Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a growing source of pain and disability. Obesity is the most important avoidable risk factor underlying knee OA. The processes by which obesity impacts osteoarthritis are of tremendous interest to osteoarthritis researchers and physicians, where the joint mechanical load is one of the pathways generally thought to cause or intensify the disease process. In the current work, we developed a hybrid framework that simultaneously incorporates a detailed finite element model of the knee joint within a musculoskeletal model to compute lower extremity muscle forces and knee joint stresses in normal-weight (N) and obese (OB) subjects during the stance phase gait. This model accounts for the synergy between the active musculature and passive structures. In comparing OB subjects and normal ones, forces significantly increased in all muscle groups at most instances of stance. Mainly, much higher activation was computed with lateral hamstrings and medial gastrocnemius. Cartilage contact average pressure was mostly supported by the medial plateau and increased by 22%, with a larger portion of the load transmitted via menisci. This medial compartment experienced larger relative movement and cartilage stresses in the normal subjects and continued to do so with a higher level in the obese subjects. Finally, the developed bioengineering frame and the examined parameters during this investigation might be useful clinically in evaluating the initiation and propagation of knee OA.
The clinical utility of radiofrequency (RF) in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) remains unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of RF treatment in patients with knee OA.
Searches of the PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Data databases were performed through August 30, 2021. The major outcomes from published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving patients with knee OA were compared between RF and control groups, including Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) or Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) scores, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Oxford Knee Score (OKS), Global Perceived Effect (GPE) scale, and adverse effects at available follow-up times.
Fifteen RCTs involving 1009 patients were included in this meta-analysis, and the results demonstrated that RF treatment correlated with improvements in pain relief (VAS/NRS score, all P < 0.001) and knee function (WOMAC, all P < 0.001) at 1–2, 4, 12, and 24 weeks after treatment as well as patients’ degree of satisfaction with treatment effectiveness (GPE scale, 12 weeks, P < 0.001). OKSs did not differ significantly between the two groups. Moreover, treatment with RF did not significantly increase adverse effects. Subgroup analysis of knee pain indicated that the efficacy of RF treatment targeting the genicular nerve was significantly better than intra-articular RF at 12 weeks after treatment (P = 0.03).
This meta-analysis showed that RF is an efficacious and safe treatment for relieving knee pain and improving knee function in patients with knee OA.
The effectiveness of blood flow restriction training (BFR) in elderly with knee osteoarthritis (OA) is comparable to performing high-intensity protocols (70 to 80% of 1 RM [repetition maximum]) that are known to be effective for improving the muscle strength of knee extensors, with the advantage of generating less particular rating of perceived exertion and pain immediately after training. However, despite being a promising alternative, little is known about the best way to apply the BFR, such as level of pressure and combination or not with other therapeutic modalities. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether different levels of blood flow restriction with low load (BFR + LL) and no load (BFR + rest) are non-inferior to high-intensity resistance exercise (HIRE+BFRplacebo) for pain reduction in patients with knee OA.
This clinical trial is a non-inferiority, five-arm, randomized, active-controlled, single trial which will be carried out in 165 patients of both sexes with knee OA, aged 50 years and older. Participants will be randomly allocated into 5 exercise groups (40% of BFR + LL; 80% of BFR + LL; 40% of BFR + rest; 80% BFR + rest, and HIRE+BFR placebo). A mixed linear model will be used to examine the effect of group-by-time interaction on pain intensity on the WOMAC subscale (primary outcome) and on disease severity, physical functional data, balance data, quality of life, global perceived effect scale, and muscle strength (secondary outcomes). Participants will be analyzed for intention-to-treat, and the statistical assessor blinded to the groups. The collection of outcomes 72 h after completion of the 16 weeks of interventions will be the primary measurement point. Follow-up secondary timepoints will be collected at 20, 28, 40, 52, and 64 weeks after the end of interventions, except for pain during the training, which will be measured immediately at the end of each session. Only the comparison of the primary outcome between the HIRE group with each BFR group will be analyzed in the non-inferiority framework, the other comparisons between the BFR groups for the primary outcome, and all secondary outcomes will be interpreted in the superiority framework.
The results of this clinical trial can point out more clearly to ways to optimize the BFR training with the minimum of pain immediately after training, which will allow the offer of an effective and more adherent strengthening training to patients with knee OA.
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Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease leading to joint pain and stiffness. Due to lack of effective treatments, physical and psychological disabilities caused by OA have a detrimental impact on the patient’s quality of life. Emerging evidence suggests that intra-articular injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) may provide favorable results since PRP comprises not only a high level of platelets but also a huge amount of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. However, the precise mechanism and standardization method remain uncertain. This study aimed to examine cytokine profiling in both PRP and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) of knee OA patients and to determine the effects of PRP on OA chondrocytes and knee OA patients. PRP contained a wide variety of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and autologous intra-articular PRP injection resulted in favorable outcomes in knee OA patients. Significant increases in levels of IL-1, IL-2, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-12, TNF-α, IL-17, PDGF-BB, bFGF, and MIP-1β were detected in PRP compared to PPP (p < 0.001). An in vitro study showed a marked increase in proliferation in OA chondrocytes cultured with PRP, compared to PPP and fetal bovine serum (p < 0.001). In a clinical study, knee OA patients treated with PRP showed improvement of physical function and pain, assessed by physical performance, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index and visual analog scale. Our findings from both in vitro and clinical studies suggest that intra-articular PRP injection in knee OA patients may be a potential therapeutic strategy for alleviating knee pain and delaying the need for surgery.
PurposeRecent studies demonstrated a contribution of adrenoceptors (ARs) to osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis. Several AR subtypes are expressed in joint tissues and the β2-AR subtype seems to play a major role during OA progression. However, the importance of β2-AR has not yet been investigated in knee OA. Therefore, we examined the development of knee OA in β2-AR-deficient (Adrb2-/-) mice after surgical OA induction.MethodsOA was induced by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) in male wildtype (WT) and Adrb2-/- mice. Cartilage degeneration and synovial inflammation were evaluated by histological scoring. Subchondral bone remodeling was analyzed using micro-CT. Osteoblast (alkaline phosphatase - ALP) and osteoclast (cathepsin K - CatK) activity were analyzed by immunostainings. To evaluate β2-AR deficiency-associated effects, body weight, sympathetic tone (splenic norepinephrine (NE) via HPLC) and serum leptin levels (ELISA) were determined. Expression of the second major AR, the α2-AR, was analyzed in joint tissues by immunostaining.ResultsWT and Adrb2-/- DMM mice developed comparable changes in cartilage degeneration and synovial inflammation. Adrb2-/- DMM mice displayed elevated calcified cartilage and subchondral bone plate thickness as well as increased epiphyseal BV/TV compared to WTs, while there were no significant differences in Sham animals. In the subchondral bone of Adrb2-/- mice, osteoblasts activity increased and osteoclast activity deceased. Adrb2-/- mice had significantly higher body weight and fat mass compared to WT mice. Serum leptin levels increased in Adrb2-/- DMM compared to WT DMM without any difference between the respective Shams. There was no difference in the development of meniscal ossicles and osteophytes or in the subarticular trabecular microstructure between Adrb2-/- and WT DMM as well as Adrb2-/- and WT Sham mice. Number of α2-AR-positive cells was lower in Adrb2-/- than in WT mice in all analyzed tissues and decreased in both Adrb2-/- and WT over time.ConclusionWe propose that the increased bone mass in Adrb2-/- DMM mice was not only due to β2-AR deficiency but to a synergistic effect of OA and elevated leptin concentrations. Taken together, β2-AR plays a major role in OA-related subchondral bone remodeling and is thus an attractive target for the exploration of novel therapeutic avenues.
Background: Intra-articular injection of adipose-derived stem cells, which are divided into adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) and adipose-derived stromal vascular fractions (ADSVFs), has been reported to be a viable treatment modality for knee osteoarthritis (OA); however, its efficacy remains limited. Purpose: This study aimed to provide comprehensive information about the efficacy and safety of intra-articular injections of autologous ASCs and ADSVFs without adjuvant treatment in patients with knee OA. Study Design: Meta-analysis; Level of evidence, 1. Methods: A systematic search of the MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases was performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the efficacy and safety of intra-articular injections of autologous ASCs or ADSVFs without adjuvant treatments compared with placebo or hyaluronic acid in patients with knee OA. Clinically, the 100-mm visual analog scale for pain relief and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index for functional improvement were implemented. Radiologically, cartilage status was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Procedure-related knee pain, swelling, and adverse events (AEs) were evaluated for safety. Additionally, we performed subgroup analyses comparing ASCs versus ADSVFs. Methodological quality was assessed using the modified Coleman Methodology Score (mCMS). Results: A total of 5 RCTs were included in this study. Based on the meta-analysis, ASCs or ADSVFs showed significantly better pain relief at 6 months ( Z = 7.62; P < .0001) and 12 months ( Z = 7.21; P < .0001) and functional improvement at 6 months ( Z = 4.13; P < .0001) and 12 months ( Z = 3.79; P = .0002), without a difference in procedure-related knee pain or swelling compared with controls. Although a meta-analysis with regard to cartilage improvements was not performed owing to heterogeneous MRI assessment, 3 studies reported significantly improved cartilage status after the injection. No serious AEs associated with ASCs or ADSVFs were reported. Subgroup analyses showed similar efficacy between ASC and ADSVF treatments. The median mCMS was 70 (range, 55-75). Conclusion: For patients with knee OA, intra-articular injection of autologous ASCs or ADSVFs without adjuvant treatment showed remarkable clinical efficacy and safety at short-term follow-up. Some degree of efficacy has been shown for cartilage regeneration in knee OA, although the evidence remains limited. Further RCTs that directly compare ASCs and ADSVFs are needed.
Objectives: (1) to demonstrate the anti-inflammatory and anabolic effect of Ozone by determining in serum samples the biochemical levels of IL-6 and IGF-1 in knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients in a real world rehabilitation setting; (2) to differentiate Ozone effect in diabetic (DM)/obese and non-DM/non-obese patients; (3) to evaluate clinical effectiveness by visual analog scale (VAS) and WOMAC scale, and biochemical effect by C-reactive protein (CRP), uric acid and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Material and methods: 65 patients with knee OA Kellgren Lawrence (KL) grade 2 or more were analyzed in a retrospective observational study. The study ran from January 2018 to September 2021. Inclusion criteria: (a) patients 18 years or older; (b) with knee OA KL 2° or more; (c) biochemical analysis before-and-after treatment; (d) pain more than 3 on VAS. Exclusion Criteria: (a) previous knee surgery; (b) favism; (c) pregnancy; (d) any other disease that originates lack of collaboration for infiltration. Primary Outcome variables: (a) IL-6; (b) IGF-1 in diabetes mellitus (DM)/obese and non-DM/non-obese patients; both before-and-after Ozone treatment. Secondary Outcome variables: (a) CRP, (b) ESR, (c) uric acid, (d) VAS pain, (e) WOMAC pain, function and stiffness. Ozone protocol consisted of four sessions (once a week) of an intra-articular infiltration of 20 mL (20 µg/mL concentration) of a gas mixture of Oxygen-Ozone 95-5% (produced by Ozone generator Ozonosan-α Plus®). For biochemical evaluation, SNIBE MAGLUMI ™ IL-6 (CLIA) and SNIBE MAGLUMI ™ IGF-1 (CLIA) kits were used. CRP and uric acid were analyzed by a Abbott Alinity c kit; and ESR was evaluated by DIESSE VES MATIC CUBE 30. Results: There is a linear correlation between age and OA severity. IL-6 decreased both in DM and non-DM patients and in all OA KL grades (from 2.70 to 1.59 pg/mL). IGF-1 decreased in total group (OA + DM + obesity) from 112.09 to 107.19 ng/mL. When only non-DM/non-obese knee OA patients were analyzed, Ozone improved IGF-1 levels (from 100.17 to 102.03 ng/mL). Ozone decreased CRP, ESR, uric acid, and improved VAS pain, WOMAC pain, function and stiffness (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Ozone is a valid option for the management of knee osteoarthritis in a real world rehabilitation setting, because of its anti-inflammatory, metabolic and anabolic properties. Ozone tends to downregulate pro-inflammatory IL-6 cytokine. Ozone has a metabolic/hypoglycemic effect on obese/diabetic knee osteoarthritis patients by reducing IGF-1. Ozone has an anabolic effect on non-diabetic/non-obese patients by improving IGF-1. Ozone reduces other biomarkers of inflammation (CRP, ESR and uric acid) and improves, pain, function and quality of life.
Background: Durable, meaningful symptom responses to intra-articular saline placebo injections are observed in knee osteoarthritis (OA) trials, but it is unclear if these are due to physiological effects. Purpose: To perform a prospective comparison of patient-reported outcome responses among participants with knee OA who underwent intra-articular injection of saline-based placebo or sham (dry needle). Study Design: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: From a 24-week randomized double-blind trial, participants with moderate to severe knee OA received 2-mL intra-articular injections of saline-based placebo (PBO; 99.45% PBS) or sham (dry needle) to the target knee. Least squares mean differences of changes from baseline to week 24 were compared between the PBO and sham groups for the following: pain Numeric Rating Scale; Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain, stiffness, and function; and patient global assessment. Bang Blinding Index was used to evaluate all-group blinding on day 1 and week 24. Results: In total, 116 and 117 participants were randomized to the PBO and sham groups, respectively. Within the full trial population, the mean ± SD age and body mass index were 59.0 ± 8.5 years and 28.97 ± 4.01, respectively. An overall 406 (58.4%) were female, and 394 (57.3%) had Kellgren-Lawrence grade 3 target knee OA. The PBO and sham groups demonstrated clinically meaningful improvements (≥10%) from baseline in all patient-reported outcomes at all time points (ie, weeks 4-24). Mean differences (95% CI) at week 24 between the PBO and sham groups were as follows: pain Numeric Rating Scale, –0.10 (–0.79 to 0.59; P = .78); WOMAC pain, –2.89 (–9.70 to 3.92; P = .40); WOMAC stiffness, –2.37 (–9.37 to 4.63; P = .51); and WOMAC function, –1.39 (–8.06 to 5.29; P = .68). Bang Blinding Index indicated that blinding was maintained. Conclusion: PBO and sham groups demonstrated equivalent patient-reported outcomes at all time points through week 24, suggesting that responses attributed to saline were contextual (ie, to the procedure) and not physiological. Registration: NCT03122860 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier).
Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating condition affecting human body biomechanics and quality of life. Current standard care for knee OA leads to trivial improvement and entails multiple adverse effects or complications. Recently, investigational cell therapies injected intra-articularly, such as bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP), have shown safety and therapeutic potency providing patients with pain relief. In the current retrospective comparative study, we investigated the differences in pain and functional improvements in patients with symptomatic knee OA receiving intra-articular injections of BMAC vs PRP.
Pain and functionality scores were measured at baseline and at different time points post-injection over 12 months, using 3 self-administered, clinically validated questionnaires: the visual analogue scale (VAS) for assessing pain intensity, the knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) for evaluating functionality and knee-related quality of life, and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) for evaluating physical function. The repeated-measures general linear model with Sidak test for pairwise comparisons was used to investigate the influence of the treatment on the score evolution within groups (between baseline and each time point) and between groups (overall).
The BMAC group (n = 26 knees) significantly improved in VAS, KOOS, and WOMAC scores between baseline and 12 months (57.4, 75.88, and 73.95% mean score improvement, respectively). In contrast, the PRP group (n = 13 knees) witnessed nonsignificant improvement in all scores. BMAC, in comparison to PRP, induced significant improvement in outcomes by 29.38% on the VAS scale, 53.89% on the KOOS scale, and 51.71% on the WOMAC scale (P < .002, P < .01, P < .011, respectively).
Intra-articular autologous BMAC injections are safe, effective in treating pain, and ameliorate functionality in patients with symptomatic knee OA to a greater extent than PRP injections.
Intra-articular autologous BMAC therapy is safe and provides more relief to patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis compared to PRP therapy.