renal damage
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Amina Unis ◽  
Amany Abdelbary ◽  

Gentamicin induced acute nephrotoxicity (GIAN) is considered as one of the important causes of acute renal failure. In recent years’ great effort has been focused on the introduction of herbal medicine as a novel therapeutic agent for prevention of GIAN. Hence, the current study was designed to investigate the effect of green coffee bean extract (GCBE) on GIAN in rats. Results of the present study showed that rat groups that received oral GCBE for 7 days after induction of GIAN (by a daily intraperitoneal injection of gentamicin for 7days), reported a significant improvement in renal functions tests when compared to the GIAN model groups. Moreover, there was significant amelioration in renal oxidative stress markers (renal malondialdehyde, renal superoxide dismutase) and renal histopathological changes in the GCBE-treated groups when compared to GIAN model group. These results indicate that GCBE has a potential role in ameliorating renal damage involved in GIAN.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Zongwei Zhang ◽  
Wei Liang ◽  
Qiang Luo ◽  
Hongtu Hu ◽  
Keju Yang ◽  

BackgroundGlycolysis dysfunction is an important pathogenesis of podocyte injury in diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Foot process fusion of podocytes and increased albuminuria are markers of early DKD. Moreover, cytoskeletal remodeling has been found to be involved in the foot process fusion of podocytes. However, the connections between cytoskeletal remodeling and alterations of glycolysis in podocytes in DKD have not been clarified.MethodsmRNA sequencing of glomeruli obtained from db/db and db/m mice with albuminuria was performed to analyze the expression profiling of genes in glucose metabolism. Expressions of phosphofructokinase platelet type (PFKP) in the glomeruli of DKD patients were detected. Clotrimazole (CTZ) was used to explore the renal effects of PFKP inhibition in diabetic mice. Using Pfkp siRNA or recombinant plasmid to manipulate PFKP expression, the effects of PFKP on high glucose (HG) induced podocyte damage were assessed in vitro. The levels of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) were measured. Targeted metabolomics was performed to observe the alterations of the metabolites in glucose metabolism after HG stimulation. Furthermore, aldolase type b (Aldob) siRNA or recombinant plasmid were applied to evaluate the influence of FBP level alteration on podocytes. FBP was directly added to podocyte culture media. Db/db mice were treated with FBP to investigate its effects on their kidney.ResultsmRNA sequencing showed that glycolysis enzyme genes were altered, characterized by upregulation of upstream genes (Hk1, and Pfkp) and down-regulation of downstream genes of glycolysis (Pkm, and Ldha). Moreover, the expression of PFKP was increased in glomeruli of DKD patients. The CTZ group presented more severe renal damage. In vitro, the Pfkp siRNA group and ALDOB overexpression group showed much more induced cytoskeletal remodeling in podocytes, while overexpression of PFKP and suppression of ALDOB in vitro rescued podocytes from cytoskeletal remodeling through regulation of FBP levels and inhibition of the RhoA/ROCK1 pathway. Furthermore, targeted metabolomics showed FBP level was significantly increased in HG group compared with the control group. Exogenous FBP addition reduced podocyte cytoskeletal remodeling and renal damage of db/db mice.ConclusionsThese findings provide evidence that PFKP may be a potential target for podocyte injury in DN and provide a rationale for applying podocyte glycolysis enhancing agents in patients with DKD.

2022 ◽  
Arisa Senda ◽  
Ryutaro Sasai ◽  
Kurumi Kato ◽  
Yuka Nishibata ◽  
Sakiko Masuda ◽  

AbstractSystemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) are autoimmune diseases that often cause rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, with neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) involved in their pathogenesis. However, the involvement of NETs in the renal damage caused by SLE/AAV overlap syndrome has not been clarified yet. In this study, we detected renal deposition of NETs in a patient with SLE/AAV overlap syndrome. In addition, a significantly increased level of NET-inducing activity was observed in the patient’s serum, which improved with treatment. On the other hand, a markedly lower level of NET degradation was observed in the patient’s serum as compared to healthy subjects’ sera, without any posttreatment changes. These findings suggest that NETs may play a role in the pathogenesis of renal injury associated with SLE/AAV overlap syndrome.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 321
Alok K. Paul ◽  
Md K. Hossain ◽  
Tooba Mahboob ◽  
Veeranoot Nissapatorn ◽  
Polrat Wilairatana ◽  

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 virus causes novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with other comorbidities such as diabetes. Diabetes is the most common cause of diabetic nephropathy, which is attributed to hyperglycemia. COVID-19 produces severe complications in people with diabetes mellitus. This article explains how SARS-CoV-2 causes more significant kidney damage in diabetic patients. Importantly, COVID-19 and diabetes share inflammatory pathways of disease progression. SARS-CoV-2 binding with ACE-2 causes depletion of ACE-2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) from blood vessels, and subsequently, angiotensin-II interacts with angiotensin receptor-1 from vascular membranes that produce NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen phosphate) oxidase, oxidative stress, and constriction of blood vessels. Since diabetes and COVID-19 can create oxidative stress, we hypothesize that COVID-19 with comorbidities such as diabetes can synergistically increase oxidative stress leading to end-stage renal failure and death. Antioxidants may therefore prevent renal damage-induced death by inhibiting oxidative damage and thus can help protect people from COVID-19 related comorbidities. A few clinical trials indicated how effective the antioxidant therapy is against improving COVID-19 symptoms, based on a limited number of patients who experienced COVID-19. In this review, we tried to understand how effective antioxidants (such as vitamin D and flavonoids) can act as food supplements or therapeutics against COVID-19 with diabetes as comorbidity based on recently available clinical, preclinical, or in silico studies.

Alireza Najafizadeh ◽  
Ayat Kaeidi ◽  
Mohammadreza Rahmani ◽  
Elham Hakimizadeh ◽  
Jalal Hassanshahi

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Juexiao Gong ◽  
Man Luo ◽  
Yonghong Yong ◽  
Shan Zhong ◽  
Peng Li

AbstractAlamandine (Ala) is a novel member of the renin–angiotensin-system (RAS) family. The present study aimed to explore the effects of Ala on hypertension and renal damage of Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats high-salt diet-induced, and the mechanisms of Ala on renal-damage alleviation. Dahl rats were fed with high-salt diets to induce hypertension and renal damage in vivo, and HK-2 cells were treated with sodium chloride (NaCl) to induce renal injury in vitro. Ala administration alleviated the high-salt diet-induced hypertension, renal dysfunction, and renal fibrosis and apoptosis in Dahl SS rats. The HK-2 cells’ damage, and the increases in the levels of cleaved (c)-caspase3, c-caspase8, and c-poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) induced by NaCl were inhibited by Ala. Ala attenuated the NaCl-induced oxidative stress in the kidney and HK-2 cells. DETC, an inhibitor of SOD, reversed the inhibitory effect of Ala on the apoptosis of HK-2 cells induced by NaCl. The NaCl-induced increase in the PKC level was suppressed by Ala in HK-2 cells. Notably, PKC overexpression reversed the moderating effects of Ala on the NaCl-induced apoptosis of HK-2 cells. These results show that Ala alleviates high-salt diet-induced hypertension and renal dysfunction. Ala attenuates the renal damage via inhibiting the PKC/reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling pathway, thereby suppressing the apoptosis in renal tubular cells.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 807
Charlotte Delrue ◽  
Reinhart Speeckaert ◽  
Joris R. Delanghe ◽  
Marijn M. Speeckaert

According to several animal and human studies, vitamin D appears to play a significant role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. However, the possible renoprotective effect of vitamin D and its influence on the reversal of already existing renal damage remains doubtful. At this moment, there are a few hypotheses concerning the underlying molecular and genetic mechanisms including the link between vitamin D and inflammation, oxidative stress, and extracellular matrix accumulation. The present review aims to investigate the potential role of vitamin D in the development of diabetic kidney disease from a translational approach.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. e0010094
Li Shen ◽  
Minghao Sun ◽  
Xiao Wei ◽  
Yao Bai ◽  
Qingwu Hu ◽  

Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a zoonosis characterized by clinical features of high fever, hemorrhage, and renal damage. China has the largest number of HFRS cases worldwide, accounting for over 90% of the total reported cases. In this paper, we used surveyed HFRS data and satellite imagery to conduct geostatistical analysis for investigating the associations of rapid urbanization, water bodies, and other factors on the spatiotemporal dynamics of HFRS from year 2005 to 2018 in Xi’an City, Northwest China. The results revealed an evident epidemic aggregation in the incidence of HFRS within Xi’an City with a phenomenal fluctuation in periodic time series. Rapid urbanization was also found to greatly affect the HFRS incidence in two different time phases. HFRS caused by urbanization influences farmers to a lesser extent than it does to non-farmers. The association of water bodies with the HFRS incidence rate was found to be higher within the radii of 696.15 m and 1575.39 m, which represented significant thresholds. The results also showed that geomatics approaches can be used for spatiotemporally investigating the HFRS dynamic characteristics and supporting effective allocations of resources to formulate strategies for preventing epidemics.

Yang Liu ◽  
Lin Shi ◽  
Yao Lin ◽  
Mingming Zhang ◽  
Fangfang Chen ◽  

AbstractResearchers have shown that 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH] D), a kind of active vitamin D in the human body, plays a role in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Low serum 25(OH) D levels have been found to be associated with elevated blood pressure (BP) in adults. However, measurement of 25(OH) D in hypertensive children has not been documented. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between 25(OH) D and target organ damage (TOD) in children with essential hypertension. We recruited a total of 346 children with essential hypertension and analyzed the correlation between serum 25(OH) D and TOD. Serum 25(OH) D concentration was significantly lower in the TOD than in the no-TOD group (t = 2.416, P = 0.016), as well as significantly lower in the two-organ damage than in the single-organ damage group (t = 3.140, P = 0.002). Pearson’s correlation coefficient (PCC) indicated that serum 25(OH) D levels were negatively correlated with left ventricular mass index (LVMI; r = −0.110, P = 0.041) and albuminuria (r = −0.120, P = 0.026). Linear- regression analysis showed that 25(OH) D was a risk factor for left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH; β ± s.e. =−0.074 ± 0.036; 95% confidence interval [CI], − 0.145 to –0.003; P < 0.001) and renal damage (β ± s.e.= −0.018 ± 0.008; 95% CI, − 0.035 to –0.002; P = 0.004). In total, our data revealed that serum 25(OH) D was independently associated with hypertensive cardiac and renal damage, meaning that it was a risk factor for LVH and albuminuria in childhood hypertension.

2022 ◽  
Jinjuan Wang ◽  
Huimin Chu ◽  
Yueli Pan

Abstract Background This article is objected to explore the value of machine learning algorithm in predicting the risk of renal damage in children with Henoch-Schönlein Purpura, and to construct a predictive model of Henoch-Schönlein Purpura Nephritis in children and analyze the related risk factors of Henoch-Schönlein Purpura Nephritis in children. Methods Case data of 288 hospitalized children with Henoch-Schönlein Purpura from November 2018 to October 2021 were collected. The data included 42 indicators such as demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms and laboratory tests, etc. Univariate feature selection was used for feature extraction, and Logistic regression, support vector machine, decision tree and random forest algorithm were used respectively for classification prediction. Last, the performance of four algorithms are compared using accuracy rate and recall rate. Results The accuracy rate, recall rate and AUC of the established random forest model were 0.83, 0.86 and 0.91 respectively, which were higher than 0.74, 0.80 and 0.89 of the Logistic regression model; higher than 0.70, 0.80 and 0.89 of support vector machine model; higher than 0.74, 0.80 and 0.81 of the decision tree model. The top 10 important features provided by random forest model are Persistent purpura≥4weeks, Cr, Clinic time, ALB, WBC, TC, TG, Relapse, TG, Recurrent purpura and EB-DNA. Conclusion The model based on random forest algorithm has better performance in the prediction of children with allergic purpura renal damage, indicated by better classification accuracy, better classification effect and better generalization performance.

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