leydig cells
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2022 ◽  
pp. 112805
Wenjuan Zhang ◽  
Tao Huang ◽  
Zhangbei Sun ◽  
Haibin Kuang ◽  
Yangyang Yuan ◽  

Endocrinology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Pierre-Olivier Hébert-Mercier ◽  
Francis Bergeron ◽  
Nicholas M Robert ◽  
Samir Mehanovic ◽  
Kenley Joule Pierre ◽  

Abstract Leydig cells produce androgens that are essential for male sex differentiation and reproductive function. Leydig cell function is regulated by several hormones and signaling molecules, including growth hormone (GH). Although GH is known to upregulate Star gene expression in Leydig cells, its molecular mechanism of action remains unknown. The STAT5B transcription factor is a downstream effector of GH signaling in other systems. While STAT5B is present in both primary and Leydig cell lines, its function in these cells has yet to be ascertained. Here we report that treatment of MA-10 Leydig cells with GH or overexpression of STAT5B induces Star mRNA levels and increases steroid hormone output. The mouse Star promoter contains a consensus STAT5B element (TTCnnnGAA) at -756 bp to which STAT5B binds in vitro (EMSA and supershift) and in vivo (ChIP) in a GH-induced manner. In functional promoter assays, STAT5B was found to activate a -980 bp mouse Star reporter. Mutating the -756 bp element prevented STAT5B binding but did not abrogate STAT5B-responsiveness. STAT5B was found to functionally cooperate with DNA-bound cJUN. The STAT5B/cJUN cooperation was only observed in Leydig cells and not in Sertoli or fibroblast cells, indicating that additional Leydig cell-enriched transcription factors are required. The STAT5B/cJUN cooperation was lost only when both STAT5B and cJUN elements were mutated. In addition to identifying the Star gene as a novel target for STAT5B in Leydig cells, our data provide important new insights into the mechanism of GH and STAT5B action in the regulation of Leydig cell function.

Ahmet Alkaya ◽  
Hülya Şereflişan

In this study, testicular and ovarian structures of economically important edible Pelophylax ridibundus (Pallas, 1771) were histologically examined before and after reproduction in male and female individuals. Fourty eight (24 ♀, 24 ♂) adult frogs were collected from Gölbaşı Lake in Hatay. The average weight and length values of female frogs collected from nature were found to be 56.61±19.59 g and 79.54±7.07 mm; while, the average weight and length values of male frogs were 36.63±12.84 g and 69.29±9.15 mm, respectively. Frogs were brought to the frog farm established in Aydıncık and placed in breeding ponds with a width of 1m2. Frogs in the ponds were brought to the laboratory of Iskenderun Technical University in different periods, before breeding (March) and after breeding (June). Then, histological samples were taken from ovary and testis. The female frogs were determined ready for reproduction. Moreover, a large number of mature oocytes in the before breeding ovaries in vitellogenic stage, while after reproduction oocytes in primary structure and oocytes which have atresia status observed. Also, increase in the thickness of the theca layer was determined. In the male frog seminiferous tubules containing a large number of spermatogonia, spermatocyte, spermatid and a small number of spermatozoons including sperm bundles and leydig cells were found before reproduction. After the reproduciton, the density of spermatogonia, spermatocyte and spermatids were decreased; while, the density of spermatozoon and sperm bundle were increased in the seminiferous tubules. This study will contribute to the determination of mating and spawning in frog breeding by revealing the histological status of the gonad structure of P. ridibundus in the breeding process.

2021 ◽  
Vol 44 (1) ◽  
pp. 73-93
Audrey Basque ◽  
Ha Tuyen Nguyen ◽  
Mohamed Touaibia ◽  
Luc J. Martin

In aging males, androgen production by testicular Leydig cells decreases at a rate of approximately 1% per year. Phenolic compounds may enhance testosterone biosynthesis and delay the onset of male hypogonadism. Gigantol is a bibenzyl compound isolated from several types of orchids of the genus Dendrobium. This compound has various biological activities, including antioxidant activity. However, its capacity to regulate gene expression and steroid production in testicular Leydig cells has never been evaluated. We investigated the effect of gigantol on MA-10 Leydig cells’ gene expression using an RNA-Seq approach. To further investigate the structure-function relationship of the hydroxy-methoxyphenyl moiety of gigantol, experiments were also performed with ferulic acid and isoferulic acid. According to transcriptomic analysis, all genes coding for cholesterol biosynthesis-related enzymes are increased in response to gigantol treatment, resulting in increased lipid droplets accumulation. Moreover, treatments with 10 μM gigantol increased StAR protein levels and progesterone production from MA-10 Leydig cells. However, neither ferulic acid nor isoferulic acid influenced StAR protein synthesis and progesterone production in MA-10 Leydig cells. Thus, our findings indicate that gigantol improves cholesterol and steroid biosynthesis within testicular Leydig cells.

Life ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 10
Pallav Sengupta ◽  
Sulagna Dutta ◽  
Ivan Rolland Karkada ◽  
Suresh V. Chinni

Male infertility is approaching a concerning prevalence worldwide, and inflicts various impacts on the affected couple. The hormonal assessment is a vital component of male fertility evaluation as endocrine disorders are markedly reversible causatives of male infertility. Precise hormonal regulations are prerequisites to maintain normal male fertility parameters. The core male reproductive event, spermatogenesis, entails adequate testosterone concentration, which is produced via steroidogenesis in the Leydig cells. Physiological levels of both the gonadotropins are needed to achieve normal testicular functions. The hypothalamus-derived gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is considered the supreme inducer of the gonadotropins and thereby the subsequent endocrine reproductive events. This hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis may be modulated by the thyroidal or adrenal axis and numerous other reproductive and nonreproductive hormones. Disruption of this fine hormonal balance and their crosstalk leads to a spectrum of endocrinopathies, inducing subfertility or infertility in men. This review article will discuss the most essential endocrinopathies associated with male factor infertility to aid precise understanding of the endocrine disruptions-mediated male infertility to encourage further research to reveal the detailed etiology of male infertility and perhaps to develop more customized therapies for endocrinopathy-induced male infertility.

Endocrinology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Yaqing Wang ◽  
Ding Ye ◽  
Fenghua Zhang ◽  
Ru Zhang ◽  
Junwen Zhu ◽  

Abstract Cytochrome P45011A1, encoded by Cyp11a1, converts cholesterol to pregnenolone (P5), the first and rate-limiting step in steroidogenesis. In zebrafish, cyp11a1 is maternally expressed and cyp11a2 is considered the ortholog of Cyp11a1 in mammals. A recent study has shown that depletion of cyp11a2 resulted in steroidogenic deficiencies and the mutants developed into males with feminized secondary sexual characteristics. Here, we independently generated cyp11a2 mutants in zebrafish and showed that the mutants can develop into males and females in the juvenile stage, but finally into infertile males with defective mating behavior in the adult stage. In the developing ovaries, the cyp11a2 mutation led to stage I oocyte apoptosis and final sex reversal, which could be partially rescued by treatment with P5 but not estradiol. In the developing testes, depletion of cyp11a2 resulted in dysfunction of Sertoli cells and lack of functional Leydig cells. Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) in the mutant testes underwent active self-renewal but no differentiation, resulting in a high abundance of SSCs in the testis, as revealed by immunofluorescence staining with Nanos2 antibody. The high abundance and differentiation competence of SSCs in the mutant testes were verified by a novel testicular cell transplantation (TCT) method developed in this study, by transplanting mutant testicular cells into germline-depleted wild-type (WT) fish. The transplanted mutant SSCs efficiently differentiated into functional spermatids in WT hosts. Overall, our study demonstrates the functional importance of cyp11a2 in early oogenesis and differentiation of SSCs.

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