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2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 128-135
Alghamdi et al. ◽  

COVID-19 Pandemic has a huge influence on the learning process worldwide. To maintain student academic progress, learning activities were converted to distance learning to control the further spread of the COVID-19 virus. During this period several studies around the world were conducted to assess the effectiveness of distance learning. The results of these studies showed different perspectives, some of the students preferred e-learning while other preferred traditional methods. The aim of this study was to assess the experience of undergraduate nursing students who used distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. A quantitative, cross-sectional design was used to conduct the study. A convenient sampling approach was used to collect the data electronically via self-reported questionnaires. The study included 328 participants. The average score of the effectiveness domain was (2.58±0.68, medium level), and the satisfaction domain was (2.56±0.54, medium level). The results indicate that technical issues were the most significant barrier (75.6%) to distance learning, followed by physical problems, and decreased access to technological devices. Savings in transportation costs (74.1%), savings in time (71.6%), and the opportunity to review recorded lectures (67.4%) were the benefits of distance learning reported by nursing students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Most of the nursing students reported a positive preference for distance learning. Technical issues were the most significant barrier while decreased transportation costs were the most significant facilitator. These findings were consistent with other studies from different settings. Further research is needed to build upon these findings.

Anna Lima ◽  
Lúcio Moura ◽  
Melissa Gaspar ◽  
José Pestana ◽  

Chronic kidney disease is increasingly more prevalent worldwide, and kidney transplant remains the best option for patient survival. Living kidney transplants (LKT) pose advantages over deceased donor transplants, such as longer graft survival, lower ischemia time, and better HLA match. However, LKT is not always attainable for multiples reasons, with the absence of a suitable living donor being a significant barrier. Therefore, meticulous donor screening must be performed in order to guarantee donation safety. We examined medical appointments of living kidney donors evaluated at Hospital do Rim, São Paulo, between January and December 2020. Reasons for not proceeding with the donation were evaluated and were categorized as medical, surgical, immunological, psychosocial, or other. A total of 506 donor -receptor pairs were enrolled for evaluation during the study period. More than half of screened donor -receptor pairs (N=296, 58.5%) were not considered feasible for LKT. The primary cause for refusal was medical contraindication (32.1%), followed by immune (21.3%) and social (19.3%) causes. In addition, a considerable proportion of patients voluntarily withdrew themselves at variable time points during the evaluation process (N=79). In our center, most patients did not meet the criteria for kidney donation owing to medical reasons, similarly to other centers, and this reflects the importance of meticulous donor screening. In addition, the current Covid -19 pandemic affected the living transplant program, contributing to delayed complete donor and receptor evaluation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
pp. 0-0

The main purpose of this study is to examine barriers towards e-commerce platforms in developing countries using specific analytic techniques. The present empirical analysis has its main objectives of detailed study of barriers that keep deferring them to adopt an e-commerce platform. To achieve this, the barriers were selected from an extensive literature review and expert advice from this field. Then the responses were studied using a fuzzy DEMATEL approach. The causal relationship graphs provide detailed structural interdependencies of the barriers. In this exploratory study benchmarking has come out to be the most influential barrier that needs to be practiced while adopting an e-commerce platform. Furthermore, a lack of top management commitment has also been a significant barrier in the organization while initiating an online real-time business. The result also showed that higher turnover and poor planning are the most influenced barrier among the other parameter, the sensitivity analysis of the method is conducted to validate the robustness of the results.

2021 ◽  
pp. 001100002110495
Jeremy J. Coleman ◽  
Patton O. Garriott ◽  
Mia T. Kosmicki

Although income inequality has become a focus of political and social discourse, counseling psychology research examining correlates and consequences of legitimizing income inequality remains sparse. A significant barrier to the study of income inequality is the lack of available measures to assess attitudes toward socioeconomic inequality. The purpose of this study was to develop and provide initial validity evidence for the Legitimizing Income Inequality Scale (LIIS). Results supported a bifactor structure for the LIIS with a general factor (ω = .95) and subfactors measuring Social Welfare Beliefs (ω = .92), Economic Fatalism (ω = .87), and Economic Meritocracy Beliefs (ω = .90). The LIIS significantly correlated in theoretically consistent directions with scores on measures of classist attitudes, socioeconomic conservatism, impression management, and colorblind racial attitudes. Implications for future research and training using the LIIS are provided.

Phycology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (2) ◽  
pp. 143-162
Birthe Vejby Nielsen ◽  
John James Milledge ◽  
Heidi Hertler ◽  
Supattra Maneein ◽  
Md Mahmud Al Farid ◽  

The Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI) have been affected by sargassum inundations, with impacts on the economy and environment. Sargassum removal can be costly, but sargassum use and valorisation may generate income and offset environmental damage. A significant barrier to the valorisation of sargassum is insufficient knowledge of its chemical makeup, as well as its seasonal variation and decay after stranding. The chemical characterisation of mixed sargassum and its constituent species and morphotypes (S. natans I, S.natans VIII and S. fluitans) collected from TCI between September 2020 and May 2021 and changes in the composition of sargassum decaying (over 147 days) were studied. High ash (24.61–51.10% dry weight (DW)) and arsenic (49–217 mg kg−1) could severely hamper the use of this seaweed for food or feed purposes. Although there was some reduction in arsenic levels in decaying sargassum, levels remained high (>49 mg kg−1). Biomethane production by anaerobic digestion (AD) is a potential option. Nevertheless, the exploitation of sargassum for biogas, either fresh or as it decays on the beach, is challenging due to low methane yields (<42% of theoretical potential). Pre-treatment or co-digestion with other waste may be options to improve yield. The metal sorption ability of sargassum, which can be problematic, makes biosorption of pollutants an option for further research.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (24) ◽  
pp. 11593
Szymon Baczyński ◽  
Piotr Sobotka ◽  
Kasper Marchlewicz ◽  
Mateusz Słowikowski ◽  
Marcin Juchniewicz ◽  

The unique components of PDMS-based microfluidic systems are those combined with liquid crystalline materials. Their functionality, especially when it comes to optical applications, highly depends on the LC molecular arrangement. This work summarizes experimental investigations on the orientation of molecules within LC:PDMS structures according to the manufacturing technologies. The availability of high-quality molds to pattern PDMS is a significant barrier to the creation of advanced microfluidic systems. The possibility of using inexpensive molds in the rapid and reproducible fabrication process has been particularly examined as an alternative to photolithography. Different geometries, including an innovative approach for the electrical control of the molecular arrangement within PDMS microchannels, are presented. These studies are critical for novel optofluidic systems, introducing further research on LC:PDMS waveguiding structures.

Magdalene Silberberger ◽  
Anja Slany ◽  
Christian Soegaard ◽  
Frederik Stender

AbstractA consistent finding in the literature is that anti-dumping (AD) acts as a significant barrier to bilateral trade, in particular, during the time such measures are in force. Adding to a relatively scarce empirical literature, however, we identify adverse impacts of AD which survive well beyond its revocation. More specifically, while we cannot rule out a slight post-revocation recovery, we find empirical evidence that once affected bilateral trade does not fully recover on average following revocation. We use panel data at the Harmonized System four-digit (HS4) level of aggregation to produce these results and show that they are robust to the duration of AD cases, the time of their imposition and revocation, differentiation by economic sector and the nature of imposing countries. Several explanations for our observed empirical results seem plausible, and we provide a theoretical framework which suggests our results could be driven by market exit or underinvestment of targeted firms.

2021 ◽  
Yutao Kuang ◽  
Jolene Reid

Organometallic intermediates participate in many multi-catalytic enantioselective transformations directed by a chiral catalyst, but the requirement of optimizing two catalyst components is a significant barrier to widely adopting this approach for chiral molecule synthesis. Algorithms can potentially accelerate the screening process by developing quantitative structure-function relationships from large experimental datasets. However, the chemical data available in this catalyst space is limited. We report a data-driven strategy that effectively translates selectivity relationships trained on enantioselectivity outcomes derived from one catalyst reaction systems where an abundance of data exists, to synergistic catalyst space. We describe three case studies involving different modes of catalysis (Brønsted acid, chiral anion, and secondary amine) that substantiate the prospect of this approach to predict and elucidate selectivity in reactions where more than one catalyst is involved. Ultimately, the success in applying our approach to diverse areas of asymmetric catalysis implies that this general workflow should find broad use in the study and development of new enantioselective, multi-catalytic processes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (23) ◽  
pp. 13213
Ross Higgins ◽  
Aoife Ahern

Internationally, there is increased emphasis on the need to reduce dependency on cars and to encourage more sustainable forms of travel, including active travel. To encourage increased levels of cycling, the focus has generally been on improving cycling infrastructure and on making cycling safer. While cycling rates have increased in many countries, including Ireland, women are often less likely to cycle than men. While there are some notable exceptions to this (for example, in the Netherlands) this phenomenon of lower cycling rates amongst women is common and research shows that the differences between male and female cycling rates can be seen from an early age. This paper explores the reasons why women are less likely to cycle than men, by examining the modal choices of school-going students, and the attitudes of their parents/guardians to their modal choices. The survey was conducted in the city of Limerick in the midwestern region of Ireland. The results show multi-factorial barriers to cycling to school for girls compared to boys. Uniforms, traffic concerns, physical efforts of cycling, effects on personal appearance, and peer-influences were factors affecting girls more than boys. Male parents/guardians did not significantly differentiate by the gender of their children in relation to factors associated with cycling to school, unlike female parents/guardians who were found to be significantly less supportive of their daughters than their sons. Additionally, parents/guardians were generally more likely to afford their male children greater independence in their school travel choices. While there are many considerations that would affect students’ perceptions towards cycling, an adjustment to the school uniform policy would, at least, remove the most significant barrier for girls. Further research must be carried out to determine how to shift the perceptions of the efforts associated with cycling, especially among girls, and how to encourage female parents/guardians to better support their daughters to cycle to school.

Tanhum Yoreh

Abstract The prevailing stance in Jewish orthodoxy is that environmental issues are extra-legal and not under the purview of halakhah (Jewish law). While considered important, environmental protection falls only under “midat haḥasidut” (extraordinary piety). This ultimately translates into environmental protection being treated as non-obligatory and only under the purview of righteous behavior rather than obligation. This has created a significant barrier to halakhically driven environmental decision-making. I argue that this worldview emerges from the process of conceptualizing the prohibition of bal tashḥit—“waste not,” the prohibition against wastefulness originating in Deuteronomy 20:19. This verse gave rise to two worldviews: one which was prioritized of not destroying the environment out of compassion for the non-human world, and another marginalized worldview that emphasized a self-concerned environmentalism which equates harm to the environment as self-harm. Privileging this latter worldview creates a pathway to advance Jewish legal discourse and align it with mainstream environmentalism.

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