direct evidence
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2022 ◽  
Vol 211 ◽  
pp. 114498
Alfredo Blázquez Martínez ◽  
Patrick Grysan ◽  
Stéphanie Girod ◽  
Sebastjan Glinsek ◽  
Torsten Granzow

eLife ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Kaitlyn Tsai ◽  
Vanja Stojković ◽  
Lianet Noda-Garcia ◽  
Iris D Young ◽  
Alexander G Myasnikov ◽  

Alteration of antibiotic binding sites through modification of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a common form of resistance to ribosome-targeting antibiotics. The rRNA-modifying enzyme Cfr methylates an adenosine nucleotide within the peptidyl transferase center, resulting in the C-8 methylation of A2503 (m8A2503). Acquisition of cfr results in resistance to eight classes of ribosome-targeting antibiotics. Despite the prevalence of this resistance mechanism, it is poorly understood whether and how bacteria modulate Cfr methylation to adapt to antibiotic pressure. Moreover, direct evidence for how m8A2503 alters antibiotic binding sites within the ribosome is lacking. In this study, we performed directed evolution of Cfr under antibiotic selection to generate Cfr variants that confer increased resistance by enhancing methylation of A2503 in cells. Increased rRNA methylation is achieved by improved expression and stability of Cfr through transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms, which may be exploited by pathogens under antibiotic stress as suggested by natural isolates. Using a variant that achieves near-stoichiometric methylation of rRNA, we determined a 2.2 Å cryo-electron microscopy structure of the Cfr-modified ribosome. Our structure reveals the molecular basis for broad resistance to antibiotics and will inform the design of new antibiotics that overcome resistance mediated by Cfr.

2022 ◽  
Yiyan Yang ◽  
Keith Dufault-Thompson ◽  
Rafaela Salgado Fontenele ◽  
Xiaofang Jiang

Insertions in the SARS-CoV-2 genome have the potential to drive viral evolution, but the source of the insertions is often unknown. Recent proposals have suggested that human RNAs could be a source of some insertions, but the small size of many insertions makes this difficult to confirm. Through an analysis of available direct RNA sequencing data from SARS-CoV-2 infected cells, we show that viral-host chimeric RNAs are formed through what are likely stochastic RNA-dependent RNA polymerase template switching events. Through an analysis of the publicly available GISAID SARS-CoV-2 genome collection, we then identified two genomic insertions in circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants that are identical to regions of the human 18S and 28S rRNAs. These results provide direct evidence of the formation of viral-host chimeric sequences and the integration of host genetic material into the SARS-CoV-2 genome, highlighting the potential importance of host-derived insertions in viral evolution.

Geosciences ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 28
Daniil V. Popov ◽  
Richard A. Spikings ◽  
Théodore Razakamanana

Experimental studies increasingly often report low-temperature (200–800 °C) and low-pressure (0.05–3 kbar) hydrosilicate fluids with >40 wt.% of SiO2 and >10 wt.% of H2O. Compositionally similar fluids were long suggested to potentially exist in natural systems such as pegmatites and hydrothermal veins. However, they are rarely invoked in recent petrogenetic models, perhaps because of the scarcity of direct evidence for their natural occurrence. Here we review such evidence from previous works and add to this by documenting inclusions of hydrosilicate fluids in quartz and feldspar from Itrongay. The latter comprise opal-A, opal-CT, moganite and quartz inclusions that frequently contain H2O and have negative crystal shapes. They coexist with inclusions of CO2- and H2O-rich fluids and complex polycrystalline inclusions containing chlorides, sulphates, carbonates, arsenates, oxides, hydroxides and silicates, which we interpret as remnants of saline liquids. Collectively, previous studies and our new results indicate that hydrosilicate fluids may be common in the Earth’s crust, although their tendency to transform into quartz upon cooling and exhumation renders them difficult to recognise. These data warrant more comprehensive research into the nature of such hydrosilicate fluids and their distribution across a wide range of pressure and temperature conditions and geological systems.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Pascal Seufert ◽  
Simona Staiger ◽  
Katja Arand ◽  
Amauri Bueno ◽  
Markus Burghardt ◽  

Waxes are critical in limiting non-stomatal water loss in higher terrestrial plants by making up the limiting barrier for water diffusion across cuticles. Using a differential extraction protocol, we investigated the influence of various wax fractions on the cuticular transpiration barrier. Triterpenoids (TRPs) and very long-chain aliphatics (VLCAs) were selectively extracted from isolated adaxial leaf cuticles using methanol (MeOH) followed by chloroform (TCM). The water permeabilities of the native and the solvent-treated cuticles were measured gravimetrically. Seven plant species (Camellia sinensis, Ficus elastica, Hedera helix, Ilex aquifolium, Nerium oleander, Vinca minor, and Zamioculcas zamiifolia) with highly varying wax compositions ranging from nearly pure VLCA- to TRP-dominated waxes were selected. After TRP removal with MeOH, water permeability did not or only slightly increase. The subsequent VLCA extraction with TCM led to increases in cuticular water permeabilities by up to two orders of magnitude. These effects were consistent across all species investigated, providing direct evidence that the cuticular transpiration barrier is mainly composed of VLCA. In contrast, TRPs play no or only a minor role in controlling water loss.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 30
Nicky Winata ◽  
Winsherly Tan

Cartels as a Form of Unfair Business Competition KPPU often has difficulty proving it through direct evidence in accordance with Law No. 5/1999, so the alternative used by KPPU to obtain evidence is indirect evidence, and in practice this indirect evidence It is also not easy because it has not been regulated in Law No. 5/1999 so that the Supreme Court has not given any information regarding indirect evidence. The research method used by the author is normative research using library research to obtain data, and there is a need for clarity regarding procedural law from the KPPU. And the Authority of the KPPU in order to facilitate the handling of the KPPU on the Cartel Problem in Indonesia and amid the uncertainty of indirect evidence, the leniency of the program can also be used as an alternative in proving the occurrence of cartel actions carried out by business actors, and the application of evidence is not This directly was also adopted by other countries as well as the leniency program, and Indonesia also needs to follow this step to reduce cartels in Indonesia.

hu zhang ◽  
Lu Lu ◽  
Shaobo Mi

Atomic-scale understanding of the microstructural properties of thermoelectric (TE) materials is critical for exploring the structure-property relations and enhancing the macroscopic performance of TE materials. Here, we demonstrate direct evidence...

Xiyu Chen ◽  
Shuhan Zheng ◽  
Meifeng Liu ◽  
Tao Zou ◽  
Wei Wang ◽  

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