black soldier fly
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2022 ◽  
Vol 140 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Shahida Anusha Siddiqui ◽  
Bridget Ristow ◽  
Teguh Rahayu ◽  
Nugroho Susetya Putra ◽  
Nasih Widya Yuwono ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 180 ◽  
pp. 106149
Kristin Bohm ◽  
Gregory A. Hatley ◽  
Brett H. Robinson ◽  
María J. Gutiérrez-Ginés

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Pabodha Weththasinghe ◽  
Sérgio D. C. Rocha ◽  
Ove Øyås ◽  
Leidy Lagos ◽  
Jon Ø. Hansen ◽  

Abstract Background Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) is a promising insect species to use as a novel ingredient in fish feeds. Black soldier fly larvae consists of three major fractions, namely protein, lipid, and exoskeleton. These fractions contain bioactive compounds that can modulate the gut microbiota in fish such as antimicrobial peptides, lauric acid, and chitin. However, it is not certain how, or which fractions of black solider fly would affect gut microbiota in fish. In the present study, black soldier fly larvae were processed into three different meals (full-fat, defatted and de-chitinized) and two fractions (oil and exoskeleton), and included in diets for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Atlantic salmon pre-smolts were fed with these diets in comparison with a commercial-like control diet for eight weeks to investigate the effects of insect meals and fractions on the composition and predicted metabolic capacity of gut microbiota. The gut microbiota was profiled by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and the predicted metabolic capacities of gut microbiota were determined using genome-scale metabolic models. Results The inclusion of insect meals and fractions decreased abundance of Proteobacteria and increased abundance of Firmicutes in salmon gut. The diets that contained insect chitin, i.e., insect meals or exoskeleton diets, increased abundance of chitinolytic bacteria including lactic acid bacteria and Actinomyces in salmon gut, with fish fed full-fat meal diet showing the highest abundances. The diets that contained insect lipids, i.e., insect meals and oil diets enriched Bacillaceae in fish gut. The fish fed diets containing full-fat insect meal had a unique gut microbiota composition dominated by beneficial lactic acid bacteria and Actinomyces, and showed a predicted increase in mucin degradation compared to the other diets. Conclusions The present results showed that the dietary inclusion of insect meals and fractions can differently modulate the composition and predicted metabolic capacity of gut microbiota in Atlantic salmon pre-smolts. The use of full-fat black soldier fly larvae meal in diets for salmon is more favorable for beneficial modulation of gut microbiota than larvae processed by separation of lipid or exoskeleton fractions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 165
Violah Jepkogei Kemboi ◽  
Carolyne Kipkoech ◽  
Moses Njire ◽  
Samuel Were ◽  
Mevin Kiprotich Lagat ◽  

Globally, Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) is ranked one of the most destructive bacterial pathogens inducing rapid and fatal wilting symptoms on tomatoes. Yield losses on tomatoes vary from 0 to 91% and most control measures are unaffordable to resource-poor farmers. This study investigated the antimicrobial activities of chitin and chitosan extracted from black soldier fly (BSF) pupal exuviae against R. solanacearum. Morphological, biochemical, and molecular techniques were used to isolate and characterize R. solanacearum for in vitro pathogenicity test using disc diffusion technique. Our results revealed that BSF chitosan significantly inhibited the growth of R. solanacearum when compared to treatments without chitosan. However, there was no significant difference in the antibacterial activities between BSF and commercial chitosan against R. solanacearum. Soil amended with BSF-chitin and chitosan demonstrated a reduction in bacterial wilt disease incidence by 30.31% and 34.95%, respectively. Whereas, disease severity was reduced by 22.57% and 23.66%, when inoculated tomato plants were subjected to soil amended with BSF chitin and chitosan, respectively. These findings have demonstrated that BSF pupal shells are an attractive renewable raw material for the recovery of valuable products (chitin and chitosan) with promising ability as a new type of eco-friendly control measure against bacterial wilt caused by R. solanacearum. Further studies should explore integrated pest management options that integrate multiple components including insect-based chitin and chitosan to manage bacterial wilt diseases, contributing significantly to increased tomato production worldwide.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-10
Syahrizal Syahrizal ◽  
Ediwarman ◽  
Safratilofa ◽  
Muhamat Ridwan

Maggots is an organism derived from the eggs of the black fly, Hermentia illucens (black soldier fly, BSF), which undergoes metamorphosis in the second phase after the egg phase and before the pupa phase which then turns into an adult fly. The purpose of this study was to analyze the utilization of organic waste substrate on the production of BSF maggots cultivation. This research was conducted outdoor at the Freshwater Aquaculture Fisheries Center (BPBAT) Sungai Gelam Jambi with a completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 treatments and 3 replications; Treatment A: PKM (palm kernel meal) 100%, B (PKM 50% + cabbage vegetable waste 50%), C (PKM 50% + coconut pulp 50%) and D (PKM 50% + coconut pulp 25% + vegetable waste cabbage 25%). The average yield parameter of high maggots biomass in treatment A was 673.67 g/4 kg substrate and the lowest biomass in treatment D was 239.67 g/4 kg substrate. For the average weight and length of the best maggots in treatment A (0.20 g/individual) and (1.83 cm), the lowest was in B (0.12 g/Ind. and 1.58 cm). The highest was in treatment B (5,182.31 individual/4 kg substrate) and the lowest was in D (1,479.44 ind./4 kg substrate. The highest bioconversion value of maggots to organic matter OSE (organic substrate efficiency) was highest in treatment A (16, 84%) and the lowest was in D (5.99%). Technically, treatment A was slightly better than B, while economically the best organic substrate medium for maggots cultivation was in treatment B with a production cost of Rp. 7.257 and the ECR (economic conversion ratio) value of 5.81 was lower than the other 3 treatments.   Keywords: Maggots, black soldier fly, Hermentia illucens, organic waste.   ABSTRAK   Maggots merupakan organisme yang berasal dari telur seranga lalat hitam, Hermentia illucens (black soldier fly, BSF). Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu menganalisis pemanfaatan subtrat limbah organik terhadap produksi budidaya maggots BSF. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Balai Perikanan Budidaya Air Tawar (BPBAT) Sungai Gelam, Jambi dengan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL) 4 perlakuan 3 ulangan yaitu perlakuan A : PKM (palm kernel meal) 100%, B (PKM 50% + limbah sayur kol 50%), C (PKM 50% + ampas kelapa 50%), dan D (PKM 50% + ampas kelapa 25%+ limbah sayur kol 25%).Rata-rata biomassa tertinggi didapatkan pada perlakuanA (673,67g/4 kg subtrat) dan biomassa terendah dihasilkan pada perlakuan D (239.67g/4 kg subtrat). Untuk bobot rata-rata dan panjang maggots terbaik dihasilkan pada perlakuan A (0,20 g/individu dan 1,83 cm/individu), terendah pada B (0,12 g/individu dan (1,58 cm). Jumlah populasi maggots yang terbanyak dihasilkan pada perlakuan B (5.182,31 ind./4 kg subtrat) dan terendah pada D (1.479,44 individu/4 kg subtrat). Nilai biokonversi maggots terhadap bahan organik OSEterbaik (organic substrate efficiency) tertinggi pada perlakuan A (16,84%) dan terendah pada D (5,99%). Secara teknis perlakuan A sedikit lebih baik dari B sedangkan secara ekonomi media subtrat organik terbaik untuk budidaya maggots terdapat pada perlakuan B dengan biaya produksi sebesar Rp. 7.257 dan nilai ECR (economic convertion ratio) sebesar 5.81 lebih rendah dari ke 3 perlakuan lainnya.   Kata kunci: Maggots, black soldier fly, Hermentia illucens, limbah organik.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (3) ◽  
pp. 173-178
Sukhriyatun Fitriyah ◽  
Eko Maulana Syaputra

Manusia memiliki interaksi yang sangat kuat dengan lingkungan serta  didalam kehidupannya selalu bergantung dengan alam atau lingkungan sekitarnya. tahun 2017 Indonesia diperkirakan menghasilkan 64 juta ton sampah setiap tahun. komposisi sampah didominasi oleh sampah organik, yakni mencapai 60% dari total sampah. Larva BSF merupakan strategi inovatif dan salah satu metode berkelanjutan untuk pengelolaan sampah organik. Dari latar belakang yang telah diuraikan, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk untuk menganalisis larva black soldier fly dalam mereduksi sampah organik. Analisis penelitian ini dilakukan dengan metode eksperimen dengan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL). Sampel telur larva sebanyak 8 gram. Perlakuan dilakukan selama 21 hari dengan pemberian sampah sayur dan buah sebanyak 2,5 kg setiap dua hari sekali. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Perhitungan rata-rata berat akhir larva BSF usia 21 hari sebesar 0.8 gram. Pertambahan berat larva setiap dua hari nya rata-rata 0,02 gr – 0,03 gr. Pada 7 hari pertama setelah penetasan, berat larva sebesar 0.02 gr hal ini dikarenakan kemampuan larva dalam mereduksi sampah masih rendah. Usia di atas 7 hari kemampuan larva dalam mereduksi sampah sangat cepat dimana penambahan berat rata-rata larva sebesar 0.03 gr. Hasil akhir pengukuran panjang larva sebesar 0.8 cm.  Penambahan panjang larva paling besar di hari 1-3 hari dari 0 cm- 2 cm, kemudian penambahan panjang maggot bertambah 0.1 cm per 2-4 hari selama 21 hari perlakuan. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa kemampuan larva dalam mereduksi sampah sangat baik.

Insects ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 66
Osama Elhag ◽  
Yuanpu Zhang ◽  
Xiaopeng Xiao ◽  
Minmin Cai ◽  
Longyu Zheng ◽  

Black soldier fly (BSF) larvae are often exposed to organic waste which harbors abundant zoonotic pathogens. We investigated the ability of BSF larvae to inhibit the zoonotic pathogens naturally found in pig manure. The zoonotic pathogens populations were detected by using selective medium during the conversion. Results showed that the viability of the zoonotic pathogens in pig manure was significantly affected. After eight days of conversion, the Coliform populations were undetected, and Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. decreased significantly on the eighth day. Antimicrobial assays of the purified recombinant defensin-like peptide 4 (DLP4) showed that this peptide exhibits inhibitory activity against S. aureus, Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium, and Escherichia coli in vitro. Bacteria BSF-CL and BSF-F were isolated from the larvae gut, and both inhibited the growth of S. aureus and E. coli, but Salmonella spp. was sensitive to the BSF-CL strain (but not to the BSF-F strain). The results from our experiments indicate that BSF larvae are capable of functionally inhibiting potential zoonotic pathogens in pig manure through a variety of mechanisms including antimicrobial peptides expression and the gut associate microorganisms. This study provides a theoretical basis for further study on the combined mechanism of BSF larvae immunity and its gut microbes against the zoonotic pathogens in pig manure.

Food systems ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
pp. 308-314
A. A. Ruban ◽  
M. V. Novikova ◽  
S. I. Loskutov ◽  
A. A. Kostin

Various oils, fats and emulsifiers in the composition of preparations for soil enrichment or plant protection can have a significant effect on the germination capacity and energy of sprouting of pea seeds. Fat of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae can be used as a pesticide carrier as well as for increasing seed resistance to contamination with fungi and insects during storage and sprouting. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine an effect of insect fat in a form of an emulsion on sprouting of pea seeds of the variety “Rodnik” depending on a type of an emulsifier or stabilizer. It was found that the use of 0.3 weight% of xanthan gum as a stabilizer for fat emulsion of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae significantly increased the number of germinated seeds and the energy of seed sprouting. The use of 1–5 weight% of Tween 20 as an emulsifier for fat of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae led to inhibition of seed growth. Lecithin, sodium caseinate and microcellulose with addition of fat of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae also decreased the germination capacity and sprouting of pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.).

2022 ◽  
Dewi Apri Astuti ◽  
Komang Gede Wiryawan

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