International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
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Published By Medip Academy

2394-6040, 2394-6032
Updated Friday, 03 December 2021

Ohoud Adel Turkistani ◽  
Wjdan Abduljlil Al Arqan ◽  
Rania Saad Alkhaibry ◽  
Yazan Adnan Ayoub ◽  
Rawan Mesfer Alhuthali ◽  

Hearing loss is considered among the most common chronic disorders affecting people worldwide, especially older adults and geriatrics. More than half of older adults have age-related hearing loss, which worsens with age. The role of public health to estimate and manage the issue is crucial as early screening and management for hearing loss patients can be promising. The symptoms and signs of hearing loss can appear one up to two years before the significant hearing affection. Major lessons learned from this review are that elderly individuals and geriatrics are the most common targeted population for age-related hearing loss, followed by ear wax accumulation. Therefore, routine checkup for people who are 50 years for audiological disorders is a must. Associated disorders secondary to hearing loss include depression and anxiety, which significantly burden productivity over time. To our knowledge, we performed the first complex review regarding the screening for hearing loss within the setting of primary care centers and mentioned the most standard test used to diagnose and detect the issue as early as possible.

Tammam Mozher Aldarwish ◽  
Mohammed Abdulaziz Alowaidhi ◽  
Naish Abdullah Alghamdi ◽  
Ahmed Mohammed Al Hammad ◽  
Mohammed Ibrahim Aljikhlib ◽  

There have been many limitations reported with using the Glasgow coma scale (GCS), including complexity, and being difficult to apply among aphasic, intubated, and pediatric patients. Accordingly, many researchers exerted serious efforts to enhance and modify the scale to make it more applicable and easy to interpret in these settings. The simplified motor score (SMS) was reported in the literature in 2012 for the assessment of patients with coma in different traumatic and non-traumatic settings. In the present study, we have discussed the findings of previous studies in the literature that compared the efficacy between the SMS and GCS in the assessment of patients with traumatic brain injuries within the emergency department and out-patient settings. Our results indicate the efficacy of the SMS is similar to that of the GCS score in predicting the different outcomes, including functional performance, need to perform tracheal intubation and hospital admission. Nevertheless, evidence regarding the prediction of mortality seems to be inconsistent across the different investigations. However, the differences between the two scores is not remarkable among these studies, indicating that the SMS is an efficacious tool in this regard within an acceptable test performance results. Furthermore, the SMS score can be easily applied within these without performing complex approaches, which makes it more advantageous than the GCS. However, this evidence is based on a limited number of investigations, and more studies are required.

Mithilesh Kumar ◽  
Shipra Saini ◽  
Lokesh Parashar ◽  
Rajesh Chetiwal ◽  
Tanisha Kalra ◽  

Background: CKD (chronic kidney disease) is one of the major complications of diabetes and hypertension. With increase in prevalence of non-communicable diseases, the patients presenting with the symptoms of CKD are also rising. Most of the patients suffering from CKD eventually land up on renal replacement therapy, putting extra burden economically as well as psychologically to the self and their family. The aim of the study is to find out the socio demographic and clinical profile of the patients suffering from CKD attending a tertiary care hospital in Delhi.Methods: It was a record based descriptive analysis, conducted between January 2019 and June 2019 in one of the ESIC (Employee State Insurance Corporation) hospital of Delhi. Medical Records of the only those patients were considered whose complete data were present in the record file. Data about Socio demographic profiles , clinical data, duration of CKD, duration of haemodialysis, viral markers, number of blood transfusions, vascular access, number of failed AV fistula etc. were entered in MS Excel and analysed through SPSS 11.Results: Hospital records of 473 CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis were analyzed. It was found that 315 (67%) were males and 158 (33%) were females. Majority of the patients i.e. 245 were in the age group of 41-60 years followed by 166 who were in the age group of 21 to 40. Out of total patients, 195 (41.2%) participants were undergoing hemodialysis twice a week, 276 (58.4%) thrice a week, 2 (0.4) patients were undergoing hemodialysis session four times a week. Majority of the participants i.e. 414 (88%) were Hindu. Out of total 473 participants, 439 (93%) participants had sero negative for viral marker (i.e. HbsAg, HCV, HIV I and II) and 33 (7%) participants were sero positive for viral marker. Most common etiology of CKD was found to be hypertension in our study followed by diabetes.Conclusions: Patients suffering from chronic kidney diseases are increasing day by day with increasing prevalence of hypertension. Most of the patients of CKD patients were middle aged males. Most of the patients have to visit 3 times a week to any health care institution for hemodialysis.  Many of the patients are getting infected with viral hepatitis during course of the illness.

Janakiram Marimuthu ◽  
A. Arul Murugan

Background: Childbirth, though a physiological process, has been associated with multiple risks and stress on the women, even before the time of conception till the post-partum. Every woman around the world has a right to receive respectful maternity care. Birth satisfaction and respectful maternal care has direct impact on percentage of institutional deliveries. There is paucity of studies conducted among the women of rural Tamil Nadu regarding birth satisfaction and intrapartum experiences.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in primary health center area, red hills among the post-partum women attending the immunization OPD at 6, 10 and 14th week after delivery during the months of March to June 2018. By simple random sampling technique 195 subjects were included. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to collect the data. Ethical clearance was obtained from our Institutional Ethics Committee. Data was entered in MS Excel and analysis was done using SPSS Software version 23.Results: The study shows the importance of maternal satisfaction and intrapartum experiences of women in rural areas. It concluded that the overall satisfaction was 85.5%. The transport facility available at the health care set up which satisfied the mothers was around 91.4%. The interaction of health care providers with mothers during delivery was around 64.5%. Cleanliness and comfort of the delivery area was around 64%. Equality of care provided at the health care set up was around 83%.Conclusions: Reasons for delivery visit, duration of labour, and mode of delivery are independent predictors of maternal satisfaction.

Laxmi Gautam ◽  
Durga Khadka Mishra ◽  
Gobind Prasad Pant ◽  
Rabina Khadka ◽  
Prakash Datt Chataut ◽  

Background: People who are suffering from PTSD have disturbing feelings and thoughts which is related to their experience even after a long time of such traumatic events happened. This study highlight the characteristics and prevalence of PTSD among the earthquake survivors.Methods: Cross sectional study was carried out using standard PCL-5 PTSD questionnaire. Interview was taken among 376 survivors of earthquake after 4 years of earthquake in Sindhupalchok. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were used to describe data and test association.Results: The mean age of the respondents was 39.47±16.18 years. Almost 2/5th of the respondents were either buried, injured or physically or mentally disabled during earthquake. Majority of the survivors had loss their loved one while most of them loss their property. Among the respondents who were buried 28.6% had develop PTSD which was 22.2% among physical or mental disable during earthquake. PTSD showed significant association with age, loss of known person and loss of property however didn’t show with gender, caste, experience of earthquake and so on. The prevalence of PTSD was 71 (21.5%) out of 331 respondents. Female (63.4%) were more prone to PTSD than male (36.6%).Conclusions: PTSD is prevalent among 21.5% of survivors even after 4 years of earthquake which showed an urgent need to address PTSD among the respondents and immediate intervention to prevent and treat such problems in case of future disasters. 

Paul Wesley Thompson

Financial hardship is a phenomenon which mediates many other factors in life regardless of age group one of many is well-being. Well-being is a multi-disciplinary term. This paper will investigate existing literature on the effect of financial hardship on well-being using systematic review to minimize the biases. The data will be systematically searched with following databases: Wiley-online library, Google scholar, JSTOR, Tandfonline and Emerald. The present study is a systematic review of English language research of 2010 to 2020 research papers on financial hardship and well-being. The databases used in the research are Wiley Online Library, Google Scholar with keywords financial hardship, financial pressure, financial challenges, stress, wellbeing, anxiety, psychological well-being. 81 studies were excluded and 12 studies were selected after reviewing the title and abstract of 93 studies based on the PRISMA. The inclusion and exclusion criteria allow studies of 2010 to 2021 to be considered. Fewer data was present in the subject of wellbeing and financial stress. However, the results show impact of both variables. Financial pressure leads to poor wellbeing and other factors such as lack of social support, unhealthy family environment and dept can robust the impact. The research makes a unique new contribution in research, lending support for policy, academic theory, new contributions to current literature not found elsewhere, especially mental health management policy.

Hari Krishnan R. ◽  
Hanitha Rajasekar ◽  
Suganthi S.

Background: The whole world became still, when a major pandemic COVID-19 started its toll across all developed and developing countries. It has caused both physical and emotional disturbances among all age groups. This study was done to evaluate the parental mental health in COVID-19 as this group is not given much importance. The major mental health problems associated with COVID-19 among parents are due to online classes which has caused depression, anxiety and stress.Methods: A cross-sectional study done among all parents, especially those of whose children are attending online class were included in the study. Convenient sampling was used to select 204 participants, GHQ 12 questionnaire was used for data collection on mental health status among parents.Results: Overall prevalence of parents with better mental health <19 was 108 (52.9%) and prevalence of parents with poor mental health >19 was 96 (47.1%).Conclusions: This study concluded that parental age of 31 to 40 years who are employed and have children studying in primary school to have a poor mental health status. The most important contributing factors for poor parental health were online classes for children and work place stress.

Jessica Gloria Mogi ◽  
Gustaaf A. E. Ratag

Background: The Indonesian government recognizes the importance of mental health issues as indicated by the inclusion of such issues as indicators in the national program, the Healthy Indonesian Program with Family Approach (PIS-PK). This program is enforced in community health centers (puskesmas) in every regency in the country. However, the continually increasing number of mental disorder cases and the intense stigmatization of people with these disorders indicate the need to re-evaluate the capacity and delivery of designated centers’ mental health programs.Methods: This community survey involved interviewing the program directors of four community health centers in north Minahasa using the WHO-AIMS 2.2 questionnaire.Results: Very little effort has been made to improve mental health facilities and programs. Examples of aspects of health facilities that are lacking include training for health workers, the provision of psychotropic drugs, and supported employment or occupational rehabilitation.Conclusions: Community health centers are primary healthcare facilities for society. Therefore, mental health services should be implemented as one of their main programs.

Pooja Chand ◽  
Pratiti Haldar ◽  
Manoj Jangir ◽  
Nagendra Prakash ◽  
Ratna Prakash

Background: Intranatal care refers to care given throughout the process of all four stages of labor and is important for both mother and newborn. Safe delivery practice and compliance to intranatal care protocol by trained staff nurses is essential. The objectives were to identify the intra-natal care practices of staff nurses, compare intranatal care practices among the three selected hospitals and explore the barriers to compliance of intranatal care practices by staff nurses.Methods: Cross-sectional observation design was used for the present study. The study was conducted in two phases to fulfil the objectives. Three hospitals were conveniently selected and about 42 delivery events were observed in phase I and 15 staff nurses were interviewed through semi-structured interview schedule to identify the barriers to compliance in phase II.Results: It was found that majority of 8 (57.1%) staff nurses were in the age group of (25-42) years and maximum 13 (86.7%) staff nurses had attended training program related to intranatal care practices. In majority 24 (57.1%) deliveries, sterile technique for vaginal examination was not followed, in 33 (78.6%) deliveries cord pulsation was not assessed and in 39 (92.9%) deliveries baby was not placed on mother’s chest. Lack of required facilities leading to referral and non-cooperation of women during procedures were some identified barriers.Conclusions: The present study findings revealed that the intranatal care practices were inappropriate, they were missing most essential practices that might harm to the mother or baby in future.

Byamukama Topher ◽  
Keraka M. Margaret ◽  
Gitonga Eliphas

Background: Immunization is one of the most cost-effective public health interventions to reduce child mortality and morbidity associated with infectious diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the perceptions of caregivers on immunization in Ntungamo district.Methods: Quasi-experimental study was used with health centres assigned to intervention and control groups. Purposive sampling was used to select the two counties where the study was done. Proportional sampling was done to get study samples from each health facility, while systematic sampling was done to get study participants. A total of 787 children from twelve health facilities provided the study sample. A post intervention evaluation was conducted to determine the effect of these interventions. Association of variables was tested using Mann Whitney U-test and Chi-square.Results: On benefits, most caregivers in the intervention group (85.3%) and in the control group (54.3%) regarded immunization as very highly and moderately beneficial to their children respectively. On risks, most caregivers in the intervention group (85.5%) and control group (43.1%) regarded the risk factor associated with immunization as very low and moderate respectively. From hypothesis testing, there was a significant difference on the perceived benefits and risks of immunization between the intervention and control group.Conclusions: Most caregivers in the intervention and control group regarded immunization as very highly beneficial and moderately to their children respectively. Most of the caregivers in the intervention and control group regarded the risk factor associated with immunization as very low and moderate respectively. 

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