epigenetic changes
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Kaori Hayashi

AbstractRecent studies have demonstrated the association of altered epigenomes with lifestyle-related diseases. Epigenetic regulation promotes biological plasticity in response to environmental changes, and such plasticity may cause a ‘memory effect’, a sustained effect of transient treatment or an insult in the course of lifestyle-related diseases. We investigated the significance of epigenetic changes in several genes required for renal integrity, including the nephrin gene in podocytes, and the sustained anti-proteinuric effect, focusing on the transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4). We further reported the role of the DNA repair factor lysine-acetyl transferase 5 (KAT5), which acts coordinately with KLF4, in podocyte injury caused by a hyperglycemic state through the acceleration of DNA damage and epigenetic alteration. In contrast, KAT5 in proximal tubular cells prevents acute kidney injury via glomerular filtration regulation by an epigenetic mechanism as well as promotion of DNA repair, indicating the cell type-specific action and roles of DNA repair factors. This review summarizes epigenetic alterations in kidney diseases, especially DNA methylation, and their utility as markers and potential therapeutic targets. Focusing on transcription factors or DNA damage repair factors associated with epigenetic changes may be meaningful due to their cell-specific expression or action. We believe that a better understanding of epigenetic alterations in the kidney will lead to the development of a novel strategy for chronic kidney disease (CKD) treatment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (3) ◽  
pp. e2115570119
Magdalena E. Potok ◽  
Zhenhui Zhong ◽  
Colette L. Picard ◽  
Qikun Liu ◽  
Truman Do ◽  

ARABIDOPSIS TRITHORAX-RELATED PROTEIN 5 (ATXR5) AND ATXR6 are required for the deposition of H3K27me1 and for maintaining genomic stability in Arabidopsis. Reduction of ATXR5/6 activity results in activation of DNA damage response genes, along with tissue-specific derepression of transposable elements (TEs), chromocenter decompaction, and genomic instability characterized by accumulation of excess DNA from heterochromatin. How loss of ATXR5/6 and H3K27me1 leads to these phenotypes remains unclear. Here we provide extensive characterization of the atxr5/6 hypomorphic mutant by comprehensively examining gene expression and epigenetic changes in the mutant. We found that the tissue-specific phenotypes of TE derepression and excessive DNA in this atxr5/6 mutant correlated with residual ATXR6 expression from the hypomorphic ATXR6 allele. However, up-regulation of DNA damage genes occurred regardless of ATXR6 levels and thus appears to be a separable process. We also isolated an atxr6-null allele which showed that ATXR5 and ATXR6 are required for female germline development. Finally, we characterize three previously reported suppressors of the hypomorphic atxr5/6 mutant and show that these rescue atxr5/6 via distinct mechanisms, two of which involve increasing H3K27me1 levels.

Gad Hatem ◽  
Line Hjort ◽  
Olof Asplund ◽  
Daniel T R Minja ◽  
Omari Abdul Msemo ◽  

Abstract Objective Anemia during early pregnancy (EP) is common in developing countries and is associated with adverse health consequences for both mother and children. Offspring of women with EP anemia often have low birth-weight, the latter being a risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) later in life. Mechanisms underlying developmental programming of adult cardiometabolic disease include epigenetic and transcriptional alterations potentially detectable in umbilical cord blood (UCB) at time of birth. Methods We leveraged global transcriptome- and accompanying epigenome-wide changes in 48 UCB from newborns of EP-anemic Tanzanian mothers and 50 controls to identify differentially expressed genes (DEG) in UCB exposed to maternal EP-anemia. DEGs were assessed for association with neonatal anthropometry and cord insulin levels. These genes were further studied in expression data from human fetal pancreas and adult islets to understand their role in beta-cell development and/or function. Results The expression of 137 genes was altered in UCB of newborns exposed to maternal EP anemia. These putative signatures of fetal programming which included the birth-weight locus LCORL, were potentially mediated by epigenetic changes in 27 genes and associated with neonatal anthropometry. Among the DEGs were P2RX7, PIK3C2B, and NUMBL which potentially influence beta-cell development. Insulin levels were lower in EP anemia exposed UCB, supporting the notion of developmental programming of pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction and subsequently increased risk of T2D in offspring of EP anemic mothers. Conclusions Our data provide proof-of-concept on distinct transcriptional and epigenetic changes detectable in UCB from newborns exposed to maternal EP anemia.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Kyra N. Smit ◽  
Ruben Boers ◽  
Jolanda Vaarwater ◽  
Joachim Boers ◽  
Tom Brands ◽  

AbstractUveal melanoma (UM) is an aggressive intra-ocular cancer with a strong tendency to metastasize. Metastatic UM is associated with mutations in BAP1 and SF3B1, however only little is known about the epigenetic modifications that arise in metastatic UM. In this study we aim to unravel epigenetic changes contributing to UM metastasis using a new genome-wide methylation analysis technique that covers over 50% of all CpG’s. We identified aberrant methylation contributing to BAP1 and SF3B1-mediated UM metastasis. The methylation data was integrated with expression data and surveyed in matched UM metastases from the liver, skin and bone. UM metastases showed no commonly shared novel epigenetic modifications, implying that epigenetic changes contributing to metastatic spreading and colonization in distant tissues occur early in the development of UM and epigenetic changes that occur after metastasis are mainly patient-specific. Our findings reveal a plethora of epigenetic modifications in metastatic UM and its metastases, which could subsequently result in aberrant repression or activation of many tumor-related genes. This observation points towards additional layers of complexity at the level of gene expression regulation, which may explain the low mutational burden of UM.

BMC Biology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Le Wang ◽  
Fei Sun ◽  
Zi Yi Wan ◽  
Zituo Yang ◽  
Yi Xuan Tay ◽  

Abstract Background Fishes are the one of the most diverse groups of animals with respect to their modes of sex determination, providing unique models for uncovering the evolutionary and molecular mechanisms underlying sex determination and reversal. Here, we have investigated how sex is determined in a species of both commercial and ecological importance, the Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens. Results We conducted association mapping on four commercial and two wild populations of B. splendens. In three of the four commercial populations, the master sex determining (MSD) locus was found to be located in a region of ~ 80 kb on LG2 which harbours five protein coding genes, including dmrt1, a gene involved in male sex determination in different animal taxa. In these fish, dmrt1 shows a male-biased gonadal expression from undifferentiated stages to adult organs and the knockout of this gene resulted in ovarian development in XY genotypes. Genome sequencing of XX and YY genotypes identified a transposon, drbx1, inserted into the fourth intron of the X-linked dmrt1 allele. Methylation assays revealed that epigenetic changes induced by drbx1 spread out to the promoter region of dmrt1. In addition, drbx1 being inserted between two closely linked cis-regulatory elements reduced their enhancer activities. Thus, epigenetic changes, induced by drbx1, contribute to the reduced expression of the X-linked dmrt1 allele, leading to female development. This represents a previously undescribed solution in animals relying on dmrt1 function for sex determination. Differentiation between the X and Y chromosomes is limited to a small region of ~ 200 kb surrounding the MSD gene. Recombination suppression spread slightly out of the SD locus. However, this mechanism was not found in the fourth commercial stock we studied, or in the two wild populations analysed, suggesting that it originated recently during domestication. Conclusions Taken together, our data provide novel insights into the role of epigenetic regulation of dmrt1 in sex determination and turnover of SD systems and suggest that fighting fish are a suitable model to study the initial stages of sex chromosome evolution.

Olimpia Mora-Janiszewska ◽  
Anna Faryniak-Zuzak ◽  
Dorota Darmochwał-Kolarz

Gestational diabetes (GDM) is considered a significant and increasing problem worldwide. The growing body of evidence points out that a hostile intrauterine environment in mothers with GDM via epigenetic mechanisms induces "diabetogenic" and "obesogenic" changes in an offspring's DNA. This sets in motion a vicious intergenerational cycle of metabolic diseases gradually deteriorating the health of the human population. One of the most important players in this process seems to be altered microbiota/microbiome. There is a chance that the identification of specific epigenetic marks may provide a key for future diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic solutions/measures in the field of person-alized medicine. Given the reversibility of most epigenetic changes, an opportunity arises to improve the long-term health of the human population/race. In this manuscript, we aim to summarize available data on epigenetic changes among women suffering from GDM and their progeny in association with changes in microbiome.

2022 ◽  
Isabelle Pehrson ◽  
Nina Idh ◽  
Clara Braian ◽  
Jakob Paues ◽  
Jyotirmoy Das ◽  

Abstract The mechanism of protection of the only approved tuberculosis (TB) vaccine, Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) is poorly understood. In recent years, epigenetic modifications induced by BCG have been demonstrated to reflect a state of trained immunity. The concept of trained immunity is now explored as a potential prevention strategy for a variety of infections. Studies on human TB immunity are dominated by those using peripheral blood as surrogate markers for immunity. Here, we instead studied the lung compartment by obtaining induced sputum from subjects included in a TB contact tracing. CD3- and HLA-DR-positive cells were isolated from the collected sputum and DNA methylome analyses performed. Unsupervised cluster analysis revealed that DNA methylomes of cells from TB-exposed individuals and controls appeared as separate clusters, and the numerous genes that were differentially methylated were functionally connected. The enriched pathways were strongly correlated to previously reported epigenetic changes and trained immunity in immune cells exposed to the BCG vaccine in human and animal studies. We further demonstrated that similar pathways were epigenetically modified in human macrophages trained with BCG in vitro. Altogether, our study demonstrates that similar epigenetic changes are induced by M. tuberculosis and BCG.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Liwei Zhang ◽  
Mingxing Li ◽  
Zhiwei Wang ◽  
Peng Sun ◽  
Shunbo Wei ◽  

ObjectivesCurrently, cardiovascular risk associated with COVID-19 has been brought to people’s attention, but the mechanism is not clear. The aim of this study is to elucidate the mechanisms based on multiple omics data.MethodologyWeighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was used to identify key pathways. Combination analysis with aneurysm and atherosclerosis related pathways, hypoxia induced factor-1 (HIF-1) signaling were identified as key pathways of the increased cardiovascular risk associated with COVID-19. ScMLnet algorithm based on scRNA-seq was used to explore the regulation of HIF-1 pathway by intercellular communication. Proteomic analysis was used to detect the regulatory mechanisms between IL18 and HIF-1 signaling pathway. Pseudo time locus analysis was used to study the regulation of HIF1 signaling pathway in macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) phenotypic transformation. The Virtual Inference of protein-activity by Enriched Regulon (VIPER) analysis was used to study the activity of regulatory proteins. Epigenetic analysis based on methylation revealed epigenetic changes in PBMC after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Potential therapeutic compounds were explored by using Cmap algorithm.ResultsHIF-1 signaling pathway is a common key pathway for aneurysms, atherosclerosis and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Intercellular communication analysis showed that macrophage-derived interleukin-18 (IL-18) activates the HIF-1 signaling pathway through IL18R1. Proteomic analysis showed that IL18/IL18R1 promote NF-κB entry into the nucleus, and activated the HIF-1 signaling pathway. Macrophage-derived IL18 promoted the M1 polarization of macrophages and the syntactic phenotype transformation of VSMCs. MAP2K1 mediates the functional regulation of HIF-1 signaling pathway in various cell types. Epigenetic changes in PBMC after COVID-19 infection are characterized by activation of the type I interferon pathway. MEK inhibitors are the promising compounds for the treatment of HIF-1 overactivation.ConclusionsThe IL18/IL18R1/HIF1A axis is expected to be an therapeutic target for cardiovascular protection after SARS-CoV-2 infection. MEK inhibitors may be an choice for cardiovascular protection after SARS-COV-2 infection

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Zhongxiao Lin ◽  
Qian Ding ◽  
Xinzhi Li ◽  
Yuliang Feng ◽  
Hao He ◽  

Environment, diseases, lack of exercise, and aged tendency of population have becoming crucial factors that induce vascular aging. Vascular aging is unmodifiable risk factor for diseases like diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and hyperlipidemia. Effective interventions to combat this vascular function decline is becoming increasingly urgent as the rising hospitalization rate caused by vascular aging-related diseases. Fortunately, recent transformative omics approaches have enabled us to examine vascular aging mechanisms at unprecedented levels and precision, which make our understanding of slowing down or reversing vascular aging become possible. Epigenetic viz. DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNA-based mechanisms, is a hallmark of vascular aging, its deregulation leads to aberrant transcription changes in tissues. Epigenetics mechanisms by mediating covalent modifications to DNA and histone proteins, consequently, influence the sensitivity and activities of signaling pathways in cells and tissues. A growing body of evidence supports correlations between epigenetic changes and vascular aging. In this article, we will provide a comprehensive overview of epigenetic changes associated with vascular aging based on the recent findings with a focus on molecular mechanisms of action, strategies to reverse epigenetic changes, and future perspectives.

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