respiratory disease
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Debesh Mishra ◽  
Hullash Chauhan ◽  
Dinesh Kumar Mishra ◽  
Suchismita Satapathy

COVID-19 has been primarily regarded as a respiratory disease, and until a safer and effective treatment or vaccine becomes available, the prevention of COVID-19 may continue through interventions based on non-pharmaceutical measures such as maintaining of physical distances and use of personal protective equipment like facemasks, etc. Therefore, an attempt was made in this study to explore the drawbacks with the presently available facemasks for protection from COVID-19 viruses in the state of Odisha in India, and also to explore the possible opportunities for further development of these facemasks. The associated discomforts; strength, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis of existing facemasks in Odisha; possible opportunities for “Make in India” of these facemasks; along with safer use have been analyzed with the help of interpretive structural modelling (ISM) approach followed by MICMAC analysis.

Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 148
Aleksandra Woźniak ◽  
Piotr Cybulski ◽  
Lilla Denes ◽  
Gyula Balka ◽  
Tomasz Stadejek

Porcine respirovirus 1 (PRV1) is also known as porcine parainfluenza virus 1 (PPIV1). The prevalence and the role of PRV1 infections for pig health is largely unknown. In order to assess the PRV1 prevalence in Poland, nasal swabs and oral fluids collected from pigs from 30 farms were examined with RT real-time PCR. Additionally, IAV and PRRSV infection statuses of PRV1-positive samples were examined. The results showed that the virus is highly prevalent (76.7% farms positive) and different patterns of PRV1 circulation in herds with mild–moderate respiratory disease were observed. Co-infections with IAV and PRRSV were infrequent and detected in 8 (23.5%) and 4 (11.8%) out of 34 PRV1-positive nasal swab pools from diseased pens, respectively. In one pen PRV1, IAV, and PRRSV were detected at the same time. Interestingly, PRV1 mean Ct value in samples with co-infections was significantly lower (29.8 ± 3.1) than in samples with a single PRV1 infection (32.5 ± 3.6) (p < 0.05), which suggested higher virus replication in these populations. On the other hand, the virus detection in pig populations exhibiting respiratory clinical signs, negative for PRRSV and IAV, suggests that PRV1 should be involved in differential diagnosis of respiratory problems.

Li Hui Tan ◽  
Cailu Lin ◽  
Heather Ungerer ◽  
Ankur Kumar ◽  
Anas Qatanani ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. 00462-2021
Heidi Andersén ◽  
Pinja Ilmarinen ◽  
Jasmin Honkamäki ◽  
Leena E Tuomisto ◽  
Hanna Hisinger-Mölkänen ◽  

BackgroundNonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may exacerbate respiratory symptoms. A recent EAACI position paper recommended the use of an acronym, N-ERD (NSAID-exacerbated respiratory disease), for this hypersensitivity associated with asthma or chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with or without nasal polyposis. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of N-ERD and identify factors associated with N-ERD.MethodsIn 2016, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of a random adult population of 16 000 subjects aged 20–69 years was performed in Helsinki and Western Finland. The response rate was 51.5%.ResultsThe prevalence was 1.4% for N-ERD, and 0.7% for AERD. The prevalence of N-ERD was 6.9% among subjects with asthma and 2.7% among subjects with rhinitis.The risk factors for N-ERD were older age, family history of asthma or allergic rhinitis, long-term smoking and exposure to environmental pollutants. Asthmatic subjects with N-ERD had a higher risk of respiratory symptoms, severe hypersensitivity reactions and hospitalisations than asthmatic subjects without N-ERD. The sub-phenotype of N-ERD with asthma was most symptomatic. Subjects with rhinitis associated with N-ERD, which would not be included in AERD, had the least symptoms.ConclusionWe conclude that the prevalence of N-ERD was 1.4% in a representative Finnish adult population sample. Older age, family history of asthma or allergic rhinitis, cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke, secondhand smoke, and occupational exposures increased odds of N-ERD. N-ERD was associated with significant morbidity.

2022 ◽  
Akito Nagakura ◽  
Yoshihiko Morikawa ◽  
Nao Takasugi ◽  
Hanako Funakoshi ◽  
Yoko Miura ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Simin Li ◽  
Wanchen Ning ◽  
Wei Wang ◽  
Dirk Ziebolz ◽  
Aneesha Acharya ◽  

Background: This systematic review evaluates the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of patients with chronic respiratory diseases.Methods: A systematic literature search was performed based on the PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, and Scopus, using the search terms: “oral health-related quality of life” and “respiratory disease” or “lung” and “oral health-related quality of life.” Full-text articles published until June 30, 2021 and reporting any OHRQoL measurement in children or adults with a chronic respiratory disease or condition were included and analyzed qualitatively.Results: A total of seven out of 44 studies were included, of which four studies examined adults and three studies investigated children. The respective diseases were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 2), sleep apnea (n = 2), severe asthma (n = 1), cystic fibrosis (n = 1), and lung transplantation (n = 1). Four studies confirmed a worse OHRQoL in the respiratory diseased group compared to healthy controls. The overall OHRQoL was reduced in the included studies. Oral health, health-related quality of life, and disease-related parameters were rarely examined with regard to OHRQoL.Conclusion: Patients with chronic respiratory diseases show a reduced OHRQoL. Oral health should be fostered in these individuals to support their OHRQoL.

2022 ◽  
Richard J Packer ◽  
Nick Shrine ◽  
Robert Hall ◽  
Carl Melbourne ◽  
Rebecca Thompson ◽  

Background Chronic sputum production impacts on quality of life and is a feature of many respiratory diseases. Identification of the genetic variants associated with chronic sputum production in a disease agnostic sample could improve understanding of its causes and identify new molecular targets for treatment. Methods We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of chronic sputum production in UK Biobank. Signals meeting genome-wide significance (P<5x10-8) were fine-mapped and putative causal genes identified by gene expression analysis. GWAS of respiratory traits were interrogated to identify whether the signals were driven by existing respiratory disease amongst the cases and variants were further investigated for wider pleiotropic effects using phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS). Findings From a GWAS of 9,714 cases and 48,471 controls, we identified six novel genome-wide significant signals for chronic sputum production including the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) locus, chromosome 11 mucin locus (containing MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC5B) and the FUT2 locus. The mucin locus signal had previously been reported for association with moderate-to-severe asthma. The HLA signal was fine-mapped to an amino-acid change of threonine to arginine (frequency 36.8%) in HLA-DRB1 (HLA-DRB1*03:147). The signal near FUT2 was associated with expression of several genes including FUT2, for which the direction of effect was tissue dependent. Our PheWAS identified a wide range of associations. Interpretation Novel signals at the FUT2 and mucin loci highlight mucin flucosylation as a driver of chronic sputum production even in the absence of diagnosed respiratory disease and provide genetic support for this pathway as a target for therapeutic intervention.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 134
Chunli Li ◽  
Rahat Zaheer ◽  
Andrea Kinnear ◽  
Murray Jelinski ◽  
Tim A. McAllister

A comparative study of microbiota of the respiratory tract and joints of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) cattle mortalities was undertaken. Nasopharynx, trachea, lung and joint samples were collected from 32 cattle that died of BRD, “cases”, and 8 that died of other causes, “controls”. Bacterial diversity was lower (p < 0.05) in the nasopharynx, trachea and lungs of cases as compared to controls. In cases, alpha-diversity (p < 0.05) was lower in the lungs and joints than the nasopharynx. Proteobacteria, Tenericutes, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were the most abundant phyla in all samples. Relative abundances of Mycoplasma spp. in the lung, Pasteurella spp. in the trachea and lung, and Histophilus spp. in the lung, trachea and nasopharynx of cases were higher (p < 0.001) than controls. Mycoplasma spp. comprised 20.5% of bacterial flora in the joint, 36.0% in the lung, 22.4% in the trachea and 8.8% in the nasopharynx. Mannheimia spp. (21.8%) and Histophilus spp. (10.4%) were more abundant in lungs. Cattle that died of BRD possessed less diverse respiratory microbiomes with a higher abundance of respiratory pathogens. Mycoplasma spp. were prominent members of pneumonic lungs and joints displaying septic arthritis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Naoko Iwata-Yoshikawa ◽  
Nozomi Shiwa ◽  
Tsuyoshi Sekizuka ◽  
Kaori Sano ◽  
Akira Ainai ◽  

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