Direct Evidence
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2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Rui Zhao ◽  
Yingchao Song ◽  
Xing Guo ◽  
Xiaotian Yang ◽  
Haoran Sun ◽  

Degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) damages the spinal cord, resulting in long-term neurological impairment including motor and visual deficits. Given that visual feedback is crucial in guiding movements, the visual disorder may be a cause of motor deficits in patients with DCM. It has been shown that increased functional connectivity between secondary visual cortices and cerebellum, which are functionally related to the visually guided movements, was correlated with motor function in patients with DCM. One possible explanation is that the information integration between these regions was increased to compensate for impaired visual acuity in patients with DCM and resulted in better visual feedback during motor function. However, direct evidence supporting this hypothesis is lacking. To test this hypothesis and explore in more detail the information flow within the “visual-cerebellum” system, we measured the effective connectivity (EC) among the “visual-cerebellum” system via dynamic causal modeling and then tested the relationship between the EC and visual ability in patients with DCM. Furthermore, the multivariate pattern analysis was performed to detect the relationship between the pattern of EC and motor function in patients with DCM. We found (1) significant increases of the bidirectional connections between bilateral secondary visual cortices and cerebellum were observed in patients with DCM; (2) the increased self-connection of the cerebellum was positively correlated with the impaired visual acuity in patients; (3) the amplitude of effectivity from the cerebellum to secondary visual cortices was positively correlated with better visual recovery following spinal cord decompression surgery; and (4) the pattern of EC among the visual-cerebellum system could be used to predict the pre-operative motor function. In conclusion, this study provided direct evidence that the increased information integration within the “visual-cerebellum” system compensated for visual impairments, which might have importance for sustaining better motor function in patients with DCM.

2021 ◽  
pp. 403-420
Alejandro Villamor Iglesias

Invertebrate animals are usually seen as a kind of “aliens” which do not deserve any moral consideration. However, there is a growing amount of evidence indicating that many of them do have the capacity to experience pain. The same criteria that are usually applied in order to infer that vertebrates are sentient beings (behavioral response, learning capacity, memory, a certain specific neurophysiological structure…) lead to the idea that many invertebrates are sentient as well. Therefore, under the skeptical premise that we have no direct evidence of the experience of pain in vertebrates, we are forced to hold that it exists in both vertebrates and invertebrates.

Xiangbo Ji ◽  
Jianhua Xu ◽  
Liping Cheng ◽  
Jianfei Sun ◽  
Xiaocheng Zhang

Efforts to improve coaching effectiveness require an understanding of the common sources of coaches’ knowledge acquisition. Sports coaches utilise multiple learning sources, yet limited direct evidence elucidates the manner in which Chinese coaches learn to coach and the evolution of their learning sources throughout their careers’ development. This research examines the actual and preferred sources of coaching knowledge for Chinese coaches and analyses changes in learning sources from Junior to Senior level coaches. One hundred coaches from China, including 60 Junior coaches, 23 Intermediate coaches and 17 Senior coaches, completed an online questionnaire. The survey results indicated that coaches acquire knowledge from formal, informal and non-formal learning situations. However, formal coach education (coach education programmes) is the most important source of knowledge acquisition for all coaches. Furthermore, as coaches develop, the sources to acquire knowledge will gradually change from athletic experience to interaction with other coaches. Based on these findings, we suggest that national sport governing bodies build more comprehensive coach education systems by establishing a scientific mentoring system and organising regular coach-themed clinics, seminars, meetings and so on. Future research is needed to examine how coaches in China’s dominant programmes learn to coach and how this learning is practically applied.

Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (6) ◽  
pp. 1535
Marina Elez

Mismatch Repair (MMR) is an important and conserved keeper of the maintenance of genetic information. Miroslav Radman’s contributions to the field of MMR are multiple and tremendous. One of the most notable was to provide, along with Bob Wagner and Matthew Meselson, the first direct evidence for the existence of the methyl-directed MMR. The purpose of this review is to outline several aspects and biological implications of MMR that his work has helped unveil, including the role of MMR during replication and recombination editing, and the current understanding of its mechanism. The review also summarizes recent discoveries related to the visualization of MMR components and discusses how it has helped shape our understanding of the coupling of mismatch recognition to replication. Finally, the author explains how visualization of MMR components has paved the way to the study of spontaneous mutations in living cells in real time.

2021 ◽  
S Sahana ◽  
Ambily Sivadas ◽  
Mohit Mangla ◽  
Abhinav Jain ◽  
Rahul C Bhoyar ◽  

Aim: Numerous drugs are being widely prescribed for COVID-19 treatment without any direct evidence for the drug safety/efficacy in patients across diverse ethnic populations. Materials & methods: We analyzed whole genomes of 1029 Indian individuals (IndiGen) to understand the extent of drug–gene (pharmacogenetic), drug–drug and drug–drug–gene interactions associated with COVID-19 therapy in the Indian population. Results: We identified 30 clinically significant pharmacogenetic variants and 73 predicted deleterious pharmacogenetic variants. COVID-19-associated pharmacogenes were substantially overlapped with those of metabolic disorder therapeutics. CYP3A4, ABCB1 and ALB are the most shared pharmacogenes. Fifteen COVID-19 therapeutics were predicted as likely drug–drug interaction candidates when used with four CYP inhibitor drugs. Conclusion: Our findings provide actionable insights for future validation studies and improved clinical decisions for COVID-19 therapy in Indians.

2021 ◽  
Mayra L Ruiz Tejada Segura ◽  
Eman Abou Moussa ◽  
Elisa Garabello ◽  
Thiago S Nakahara ◽  
Melanie Makhlouf ◽  

The sense of smell helps us navigate the environment, but its anatomical logic remains unknown. The spatial location of odorant receptor genes (Olfrs) in the nose is widely thought to be independent of the structural diversity of the odorants they detect. Using spatial transcriptomics, we created a genome-wide 3D atlas of the mouse olfactory mucosa (OM), and identified key genes differentially expressed in space. Expression maps reveal that Olfrs are distributed in a continuous and overlapping fashion over five broad zones in the OM. The spatial locations of Olfrs correlate with the mucus solubility of the odorants they recognize. Thus, we provide direct evidence for the chromatographic theory of olfaction, and elucidate the basic logic for the peripheral representation of smell.

2021 ◽  
Marco Macchiavelli ◽  
Xing (Alex) Zhou

We provide direct evidence of how dealers’ funding liquidity affects their liquidity provision in securities markets. Worse funding liquidity (higher repo haircuts and rates) leads to larger bid-ask spreads and transaction costs in corporate bonds. We also find that dealers’ relationships with money funds are important determinants of their repo haircuts and rates. Using dealers’ exposure to the 2016 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) money fund reform as an instrument, we show that funding liquidity indeed has a causal effect on market liquidity. Finally, dealers with lower funding liquidity tend to have smaller market shares and execute more trades on an agency basis. This paper was accepted by Haoxiang Zhu, finance.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Alina Minias ◽  
Filip Gąsior ◽  
Anna Brzostek ◽  
Tomasz Jagielski ◽  
Jarosław Dziadek

AbstractCobalamin (vitamin B12) is a structurally complex molecule that acts as a cofactor for enzymes and regulates gene expression through so-called riboswitches. The existing literature on the vitamin B12 synthesis capacity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is ambiguous, while in non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is rather marginal. Here we present the results of our investigation into the occurrence of vitamin B12 in mycobacteria. For detection purposes, immunoassay methods were applied to cell lysates of NTM and M. tuberculosis clinical and laboratory strains grown under different conditions. We show that whereas vitamin B12 is present in cells of various NTM species, it cannot be evidenced in strains of differently cultured M. tuberculosis, even though the genes responsible for vitamin B12 synthesis are actively expressed based on RNA-Seq data. In summary, we conclude that the production of vitamin B12 does occur in mycobacteria, with the likely exception of M. tuberculosis. Our results provide direct evidence of vitamin B12 synthesis in a clinically important group of bacteria.

Joel Laffita Rivera

Scientifically speaking we, all know that the origins of language and culture remain unknown. Researchers relate to fossil, archeology evidence, and historical accounts in attempting to access what many scholars do think is a topic that lacks of direct evidence. However, when it comes to the languages and cultures we know today, it could be viable to investigate correlational language and cultural patterns in Applied Linguistics Studies. Thus, the present research study looks at the Spanish syntaxes [tú and usted] to highlight correlated linguistic and cultural traits. It presents an analyse of the Applied Linguistic and Culture patterns related to the subject investigated, and methodological insights based on the method developed by Edward T. Hall, a prospect that describes and analyses cultures. The research study was conducted by following suitable research protocols. This criterium involved the analysis of various research publications and Internet accredited website sources. This research study is beneficial for scholars involved and interested in conducting researchers related to Spanish Linguistic and Cultural Connectiveness Patterns.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
A. G. Brown ◽  
M. Van Hardenbroek ◽  
T. Fonville ◽  
K. Davies ◽  
H. Mackay ◽  

AbstractDirect evidence of ancient human occupation is typically established through archaeological excavation. Excavations are costly and destructive, and practically impossible in some lake and wetland environments. We present here an alternative approach, providing direct evidence from lake sediments using DNA metabarcoding, steroid lipid biomarkers (bile acids) and from traditional environmental analyses. Applied to an early Medieval Celtic settlement in Ireland (a crannog) this approach provides a site chronology and direct evidence of human occupation, crops, animal farming and on-site slaughtering. This is the first independently-dated, continuous molecular archive of human activity from an archeological site, demonstrating a link between animal husbandry, food resources, island use. These sites are under threat but are impossible to preserve in-situ so this approach can be used, with or without excavation, to produce a robust and full site chronology and provide direct evidence of occupation, the use of plants and animals, and activities such as butchery.

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