Abstract The knowledge of the testicular and ovarian morphology of a particular fish species is of paramount importance. Such analyze enables the development of studies and techniques aiming the improvement of their reproduction, management, commercialization and even their conservation. This study performed the ovarian and testicular characterization of the ornamental Amazon fish Serrapinnus kriegi. A total of three males and three females had their gonads analyzed by optical microscopy. Females present ovaries filled with oocytes in asynchronous development, indicating partial spawning in the species. Moreover, the micropyle and micropilar cell formation was observed in primary growing oocytes, representing a precocious oocyte development; and the zona radiata in the final vitellogenic oocytes is thicker than other related species, evidencing the development of a better protection to the embryos in function of the waters’ turbulence that characterize it spawning sites in the Amazonian streams. The male specimens’ present anastomosed tubular testes with unrestricted spermatogonia spread along the entire seminiferous tubules. The present data elucidate the dynamic of spermatogenesis and oogenesis of an ornamental Amazonian species, through the description of the male and female germ cells development.
Leydig cells (Lc), located in the interstitial space of the testis between seminiferous tubules, produce 95% of testosterone in male individuals, which is pivotal for male sexual differentiation, spermatogenesis, and maintenance of the male secondary sex characteristics. Lc are prone to senescence in aging testes, resulting in compromised androgen synthesis capability upon aging. However, little is known about whether Lc undergo senescence in a chronic inflammatory environment. To investigate this question, mouse models of experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) were used, and Lc were analyzed by high throughput scRNA-Seq. Data were screened and analyzed by correlating signaling pathways with senescence, apoptosis, androgen synthesis, and cytokine/chemokine signaling pathways. EAO did induce Lc senescence, and Lc senescence in turn antagonized androgen synthesis. Based on the correlation screening of pathways inducing Lc senescence, a plethora of pathways were found to play potential roles in triggering Lc senescence during EAO, among which the Arf6 and angiopoietin receptor pathways were highly correlated with senescence signature. Notably, complement and interstitial fibrosis activated by EAO worsened Lc senescence and strongly antagonized androgen synthesis. Furthermore, most proinflammatory cytokines enhanced both senescence and apoptosis in Lc and spermatogonia (Sg) during EAO, and proinflammatory cytokine antagonism of the glutathione metabolism pathway may be key in inducing cellular senescence during EAO.
Male infertility is a major health issue with an estimated prevalence of 4.2% of male infertility worldwide. Oxidative stress (OS) is one of the main causes of male infertility, which is characterized by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) or lack of antioxidants. Meanwhile, it is reported that oxidative stress plays an important role in the spermatogenic impairment in Inner mitochondrial membrane peptidase 2-like (Immp2l) mutant mice. In this study, we focused on the potential mechanism of Guilingji in protecting the spermatogenic functions in Immp2l mutant mice. The results revealed that Immp2l mutant mice exhibit impaired spermatogenesis and histology shows seminiferous tubules with reduced spermatogenic cells. After administration of Guilingji [150 mg/kg per day intragastric gavage], however, alleviated spermatogenesis impairment and reversed testis histopathological damage and reduced apoptosis. What’s more, western blotting and the levels of redox classic markers revealed that Guilingji can markedly reduce reactive oxygen species. Moreover, Guilingji treatment led to inhibition of the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), regulated apoptosis in the cells. In summary, Guilingji can improve spermatogenesis in Immp2l mutant mice by regulating oxidation-antioxidant balance and MAPK pathway. Our data suggests that Guilingji may be a promising and effective antioxidant candidate for the treatment of male infertility.
Morphological study of the testis of adult Sudanese Chicken : gallus domesticus
The adult chicken testes were two bean - shaped , large and soft , the left testis is usually higher in position and larger in size than the right one .
The testis is active during cold weather with the mean diameter of the seminiferous tubules being 126^m in the chicken .
it is less active during the hot season with the mean diameter of the seminiferous tubules being 135^m in the chicken.
The non - breeding season seemed to be characterized by a decline in the spermatogenic activity only and not by complete spermatogenesis
Taurine transport was investigated at the blood–testis barrier (BTB) formed by Sertoli cells. An integration plot analysis of mice showed the apparent influx permeability clearance of [3H]taurine (27.7 μL/(min·g testis)), which was much higher than that of a non-permeable paracellular marker, suggesting blood-to-testis transport of taurine, which may involve a facilitative taurine transport system at the BTB. A mouse Sertoli cell line, TM4 cells, showed temperature- and concentration-dependent [3H]taurine uptake with a Km of 13.5 μM, suggesting that the influx transport of taurine at the BTB involves a carrier-mediated process. [3H]Taurine uptake by TM4 cells was significantly reduced by the substrates of taurine transporter (TauT/SLC6A6), such as β-alanine, hypotaurine, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and guanidinoacetic acid (GAA), with no significant effect shown by L-alanine, probenecid, and L-leucine. In addition, the concentration-dependent inhibition of [3H]taurine uptake revealed an IC50 of 378 μM for GABA. Protein expression of TauT in the testis, seminiferous tubules, and TM4 cells was confirmed by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry by means of anti-TauT antibodies, and knockdown of TauT showed significantly decreased [3H]taurine uptake by TM4 cells. These results suggest the involvement of TauT in the transport of taurine at the BTB.
Background: Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) are widely used in many compounds. Recent evidence has displayed some cytotoxic effects of TiO2NPs on male reproduction.
Objective: The effects of TiO2NP administration on sperm parameters and chromatin and seminiferous histopathology of male mice were investigated.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 32 NMRI male mice (35 ± 3 gr, 8-12-week-old) were divided into four groups (n = 8/each): treated groups were fed orally with 2.5 (group I), 5 (group II) and 10 (group III) mg/kg/day TiO2NPs for 40 days and the control group received phosphate buffered saline. Sperm parameters, DNA integrity and chromatin quality were assessed using chromomycin A3, aniline blue, toluidine blue staining and TUNEL. Hematoxylin eosin staining was performed to measure spermatogenic cells and the total diameter of seminiferous tubules. Also, sex hormone and malondyaldehyde levels were measured.
Results: Abnormal sperm tails rose in group III (28.87 ± 4.91) in comparison with the control group (12.75 ± 3.95). However, chromomycin A3 staining and TUNEL showed higher levels in group III in comparison with the control group, whereas aniline blue and toluidine blue staining showed no differences. A significantly lower spermatogenesis index and lumen parameters were observed in group III. Leydig cell numbers, cellular diameters and the area of the seminiferous tubules were lower in the treated groups. The testosterone level was also lower in these groups and the percentage of malondyaldehyde in the seminal fluid was higher.
Conclusion: Exact mechanisms of TiO2NPs are not clear; however, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of TiO2NPs may relate to oxidative stress. Given their widespread use, TiO2NPs should be a public health focus of attention.
Key words: Titanium dioxide, Spermatogenesis, Histology, Mouse, Chromatin, TUNEL.
AbstractObesity can disturb spermatogenesis and subsequently affect male fertility and reproduction. In our study, we aim to elucidate at which cellular level of adult spermatogenesis the detrimental effects of obesity manifest. We induced high fat diet (HFD) obesity in low-density lipoprotein receptor knock-out Leiden (Ldlr−/−.Leiden) mice, and studied the morphological structure of the testes and histologically examined the proportion of Sertoli cells, spermatocytes and spermatids in the seminiferous tubules. We examined sperm DNA damage and chromatin condensation and measured plasma levels of leptin, testosterone, cholesterol and triglycerides. HFD-induced obesity caused high plasma leptin and abnormal testosterone levels and induced an aberrant intra-tubular organisation (ITO) which is associated with an altered spermatids/spermatocytes ratio (2:1 instead of 3:1). Mice fed a HFD had a higher level of tubules in stages VII + VIII in the spermatogenic cycle. The stages VII + VII indicate crucial processes in spermatogenic development like initiation of meiosis, initiation of spermatid elongation, and release of fully matured spermatids. In conclusion, HFD-induced obese Ldlr−/−.Leiden mice develop an aberrant ITO and alterations in the spermatogenic cycle in crucial stages (stages VII and VII). Thereby, our findings stress the importance of lifestyle guidelines in infertility treatments.
Lead exposure seriously impairs male reproductive function. The protective capacity of Pedalium murex leafy stem and fruit aqueous extracts against lead testicular toxicity is evaluated to find herbals drugs able to improve semen quality.
Phytochemical screening were performed according to classical methods. Twenty four male rats were divided into four groups of six rats each and received the following treatments via oral route: distilled water; 0.2% lead acetate in drinking water; 0.2% lead acetate in drinking water with 400 mg/kg P. murex aqueous leafy stem extract; 0.2% leaded water with 400 mg/kg P. murex aqueous fruit extract. Treatments were administered for 70 days. Body and reproductive organs weights, sperm parameters and testicular histological sections of each group were examined.
Flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, alkaloids, and lignans were found in both extracts. Lead intoxication reduced sperm motility and count but increased the percentage of morphologically abnormal sperms. The germinal epithelium of seminiferous tubules histoarchitecture was disorganized by lead. The leafy stem extract was effective in reducing lead induced testicular disruption whereas fruit has not shown any beneficial effect.
P. murex leafy stem aqueous extract is effective against semen alterations caused by lead.
Background: The study on testes of local dog of Assam is of great value in regard to germplasm conservation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the gross and histomorphological examination of testes of male reproductive system.
Methods: The testes were collected at the time of castration from Department of Surgery and Radiology, College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapra, Guwahati, Assam, India. The research was carried out for a period of one year in Department of Anatomy and Histology, College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati, Assam. Then gross anatomical studies were made on it and the tissue samples were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin solution and were processed as per the standard technique of procedure (Luna, 1968). The paraffin blocks were sectioned in Shandon Finesse microtome at 5 µm thickness and the sections were stained with Mayer’s Haematoxylin and Eosin staining technique for Cellular details as per the method of Luna (1968). Result: Grossly, the testes of local dog consisted of two surface viz., lateral and medial and two ends i.e. upper end and lower end. The upper end of the testes was occupied by the head of the epididymis and the lower end of the testes was occupied by the tail of the epididymis. Mediastinum testis was observed in the centre of testes of local dog. Histologically, the testes were covered by serous layer (Tunica vaginalis), connective tissue layer (Tunica albugenia) and vascular layer (Tunica vasculosa) from outside to inwards. Spermatogenic cells like spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa, and sertoli cells were observed in seminiferous tubules. The sertoli cells were attached to the basement membrane of seminiferous tubules. Cluster of Leyding cells were found between the semineniferous tubules and it contained large spherical nuclei. The epididymides were lined by pseudo stratified ciliated columnar epithelium.