Structural Characterisation
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Processes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (6) ◽  
pp. 912
Ioana Lavinia Dejeu ◽  
Laura Grațiela Vicaș ◽  
Tunde Jurca ◽  
Alin Cristian Teușdea ◽  
Mariana Eugenia Mureșan ◽  

Medical and pharmaceutical research has shown that liposomes are very efficient in transporting drugs to targets. In this study, we prepared six liposome formulas, three in which we entrapped caffeic acid (CA), and three with only phospholipids and without CA. Determination of entrapment efficiency (EE) showed that regardless of the phospholipids used, the percentage of CA entrapment was up to 76%. The characterization of the liposomes was performed using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), zeta potential and polydispersity and showed that about 75–99% of the liposomes had dimensions between 40 ± 0.55–500 ± 1.45 nm. The size and zeta potential of liposomes were influenced by the type of phospholipid used to obtain them. CA release from liposomes was performed using a six-cell Franz diffusion system, and it was observed that the release of entrapped CA occurs gradually, the highest amount occurring in the first eight hours (over 80%), after which the release is much reduced. Additionally, the time stability of the obtained liposomes was analysed using univariate and multivariate statistical analysis. Therefore, liposomes offer great potential in CA entrapment.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (5) ◽  
pp. e0251261
Zuzana Hodáková ◽  
Andrea Nans ◽  
Simone Kunzelmann ◽  
Shahid Mehmood ◽  
Ian Taylor ◽  

Chl1 is a member of the XPD family of 5’-3’ DNA helicases, which perform a variety of roles in genome maintenance and transmission. They possess a variety of unique structural features, including the presence of a highly variable, partially-ordered insertion in the helicase domain 1. Chl1 has been shown to be required for chromosome segregation in yeast due to its role in the formation of persistent chromosome cohesion during S-phase. Here we present structural and biochemical data to show that Chl1 has the same overall domain organisation as other members of the XPD family, but with some conformational alterations. We also present data suggesting the insert domain in Chl1 regulates its DNA binding.

2021 ◽  
Vol 135 ◽  
pp. 191-203
Chia Chiu Lim ◽  
Soo Khim Chan ◽  
Yee Ying Lim ◽  
Yuya Ishikawa ◽  
Yee Siew Choong ◽  

2021 ◽  
Claire Marie Weekley ◽  
Damian Francis John Purcell ◽  
Michael W Parker

Since SARS-CoV-2 emerged in 2019, genomic sequencing has identified mutations in the viral RNA including in the receptor-binding domain of the Spike protein. Structural characterisation of the Spike carrying point mutations aids in our understanding of how these mutations impact binding of the Spike protein to its human receptor, ACE2, and to therapeutic antibodies. The Spike G485R mutation has been observed in multiple isolates of the virus and mutation of the adjacent residue E484 to lysine is known to contribute to antigenic escape. Here, we have crystallised the SARS-CoV-2 Spike receptor-binding domain with a G485R mutation in complex with human ACE2. The crystal structure shows that while the G485 residue does not have a direct interaction with ACE2, its mutation to arginine affects the structure of the 480-488 loop of the receptor-binding motif, disrupting the interactions of neighbouring residues with ACE2 and with potential implications for antigenic escape from monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 Spike.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Andrew Munthopa Lipunga ◽  
Betchani M.H. Tchereni ◽  
Rhoda Cythia Bakuwa

PurposeThe purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of governance reforms also called conceptual innovation for public hospitals in Malawi.Design/methodology/approachIt focuses on the reforms for central and district hospitals. It uses semi-structured interviews to collect data and thematic approach to analyse it.FindingsThe results show that the reforms for central hospitals are structurally well characterised as aimed at corporatisation though they are termed as automatisation. The terminological seems not to pose any harm on the direction of the reforms due to the thorough structural characterisation. On the other hand, reforms for district hospitals are vague as such implementation is retrogressive, in that, instead of progressively moving the hospitals towards greater autonomy the opposite is happening.Originality/valueThe paper highlights the significance of characterisation of the intended outcome on the direction of the reforms and proposes a framework to guide conceptual innovation for public hospitals in a devolution-mediated environment.

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