fiber volume fraction
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2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 945
Nancy Kachouh ◽  
Tamer El-Maaddawy ◽  
Hilal El-Hassan ◽  
Bilal El-Ariss

Replacement of natural aggregates (NAs) with recycled concrete aggregates (RCAs) in complex reinforced concrete (RC) structural elements, such as deep beams with openings, supports environmental sustainability in the construction industry. This research investigates the shear response of RC deep beams with openings made with 100% RCAs. It also examines the effectiveness of using steel fibers as a replacement to the minimum conventional steel stirrups in RCA-based deep beams with web openings. A total of seven RC deep beams with a shear span-to-depth ratio (a/h) of 0.8 were constructed and tested. A circular opening with an opening height-to-depth ratio (h0/h) of 0.3 was placed in the middle of each shear span. Test parameters included the type of the coarse aggregate (NAs and RCAs), steel fiber volume fraction (vf = 1, 2, and 3%), and presence of the minimum conventional steel stirrups. The deep beam specimens with web openings made with 100% RCAs exhibited 13 to 18% reductions in the shear capacity relative to those of their counterparts made with NAs. The inclusion of conventional steel stirrups in RC deep beams with openings was less effective in improving the shear response when 100% RCAs was used. The addition of steel fibers remarkably improved the shear response of the tested RCA-based beams. The gain in the shear capacity of the RCA-based beams caused by the inclusion of steel fibers was in the range of 39 to 84%, whereas the use of conventional steel stirrups resulted in 18% strength gain. The use of 1% steel fiber volume fraction in the RCA-based beam with openings without steel stirrups was sufficient to restore 96% of the original shear capacity of the NA-based beam with conventional steel stirrups. The shear capacities obtained from the tests were compared with predictions of published analytical models. The predicted-to-measured shear capacity was in the range of 0.71 to 1.49.

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 298
Sander Rijckaert ◽  
Lode Daelemans ◽  
Ludwig Cardon ◽  
Matthieu Boone ◽  
Wim Van Paepegem ◽  

Recent development in the field of additive manufacturing, also known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, has allowed for the incorporation of continuous fiber reinforcement into 3D-printed polymer parts. These fiber reinforcements allow for the improvement of the mechanical properties, but compared to traditionally produced composite materials, the fiber volume fraction often remains low. This study aims to evaluate the in-nozzle impregnation of continuous aramid fiber reinforcement with glycol-modified polyethylene terephthalate (PETG) using a modified, low-cost, tabletop 3D printer. We analyze how dimensional printing parameters such as layer height and line width affect the fiber volume fraction and fiber dispersion in printed composites. By varying these parameters, unidirectional specimens are printed that have an inner structure going from an array-like to a continuous layered-like structure with fiber loading between 20 and 45 vol%. The inner structure was analyzed by optical microscopy and Computed Tomography (µCT), achieving new insights into the structural composition of printed composites. The printed composites show good fiber alignment and the tensile modulus in the fiber direction increased from 2.2 GPa (non-reinforced) to 33 GPa (45 vol%), while the flexural modulus in the fiber direction increased from 1.6 GPa (non-reinforced) to 27 GPa (45 vol%). The continuous 3D reinforced specimens have quality and properties in the range of traditional composite materials produced by hand lay-up techniques, far exceeding the performance of typical bulk 3D-printed polymers. Hence, this technique has potential for the low-cost additive manufacturing of small, intricate parts with substantial mechanical performance, or parts of which only a small number is needed.

John K. Makunza ◽  
G. Senthil Kumaran

Fiber reinforcement is widely used in construction engineering to improve the mechanical properties of concrete such as compressive and tensile strengths. Concrete is strong in compression but weak in tension and is a brittle material. In the construction industry, strength, durability and cost are among the major factors for selecting the suitable construction materials. During this investigation, the mechanical properties of sisal fibers reinforced concrete (SFRC) were assessed namely, flexural strength, tensile strength ad interfacial bond strength. The said properties were assessed in two types of reinforcement namely, randomly oriented sisal fibers and parallel oriented sisal fibers reinforcement. In both cases the sisal fibers were varied in volume fractions so as to establish the optimum value. The mechanical properties of flexural and tensile strengths were found to increase considerably with increasing fiber volume fractions until an optimum volume fraction is reached, thereafter, the strengths were found to decrease continuously. The prominent increment of 32.4% in flexural strength at fiber volume fraction of 2.0% parallel reinforced fiber concrete composite was observed. There was very small increment on both flexural and tensile strength for randomly oriented chopped sisal fibers reinforced concrete (SFRC). The Interfacial bond strength was found to be 0.12 N/mm2 and was observed to be prominent for chopped sisal fibers reinforced concrete specimens tested for flexural strength. During failure, fiber pull-out was observed and the composite was observed to behave in a ductile manner whereby the fibers were able to carry more load while full fracture had occurred on the specimen. The water absorption capacity of the SFRC was found to increase with increasing sisal fiber volume fraction.

Dong-Cheol Park ◽  
Yun-Hae Kim ◽  
Soo-Jeong Park ◽  
Do-Hoon Shin ◽  
TianYu Yu

Abstract Permeability is a critical parameter not only in flow simulation analysis but also in liquid composite molding (LCM) process. When a liquid resin is infused into a dry preform, the impregnation is mainly characterized by the permeability. The permeability of a dry preform can be obtained through theoretical and experimental methods. In the theoretical estimation of permeability, the effects of fiber arrangement as well as fabric type and form for various types of preforms are not sufficiently reflected in the calculation. Thus, there is a gap between the theoretical and experimental permeability. Recently, experimental determination has been gaining considerable attention as a mean to obtain accurate permeability values; however, it requires a number of trials. In this study, the permeability of the Hexforce G0926 5HS (5-harness satin) carbon fabric preform is estimated using representative theoretical prediction models, the Gebart and Kozeny–Carman equations. In addition to the Kozeny–Carman permeability (using the Kozeny constant values from literature), the Kozeny constant obtained through experiments was used to obtain a modified Kozeny–Carman permeability. All three calculated permeabilities were compared and verified with the fabric manufacturer’s reference value. The results showed that the modified Kozeny–Carman permeability using the experimentally determined Kozeny constant was closest to the reference value at 57% fiber volume fraction. Further, the predicted permeability was compared with other experimental permeability values from literature over the 40%–65% range of fiber volume fraction. We found that the modified Kozeny–Carman permeability once again came closest to the literature values. Finally, an optimized fitting equation was proposed to replace the Kozeny–Carman equation for predicting the permeability of Hexforce G0926 5HS carbon fabric over the 40%–65% fiber volume fraction range.

2021 ◽  
pp. 004051752110648
Mengmeng Zhou ◽  
Gaoming Jiang ◽  
Zhe Gao

Weft-knitted biaxial tubular (WKBT) fabrics have been infiltrated via a resin film infusion technique to fabricate reinforced composites. To understand the mechanical properties of WKBT fabrics and the reinforced composites, the strength efficiency of insertion yarns and insertion fiber volume fraction are used to evaluate the tensile strength. The tensile properties of WKBT fabrics and the reinforced composites are studied in the 0° and 90° directions. The results show that both have two failure stages. The first stage is the fracture of insertion yarns which provide the main tensile strength, and the second stage is the fracture of stitch yarns which have significant effect on the tensile strength of WKBT fabrics and the reinforced composites. It is observed that the deformation behavior and failure mechanism of WKBT fabric reinforced composites are closely related to the structure of WKBT fabric, which can be used to predict the failure mode and morphology of WKBT fabric reinforced composites.

2021 ◽  
Haocheng Xu ◽  
Ying Zhang ◽  
Jiajun Wang ◽  
Tuhua Zhong ◽  
Xinxin Ma ◽  

AbstractA comprehensive understanding of vascular bundles is the key to elucidate the excellent intrinsic mechanical properties of bamboo. This research aims to investigate the gradient distribution of fiber volume fraction and the gradient changes in the shape of vascular bundles along the radial axis in Phyllostachys. We constructed a universal transfer-learning-based vascular bundle detection model with high precision of up to 96.97%, which can help to acquire the characteristics of vascular bundles quickly and accurately. The total number of vascular bundles, total fiber sheath area, the length, width and area of fiber sheath of individual vascular bundles within the entire cross-section were counted, and the results showed that these parameters had a strongly positive linear correlation with the outer circumference and wall thickness of bamboo culms, but the fiber volume fraction (around 25.5 %) and the length-to-width ratio of the vascular bundles (around 1.226) were relatively constant. Furthermore, we layered the cross section of bamboo according to the wall thickness finely and counted the characteristics of vascular bundle in each layer. The results showed that the radial distribution of fiber volume fraction decreased exponentially, the radial distribution of the length-to-width ratio of vascular bundle decreased quadratically, the radial distribution of the width of vascular bundle increased linearly. The trends of the gradient change in vascular bundle’s characteristics were found highly consistent among 29 bamboo species in Phyllostachys.One sentence summaryA universal vascular bundle detection model can efficiently dissect vascular bundles in Phyllostachys, and the radial gradient change of vascular bundles in cross-section are found highly consistent.

2021 ◽  
pp. 002199832110539
Weijie Zhang ◽  
Shibo Yan ◽  
Ying Yan ◽  
Yiding Li

In this paper, a parameterized unit cell model for 3D braided composites considering transverse braiding angle variation is proposed, to assist the mechanical characterization of such materials. According to the geometric characteristics of 3D braided composites, a method for automatically generating textile geometries based on practical braiding parameters, including the main braiding angle, the transverse braiding angle, and the fiber volume fraction, is established and implemented in a CAD software package. In this model, the addition of transverse braiding angle educes a more flexible control of fiber volume fraction distribution, and with the combination of control parameters according to the actual fiber distribution needs of users, it can suggest the appropriate parameters for the unit cell. The generated unit cell models are used in finite element analysis and the results are validated against experiments for a number of 3D braided composites in terms of fiber volume fraction and elastic constants, and good agreement is observed. Based on the parameterized unit cell model, the effects of main braiding parameters on the elastic properties of 3D braided composites are discussed.

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