns, social responsibility, perceived health threat, experience of and access to technologies, performance expectancy and perceived benefits, and understanding. Furthermore, widespread misconceptions about the CTA function are a topic in need of immediate attention to ensure the safe use of CTAs. The intention-action gap is another topic in need of more research.

Livhuwani Muthelo ◽  
Faith Moradi ◽  
Thabo Arthur Phukubye ◽  
Masenyani Oupa Mbombi ◽  
Rambelani Nancy Malema ◽  

Background: Primary healthcare (PHC) in South Africa often experiences crucial challenges that lead to patients’ negative experiences regarding their care, compromising the significant role that PHC services could play in health promotion and disease prevention. The primary purpose of implementing the Ideal Clinic (IC) in South Africa was to improve patients’ care quality at the clinics. There seems to be a paucity of studies determining professional nurses’ experiences when implementing the IC. Purpose: This study aimed to explore and describe professional nurses’ experiences regarding implementing the IC at three selected clinics in the Makhado local area. Study method: A qualitative phenomenological research design was used to explore professional nurses’ experiences regarding IC implementation. Purposive sampling was used to select 15 professional nurses working at the three selected clinics. Data were collected using semi-structured one-on-one interviews. Interviews were conducted until saturation was reached. Trustworthiness was ensured by applying Lincoln and Guba’s four criteria, i.e., credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability. Ethical clearance was obtained from the University of Limpopo Turfloop Research and Ethics Committee, and permission to conduct the study was obtained from Limpopo Province Department of Health Research and Ethics Committee. Thematic analysis was used to analyze data. Results: The following themes emerged from the study findings: perceived benefits of the IC on the primary healthcare services provided to the community, challenges experienced by professional nurses when implementing the IC program, and challenges related to the supply of resources for implementing the IC. The study results revealed that, although the IC aimed to improve the overburdened PHC facilities in SA, the professional nurses still experienced some challenges when implementing the IC program. Some of the challenges faced were a lack of knowledge and training in the IC program, poor infrastructure and the shortage of equipment, and inadequate provision of support by line managers, all of which resulted in poor-quality patient care. Conclusion: This study revealed that the introduction and implementation of the IC can have potential benefits to the community and the primary healthcare system. However, it was not introduced and appropriately implemented, which resulted in professional nurses experiencing several challenges. The national department of health needs to strengthen the program’s implementation through proper training, consultation, and continuous support of the nurses. Provision of quality equipment and supplies is also recommended.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Sushil Kumar Dixit ◽  
Samant Shant Priya

PurposeSmall and medium enterprises (SMEs) across the world are generally found to have a limited interest in wider social issues. SMEs face many barriers in operating in a socially responsible and sustainable manner despite it making a good business sense. This paper explores the barriers and challenges faced by Indian SMEs for engaging in corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices.Design/methodology/approachThe research uses interpretive structural modelling (ISM) to explore the structural relationship among barriers faced by Indian SMEs in their CSR engagement which were identified from the past literature and validated by the experts.FindingsThe study identified thirteen variables as important barriers resulting in a lower CSR engagement by Indian SMEs. The ISM model indicates that Indian SMEs focus on tactical rather on strategic needs along with their limited information and knowledge about CSR are the main driving forces which keep them away from an active and meaningful CSR engagement. Their limited CSR engagement capabilities, limited need to engage with their workforce and lower CSR perceived benefits also constrain their CSR engagement. The Indian SMEs also do not see a need for CSR engagement because of lower community and governmental pressure.Originality/valueThe study provides a comprehensive listing of CSR engagement barriers faced by Indian SMEs along with the structural relationships among them. The model developed provides CSR professionals and policymakers an understanding of the important impediments in CSR engagement of Indian SMEs based on their driving power and dependence. This insight will help them in designing initiatives to influence identified barriers to promote CSR engagement by Indian SMEs.

2021 ◽  
pp. 109634802110314
Rui Qi ◽  
Kevin Kam Fung So ◽  
David A. Cárdenas ◽  
Simon Hudson

Social exchange theory, the key theoretical framework in examining resident support, has often been criticized as ambiguous and difficult to measure. Extensive research has investigated the nature of resident support for tourism events, yet the role of a key construct, tolerance, has been underexplored. Building on the extant literature, this study conceptualizes and tests the theoretical construct of tolerance as a missing link to better understand, measure, and clarify the exchange process. The results suggest that resident tolerance partially mediates the effects of perceived benefits on resident support for events while fully mediating the effects of perceived costs on such support. In addition, resident empowerment is a critical factor explaining tolerance. This study contributes to the literature by identifying the major source of the unbalanced impacts of benefits and costs on support reported in previous studies. Findings also offer a more complete picture on how residents translate the perceived impacts of tourism events into support through tolerance.

2021 ◽  
Krishna N. Balasubramaniam ◽  
Nalina Aiempichitkijkarn ◽  
Stefano S. K. Kaburu ◽  
Pascal R. Marty ◽  
Brianne A. Beisner ◽  

Pandemics caused by wildlife-origin pathogens, like COVID-19, highlight the importance of understanding the ecology of zoonosis at human-wildlife interfaces. To-date, the relative effects of human-wildlife and wildlife-wildlife interactions on zoonotic outbreaks among wildlife populations remain unclear. In this study, we used social network analysis and epidemiological Susceptible Infected Recovered (SIR) models, to track zoonotic outbreaks through wild animals social-ecological co-interactions with humans and their social grooming interactions with conspecifics, for 10 groups of macaques (Macaca spp.) living in (peri)urban environments across Asia. Outbreak sizes predicted by the SIR models were related to structural features of the social networks, and particular properties of individual animals connectivity within those networks. Outbreak sizes were larger when the first-infected animal was highly central, in both types of networks. Across host-species, particularly for rhesus and bonnet macaques, the effects of network centrality on outbreak sizes were stronger through macaques human co-interaction networks compared to grooming networks. Our findings, independent of pathogen-transmissibility, suggest that for wildlife populations in the Anthropocene, vulnerability to zoonotic outbreaks may outweigh the potential/perceived benefits of interacting with humans to procure anthropogenic food. From One Health perspectives, animals that consistently interact with humans (and their own conspecifics) across time and space are useful targets for disease-control.

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