Colloidal suspensions of nanoparticles (e.g., metals and oxides) have been considered as a promising working fluid in microreactors for achieving significant process intensification. Existing examples include their uses in microflow as catalysts for enhancing the reaction efficiency, or as additives to mix with the base fluid (i.e., to form the so-called nanofluids) for heat/mass transfer intensification. Thus, hydrodynamic characterization of such suspension flow in microreactors is of high importance for a rational design and operation of the system. In this work, experiments have been conducted to investigate the flow pattern and pressure drop characteristics under slug flow between N2 gas and colloidal suspensions in the presence of TiO2 or Al2O3 nanoparticles through polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) capillary microreactors. The base fluid consisted of water or its mixture with ethylene glycol. The slug flow pattern with nanoparticle addition was characterized by the presence of a lubricating liquid film around N2 bubbles, in contrast to the absence of liquid film in the case of N2-water slug flow. This shows that the addition of nanoparticles has changed the wall wetting property to be more hydrophilic. Furthermore, the measured pressure drop under N2-nanoparticle suspension slug flow is well described by the model of Kreutzer et al. (AIChE J 51(9):2428–2440, 2005) at the mixture Reynolds numbers ca. above 100 and is better predicted by the model of Warnier et al. (Microfluidics and Nanofluidics 8(1):33–45, 2010) at lower Reynolds numbers given a better consideration of the effect of film thickness and bubble velocity under such conditions in the latter model. Therefore, the employed nanoparticle suspension can be considered as a stable and pseudo single phase with proper fluid properties (e.g., viscosity and density) when it comes to the pressure drop estimation.
AbstractTo eliminate the negative effect of traditional metal-working fluids and achieve sustainable manufacturing, the usage of nano-enhanced biolubricant (NEBL) is widely researched in minimum quantify lubrication (MQL) machining. It’s improved tool wear and surface integrity have been preliminarily verified by experimental studies. The previous review papers also concluded the major influencing factors of processability including nano-enhancer and lubricant types, NEBL concentration, micro droplet size, and so on. Nevertheless, the complex action of NEBL, from preparation, atomization, infiltration to heat transfer and anti-friction, is indistinct which limits preparation of process specifications and popularity in factories. Especially in the complex machining process, in-depth understanding is difficult and meaningful. To fill this gap, this paper concentrates on the comprehensive quantitative assessment of processability based on tribological, thermal, and machined surface quality aspects for NEBL application in turning, milling, and grinding. Then it attempts to answer mechanisms systematically considering multi-factor influence of molecular structure, physicochemical properties, concentration, and dispersion. Firstly, this paper reveals advanced lubrication and heat transfer mechanisms of NEBL by quantitative comparison with biolubricant-based MQL machining. Secondly, the distinctive filmformation, atomization, and infiltration mechanisms of NEBL, as distinguished from metal-working fluid, are clarified combining with its unique molecular structure and physical properties. Furtherly, the process optimization strategy is concluded based on the synergistic relationship analysis among process variables, physicochemical properties, machining mechanisms, and performance of NEBL. Finally, the future development directions are put forward aiming at current performance limitations of NEBL, which requires improvement on preparation and jet methods respects. This paper will help scientists deeply understand effective mechanism, formulate process specifications, and find future development trend of this technology.
The production, transportation, and storage of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is a promising area in the gas industry due to a number of the fuel’s advantages, such as its high energy intensity indicators, its reduced storage volume compared to natural gas in the gas-air state, and it ecological efficiency. However, LNG storage systems feature a number of disadvantages, among which is the boil-off gas (BOG) recovery from an LNG tank by flaring it or discharging it to the atmosphere. Previous attempts to boil-off gas recovery using compressors, in turn, feature such disadvantages as large capital investments and operating costs, as well as low reliability rates. The authors of this article suggest a technical solution to this problem that consists in using a gas ejector for boil-off gas recovery. Natural gas from a high-pressure gas pipeline is proposed as a working fluid entraining the boil-off gas. The implementation of this method was carried out according to the developed algorithm. The proposed technical solution reduced capital costs (by approximately 170 times), metal consumption (by approximately 100 times), and power consumption (by approximately 55 kW), and improved the reliability of the system compared to a compressor unit. The sample calculation of a gas ejector for the boil-off gas recovery from an LNG tank with a capacity of 300 m3 shows that the ejector makes it possible to increase the boil-off gas pressure in the system by up to 1.13 MPa, which makes it possible to not use the first-stage compressor unit for the compression of excess vapours.
Due to the importance of public health and economics, cardiovascular disease has become one of the most important debates and challenges for scientists. However, few studies have been done to address this challenge. The main objective of this document is to provide an optimal model to improve the performance of the left ventricular assist device and reduce costs. In this way, in the present study, the experimental and numerical procedures were developed to analyze the effects of the geometrical features and operational parameters on the performance of a centrifugal blood pump (CBP).
In order to achieve this aim, first, experimental tests were carried out to study the influence of the working fluid temperature and the rotational speed on the CBP. Subsequently, the performance of the CBP was assessed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and comparison was made against the experimental data. In addition, the influence of mounting an inducer on the overall performance of CBP was also investigated.
Good agreement between the CFD and the data was obtained. The CFD results showed that increasing the fluid temperature and rotational speed leads to an increase in the hydraulic efficiency, pressure difference, and power. In addition, the reduction of the pressure difference and hydraulic efficiency with increasing the surface roughness was observed. While mounting an inducer on the pump did not significantly impact its overall performance, the highest value of the wall shear stress dropped moderately on the impeller and, therefore, unveiled the possibility of improving the performance of such designs.
A new approach to synthesize a robust controller for the angular motion of the Earth lander by decomposition method of output modal control is proposed. A universal analytical solution for the problem of stabilizing the angular position of the lander is obtained. A comparative analysis of the presented algorithm with the currently used onboard algorithm for descent control of the manned spacecraft Soyuz is carried out. The advantages of the new algorithm relative to the existing algorithm are presented, both in terms of stabilization accuracy and the consumption of the working fluid of the control motors.
Heat exchangers play a critical role in supercritical CO2 Brayton cycles by providing necessary waste heat recovery. Supercritical CO2 thermal cycles potentially achieve higher energy density and thermal efficiency operating at elevated temperatures and pressures. Accurate and computationally efficient estimation of heat exchanger performance metrics at these conditions is important for the design and optimization of sCO2 systems and thermal cycles. In this paper (Part II), a computationally efficient and accurate numerical model is developed to predict the performance of STHXs. Highly accurate correlations reported in Part I of this study are utilized to improve the accuracy of performance predictions, and the concept of volume averaging is used to abstract the geometry and reduce computation time. The numerical model is validated by comparison with CFD simulations and provides high accuracy and significantly lower computation time compared to existing numerical models. A preliminary optimization study is conducted and the advantage of using supercritical CO2 as a working fluid for energy systems is demonstrated.
High-temperature supercritical CO2 Brayton cycles are promising possibilities for future stationary power generation and hybrid electric propulsion applications. Heat exchangers are critical components in supercritical CO2 thermal cycles and require accurate correlations and comprehensive performance modeling under extreme temperatures and pressures. In this paper (part I), new Colburn and friction factor correlations are developed to quantify shell-side heat transfer and friction characteristics of flow within heat exchangers in the shell-and-tube configuration. Using experimental and CFD data sets from existing literature, multivariate regression analysis is conducted to achieve correlations that capture the effect of multiple critical geometric parameters. These correlations offer superior accuracy and versatility as compared to previous studies and predict the thermohydraulic performance of about 90% of the existing experimental and CFD data within ±15%. Supplementary thermohydraulic performance data is acquired from CFD simulations with sCO2 as working fluid to validate the developed correlations and demonstrate its capability to be applied to sCO2 heat exchangers.
There is potential for harnessing renewable energy from coastal waves and tides, from the coastal and offshore areas of Pakistan. The Sindh coast is a complex creek network located in the 170 km of the Indus deltaic area. The flood and ebb of tides in and out of these creeks have a high velocity of 0.2–0.5 m/s. NIO Pakistan has conducted preliminary feasibility surveys for energy extraction from the Indus deltaic creek system. The 17 major creeks have the capacity to produce estimated energy of approximately 1100 MW. The seawater ingresses inland at some places up to 80 km due to the tidal fluctuation, which is favorable for energy extraction from tidal currents in coastal Sindh. In total, 71% of our Planet Earth is covered by the oceans. The oceans are massive collectors of solar radiation received from the sun. The oceans store the potential energy that is received in the form of incident radiation from the sun that generates thermal energy. A 10 °C temperature difference can be harnessed between the surface and bottom water, using a working fluid. The thermal difference absorbed by the oceans can be converted into electricity through ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). The ocean tidal and wave energy has advantages over energy produced using different fossil fuels; there are also several benefits of using renewable sources of ocean energy. Viability of ocean energy in Pakistan is discussed in this paper.