transportation costs
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2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 128-135
Alghamdi et al. ◽  

COVID-19 Pandemic has a huge influence on the learning process worldwide. To maintain student academic progress, learning activities were converted to distance learning to control the further spread of the COVID-19 virus. During this period several studies around the world were conducted to assess the effectiveness of distance learning. The results of these studies showed different perspectives, some of the students preferred e-learning while other preferred traditional methods. The aim of this study was to assess the experience of undergraduate nursing students who used distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. A quantitative, cross-sectional design was used to conduct the study. A convenient sampling approach was used to collect the data electronically via self-reported questionnaires. The study included 328 participants. The average score of the effectiveness domain was (2.58±0.68, medium level), and the satisfaction domain was (2.56±0.54, medium level). The results indicate that technical issues were the most significant barrier (75.6%) to distance learning, followed by physical problems, and decreased access to technological devices. Savings in transportation costs (74.1%), savings in time (71.6%), and the opportunity to review recorded lectures (67.4%) were the benefits of distance learning reported by nursing students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Most of the nursing students reported a positive preference for distance learning. Technical issues were the most significant barrier while decreased transportation costs were the most significant facilitator. These findings were consistent with other studies from different settings. Further research is needed to build upon these findings.

Logistics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 7
Ziquan Xiang ◽  
Muhammad Hamza Naseem ◽  
Jiaqi Yang

Background: Coal production and marketing enterprises can significantly reduce transportation costs and improve their competitiveness by choosing appropriate road transportation companies. Methods: Based on this, a trapezoidal fuzzy SWARA-COPRAS method is proposed to select coal transportation companies. The trapezoidal fuzzy SWARA method is used to determine the index weight of coal transportation companies. The ranking of coal transportation companies is determined using the trapezoidal fuzzy COPRAS method. Results: Taking a coal production and marketing enterprise in Hubei, China as an example, the application of the trapezoidal fuzzy SWARA-COPRAS method is illustrated, and the coal transportation companies are sorted and analyzed for sensitivity. Conclusions: Compared with the results of other methods, the effectiveness and practicability of the trapezoidal fuzzy SWARA-COPRAS method are verified.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Ahmed A. G. AbdAllah ◽  
Zhengtao Wang

AbstractGeodetic networks are important for most engineering projects. Generally, a geodetic network is designed according to precision, reliability, and cost criteria. This paper provides a new criterion considering the distances between the Net Points (NPs) and the Project Border (PB) in terms of Neighboring (N). Optimization based on the N criterion seeks to relocate the NPs as close as possible to PB, which leads to creating shorter distances between NPs or those distances linking NPs with Target Points (TPs) to be measured inside PB. These short distances can improve the precision of NPs and increase the accuracy of observations and transportation costs between NPs themselves or between NPs and TPs (in real applications). Three normalized N objective functions based on L1, L2, and L∞‒norms were formulated to build the corresponding N optimization models, NL1; NL2; and NL∞ and to determine the best solution. Each model is subjected to safety, precision, reliability, and cost constraints. The feasibility of the N criterion is demonstrated by a simulated example. The results showed the ability of NL∞ to determine the safest positions for the NPs near PB. These new positions led to improving the precision of the network and preserving the initial reliability and observations cost, due to contradiction problems. Also, N results created by all N models demonstrate their theoretical feasibility in improving the accuracy of the observations and transportation cost between points. It is recommended to use multi-objective optimization models to overcome the contradiction problem and consider the real application to generalize the benefits of N models in designing the networks.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (15) ◽  
pp. 164-167
Yuliya Poltavskaya

The solution of a logistic problem to improve the efficiency of the supply chain in order to achieve an optimal delivery strategy is presented. The solution involves the use of mathematical methods to determine the location of the distribution center in the service area. The use of an optimal delivery strategy leads to a decrease in storage and transportation costs, which has a positive effect on the competitiveness of an enterprise in modern market conditions

Mike Hewitt

The scheduled service network design problem (SSNDP) can support planning the transportation operations of consolidation carriers given shipment-level service commitments regarding available and due times. These available and due times impact transportation costs by constraining potential consolidation opportunities. However, such available and due times may be changed, either because of negotiations with customers or redesigned internal operations to increase shipment consolidation and reduce transportation costs. As changing these times can lead to customer service and operational issues, we presume a carrier seeks to do so for a limited number of shipments. We propose a new variant of the SSNDP, the flexible scheduled service network design problem, that identifies the shipments for which these times should be changed to minimize total transportation and handling costs. We present a solution approach for this problem that outperforms a commercial optimization solver on instances derived from the operations of a U.S. less-than-truckload freight transportation carrier. With an extensive computational study, we study the savings potential of leveraging flexibility and the operational settings that are fertile ground for doing so.

2022 ◽  
Esther Gal-Or ◽  
Qiaoni Shi

We consider a subscription platform that offers services to variety-seeking consumers who incorporate transportation costs in their decision of how many and which vendor services to consume. ClassPass in fitness and MoviePass in entertainment are examples of such platforms. We find that for the platform to be successful, it should enter markets where consumers’ added benefit from patronizing more than one vendor is relatively high, thus strengthening the position of the platform in negotiations with the vendors. As well, managers should consider entering markets where competition between the vendors is relatively weak and in particular, where vendors benefit from local monopoly positions because of high transportation costs incurred by consumers. When entering such markets, offering the subscription contract is likely to attract new customers who are not active when the platform does not exist. Moreover, appropriate crafting of the agreement with the vendors in this case allows the parties to fully extract the surplus derived by platform customers. Last, the platform’s managers should be cognizant of the need to identify tools that facilitate alleviated price competition with vendors. Negotiating over an appropriate transfer fee per customer to pay the vendor or imposing restrictions on the level of service that their customers can use may be such tools. Offering customers lower-quality services when using the vendor in comparison with the quality they could obtain by buying directly from him may not be a successful tool to alleviate price competition. This paper was accepted by Duncan Simester, marketing.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Seán O'Callaghan ◽  
Declan O. Connor ◽  
David Goulding

PurposeThis paper provides insights into national practices used to schedule, collect and manage the transportation infrastructure of raw milk by Irish processors.Design/methodology/approachA survey was designed and distributed to 14 processors, collecting details regarding suppliers, seasonality, costs per litre, planning, processing sites and emissions related to milk collection.FindingsIrish raw milk transportation costs €95 million per annum, with an average weighted cost of 1.1 cents per litre. Primary route clustering of suppliers is based on farm location. Typically, collections employ forty-eight-hour rotas. Just three of the processors reported transportation emissions data. A disjointed approach to the adoption of scheduling and transportation technology was revealed.Research limitations/implicationsGiven the broad scope of the survey covering financial, operational and environmental aspects of milk collection, it was challenging to find a single representative such as a transport manager who could be tasked with responding to the entire survey. Future research may consider a more focused interview-based approach with the various stakeholders to provide a more in-depth analysis.Practical implicationsProcessors can gain an improved understanding of diversified milk collection methods. The research supports policymakers in considering environmental issues related to milk transportation. Costs could be reduced if transportation was better managed collectively with benefits accruing to the industry, suppliers and wider rural community. Stakeholders will need to address aspects of responsibility concerning environmental issues going forward.Social implicationsIn this paper the authors recognise the environmental cost of milk collection. By improving the transportation infrastructure, this will have a positive impact on society in general.Originality/valueThe paper highlights the unique challenges and extends present knowledge in relation to milk collection; thus, this paves the way for new approaches to raw milk transportation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1211 (1) ◽  
pp. 012006
V K Lyubov ◽  
A V Malkov ◽  
P D Alekseev

Abstract A promising trend for upgrading wastes from timber cutting, processing and treatment is their granulation. It allows to increase their specific heats of combustion by 2.5– 3.5 times and their portability characteristics by 3–4 times, to reduce transportation costs by 6– 10 times and to improve all the operations stages. The construction and commissioning of boiler facilities operating on refined biofuel made it possible to form a stable domestic market for wood pellets. However, 0.5 – 1.5 MW nominal capacity hot water boilers equipped with furnaces and profiled burners at the bottom, in cold seasons had fast accumulation of focal residues deposits in the burners and on the furnace chambers lining. The process was complicated by these deposits hardening due to their melting and sintering. These circumstances cause a decrease in the energy and environmental performance of heat-generating installations and their reliability, and also leads to the unplanned shutdowns to clean the boiler furnaces. To find out the reasons for these negative phenomena and to develop recommendations for their elimination, a set of research operations was carried out with wood pellets shipped by the manufacturer and supplied to the burners of the boilers under the analyses; with focal residues accumulated in the burners and on the lining of the furnace chambers; as well as an analysis of the heat generating facilities operation modes. The studies carried out made it possible to identify the main factors that caused these negative phenomena and to develop the recommendations for their elimination.

Yousaf Ali ◽  
Manzoor Ahmad ◽  
Muhammad Sabir ◽  
Sajjad Ali Shah ◽  

Pakistan is working on two pipeline projects, namely, Iran-Pakistan-India (IPI) and Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India (TAPI) gas pipelines, to meet its energy supply-demand gap. This study's aims to compare these two projects and identify the most suitable option for Pakistan. Furthermore, as the TAPI project is progressing faster than the IPI project, this study also aims to identify the critical activities associated with TAPI projects. Finally, a model is proposed to optimize the material and transportation costs related to the TAPI project. The study's contribution by using fuzzy set theory-based multi-criteria decision-making (Fuzzy MCDM) to compare two projects along with usage of the Fuzzy Critical Path Method (FCPM) for the identification of critical activities associated with the TAPI project. Finally, the Genetic Algorithm is applied to optimize the material and transportation costs of the TAPI project. The results show that IPI has advantages over TAPI in terms of power generation, transportation cost, transits fee, and gas prices. The critical path analysis of the TAPI gas pipeline shows that it will take approximately 75 to 330.5 weeks to complete. The study is useful for the managers who have to work in these projects, the policymakers considering these projects at various levels, and the researcher having an interest in applying Fuzzy set theory with MCDM, CPM, and in the context of the energy infrastructure.

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