tissue specific
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2022 ◽  
Vol 65 ◽  
pp. 102119
Marie L. Pfeiffer ◽  
Joanna Winkler ◽  
Daniël Van Damme ◽  
Thomas B. Jacobs ◽  
Moritz K. Nowack

2022 ◽  
Bowen Song ◽  
Daiyun Huang ◽  
Yuxin Zhang ◽  
Zhen Wei ◽  
Jionglong Su ◽  

As the most pervasive epigenetic marker present on mRNA and lncRNA, N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA methylation has been shown to participate in essential biological processes. Recent studies revealed the distinct patterns of m6A methylome across human tissues, and a major challenge remains in elucidating the tissue-specific presence and circuitry of m6A methylation. We present here a comprehensive online platform m6A-TSHub for unveiling the context-specific m6A methylation and genetic mutations that potentially regulate m6A epigenetic mark. m6A-TSHub consists of four core components, including (1) m6A-TSDB: a comprehensive database of 184,554 functionally annotated m6A sites derived from 23 human tissues and 499,369 m6A sites from 25 tumor conditions, respectively; (2) m6A-TSFinder: a web server for high-accuracy prediction of m6A methylation sites within a specific tissue from RNA sequences, which was constructed using multi-instance deep neural networks with gated attention; (3) m6A-TSVar: a web server for assessing the impact of genetic variants on tissue-specific m6A RNA modification; and (4) m6A-CAVar: a database of 587,983 TCGA cancer mutations (derived from 27 cancer types) that were predicted to affect m6A modifications in the primary tissue of cancers. The database should make a useful resource for studying the m6A methylome and genetic factor of epitranscriptome disturbance in a specific tissue (or cancer type). m6A-TSHub is accessible at: www.xjtlu.edu.cn/biologicalsciences/m6ats.

2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (3) ◽  
pp. e2117451119
Justin M. Shaffer ◽  
Iva Greenwald

Conditional gene expression is a powerful tool for genetic analysis of biological phenomena. In the widely used “lox-stop-lox” approach, insertion of a stop cassette consisting of a series of stop codons and polyadenylation signals flanked by lox sites into the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of a gene prevents expression until the cassette is excised by tissue-specific expression of Cre recombinase. Although lox-stop-lox and similar approaches using other site-specific recombinases have been successfully used in many experimental systems, this design has certain limitations. Here, we describe the Floxed exon (Flexon) approach, which uses a stop cassette composed of an artificial exon flanked by artificial introns, designed to cause premature termination of translation and nonsense-mediated decay of the mRNA and allowing for flexible placement into a gene. We demonstrate its efficacy in Caenorhabditis elegans by showing that, when promoters that cause weak and/or transient cell-specific expression are used to drive Cre in combination with a gfp(flexon) transgene, strong and sustained expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) is obtained in specific lineages. We also demonstrate its efficacy in an endogenous gene context: we inserted a flexon into the Argonaute gene rde-1 to abrogate RNA interference (RNAi), and restored RNAi tissue specifically by expression of Cre. Finally, we describe several potential additional applications of the Flexon approach, including more precise control of gene expression using intersectional methods, tissue-specific protein degradation, and generation of genetic mosaics. The Flexon approach should be feasible in any system where a site-specific recombination-based method may be applied.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 268
Parivash Nouri ◽  
Anja Zimmer ◽  
Stefanie Brüggemann ◽  
Robin Friedrich ◽  
Ralf Kühn ◽  

Advances in the regenerative stem cell field have propelled the generation of tissue-specific cells in the culture dish for subsequent transplantation, drug screening purposes, or the elucidation of disease mechanisms. One major obstacle is the heterogeneity of these cultures, in which the tissue-specific cells of interest usually represent only a fraction of all generated cells. Direct identification of the cells of interest and the ability to specifically isolate these cells in vitro is, thus, highly desirable for these applications. The type VI intermediate filament protein NESTIN is widely used as a marker for neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs) in the developing and adult central and peripheral nervous systems. Applying CRISPR-Cas9 technology, we have introduced a red fluorescent reporter (mScarlet) into the NESTIN (NES) locus of a human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) line. We describe the generation and characterization of NES-mScarlet reporter hiPSCs and demonstrate that this line is an accurate reporter of NSCs/NPCs during their directed differentiation into human midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons. Furthermore, NES-mScarlet hiPSCs can be used for direct identification during live cell imaging and for flow cytometric analysis and sorting of red fluorescent NSCs/NPCs in this paradigm.

2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (3) ◽  
pp. e2115570119
Magdalena E. Potok ◽  
Zhenhui Zhong ◽  
Colette L. Picard ◽  
Qikun Liu ◽  
Truman Do ◽  

ARABIDOPSIS TRITHORAX-RELATED PROTEIN 5 (ATXR5) AND ATXR6 are required for the deposition of H3K27me1 and for maintaining genomic stability in Arabidopsis. Reduction of ATXR5/6 activity results in activation of DNA damage response genes, along with tissue-specific derepression of transposable elements (TEs), chromocenter decompaction, and genomic instability characterized by accumulation of excess DNA from heterochromatin. How loss of ATXR5/6 and H3K27me1 leads to these phenotypes remains unclear. Here we provide extensive characterization of the atxr5/6 hypomorphic mutant by comprehensively examining gene expression and epigenetic changes in the mutant. We found that the tissue-specific phenotypes of TE derepression and excessive DNA in this atxr5/6 mutant correlated with residual ATXR6 expression from the hypomorphic ATXR6 allele. However, up-regulation of DNA damage genes occurred regardless of ATXR6 levels and thus appears to be a separable process. We also isolated an atxr6-null allele which showed that ATXR5 and ATXR6 are required for female germline development. Finally, we characterize three previously reported suppressors of the hypomorphic atxr5/6 mutant and show that these rescue atxr5/6 via distinct mechanisms, two of which involve increasing H3K27me1 levels.

2022 ◽  
Peter S Johnstone ◽  
Maite Ogueta ◽  
Inan Top ◽  
Sheyum Syed ◽  
Ralf Stanewsky ◽  

Circadian clocks are highly conserved transcriptional regulators that control 24-hour oscillations in gene expression, physiological function, and behavior. Circadian clocks exist in almost every tissue and are thought to control tissue-specific gene expression and function, synchronized by the brain clock. Many disease states are associated with loss of circadian regulation. How and when circadian clocks fail during pathogenesis remains largely unknown because it is currently difficult to monitor tissue-specific clock function in intact organisms. Here, we developed a method to directly measure the transcriptional oscillation of distinct neuronal and peripheral clocks in live, intact Drosophila, which we term Locally Activatable BioLuminescence or LABL. Using this method, we observed that specific neuronal and peripheral clocks exhibit distinct transcription properties. Loss of the receptor for PDF, a circadian neurotransmitter critical for the function of the brain clock, disrupts circadian locomotor activity but not all tissue-specific circadian clocks; we found that, while peripheral clocks in non-neuronal tissues were less stable after the loss of PDF signaling, they continued to oscillate. This result suggests that the presumed dominance of the brain clock in regulating peripheral clocks needs to be re-examined. This result further demonstrates that LABL allows rapid, affordable, and direct real-time monitoring of clocks in vivo.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Ming Zhou ◽  
Ceyda Coruh ◽  
Guanghui Xu ◽  
Laura M. Martins ◽  
Clara Bourbousse ◽  

AbstractDNA methylation shapes the epigenetic landscape of the genome, plays critical roles in regulating gene expression, and ensures transposon silencing. As is evidenced by the numerous defects associated with aberrant DNA methylation landscapes, establishing proper tissue-specific methylation patterns is critical. Yet, how such differences arise remains a largely open question in both plants and animals. Here we demonstrate that CLASSY1-4 (CLSY1-4), four locus-specific regulators of DNA methylation, also control tissue-specific methylation patterns, with the most striking pattern observed in ovules where CLSY3 and CLSY4 control DNA methylation at loci with a highly conserved DNA motif. On a more global scale, we demonstrate that specific clsy mutants are sufficient to shift the epigenetic landscape between tissues. Together, these findings reveal substantial epigenetic diversity between tissues and assign these changes to specific CLSY proteins, elucidating how locus-specific targeting combined with tissue-specific expression enables the CLSYs to generate epigenetic diversity during plant development.

2022 ◽  
Shashank Kumar Maurya ◽  
Rajnikant Mishra

Abstract Many transcription factors play important roles to maintain the microenvironment, integrity of the blood-brain barrier, the neurons-glia interaction, activities of microglia, composition of cerebrospinal fluid, metabolic activities, concentration of neurotransmitters, presence of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, ischemia, stress, aging, neurological disorders, and diseases. The Paired box transcription factors and multifunctional proteins, Pax6 and Pax5 are expressed in brain. They regulate several regulators from cell cycle to cell death. The Pax5, a B-cell lineage-specific activator protein (BSAP), is expressed in the cerebellum, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, olfactory bulb, third ventricles, and choroid plexus. The Pax5 has been observed down-regulated in autism, mental retardation, and Glioblastoma multiforme. The Pax6 affects genes of neurodegeneration, immunological surveillance, and energy homeostasis in brain of mice. The Pax5 and Pax6 recognize several similar DNA sequences and regulate the expression of genes in a tissue-specific manner. Therefore, it is presumed that Pax5 and Pax6, are compartmentalized in brain of mice. Results indicate interactions, cell and tissue-specific compartmentalization, and co-localization of Pax5 and Pax6 in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and hippocampus in brain of mice.

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