gas generation
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Geofluids ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Jingkui Mi ◽  
Kun He ◽  
Yanhuan Shuai ◽  
Jinhao Guo

In this study, a methane (CH4) cracking experiment in the temperature range of 425–800°C is presented. The experimental result shows that there are some alkane and alkene generation during CH4 cracking, in addition to hydrogen (H2). Moreover, the hydrocarbon gas displays carbon isotopic reversal ( δ 13 C 1 > δ 13 C 2 ) below 700°C, while solid carbon appears on the inner wall of the gold tube above 700°C. The variation in experimental products (including gas and solid carbon) with increasing temperature suggests that CH4 does not crack into carbon and H2 directly during its cracking, but first cracks into methyl (CH3⋅) and proton (H+) groups. CH3⋅ shares depleted 13C for preferential bond cleavage in 12C–H rather than 13C–H. CH3⋅ combination leads to depletion of 13C in heavy gas and further causes the carbon isotopic reversal ( δ 13 C 1 > δ 13 C 2 ) of hydrocarbon gas. Geological analysis of the experimental data indicates that the amount of heavy gas formed by the combination of CH3⋅ from CH4 early cracking and with depleted 13C is so little that can be masked by the bulk heavy gas from organic matter (OM) and with enriched 13C at R o < 2.5 % . Thus, natural gas shows normal isotope distribution ( δ 13 C 1 < δ 13 C 2 ) in this maturity stage. CH3⋅ combination (or CH4 polymerization) intensifies on exhaustion gas generation from OM in the maturity range of R o > 2.5 % . Therefore, the carbon isotopic reversal of natural gas appears at the overmature stage. CH4 polymerization is a possible mechanism for carbon isotopic reversal of overmature natural gas. The experimental results indicate that although CH4 might have start cracking at R o > 2.5 % , but it cracks substantially above 6.0% R o in actual geological settings.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Yiyun Peng ◽  
Yuqing Lin ◽  
Chenjun Zeng ◽  
Wei Zha ◽  
Feijian Mao ◽  

Quantitative predictions of total dissolved gas (TDG) super-saturation are essential for developing operation schemes for high dams. Most TDG generation prediction models have various shortcomings that affect the accuracy of TDG super-saturation estimation, such as oversimplification of influencing factors and uncertainty in parameter values. In this study, the TDG generation process was divided into three parts, gas-liquid mass transfer process in the stilling phase, dilution resulting from the water jet plunging into the stilling phase, and outflow of TDG–super-saturated water from the stilling phase, while considering the water body and bubbles in the stilling phase as a whole. The residence time of the water in the stilling phase (Tr) was introduced to estimate mass transfer time, along with dimensional analysis methods. The properties of TDG generation were evaluated experimentally under varying Tr values. Based on the theoretical analysis and experimental results, a basic water renewal model was proposed and was validated using experimental data. Furthermore, prediction results of this model were compared with those of a classical empirical model and mechanical model based on observed data from a field survey at Xiluodu Dam. The results show that the relative errors between the predicted and experimental measurements were all less than 5%, indicating that the developed prediction model has a good performance. Compared with the mechanism model, the developed model could reduce the standard error (SE), normalized mean error (NME), and error of maximum (REMAX) by 60, 96, and 15%, respectively. Meanwhile, the developed model could reduce the SE, NME, REMAX by 17.4, 36, and 23%, respectively, compared with the empirical model. Considering all the error indexes, it can be concluded that the prediction performance of the water renewal model is the best among the three models. The proposed model was also more generically versatile than the existing models. Prediction results of water regeneration model for TDG could aid the drafting of governing strategies to minimize the risk of super-saturated TDG.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 ◽  
pp. 10
Miguel Mendonça ◽  
Victor Mantilla ◽  
João Patela ◽  
Valter Silva ◽  
Fernanda Resende

This paper addresses the design, development and experimental tests of a prototype of fuel gas generation system based on biomass gasification for small-scale applications, around 5 kW. It comprises the small scale downdraft gasifier and the gas cleaning system aiming to clean-up the producer gas to be used in the upstream Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). The design of the downdraft gasifier prototype follows the methodologies that have been reported on the available literature. However, since these methodologies apply to gasifiers with larger rated powers, the adopted methodology is based on the extrapolation of the main parameters used for larger gasifiers design. For runing the ICE the producer gas requires to have a specific gas composition with an acceptable range of impurities. Therefore, a clean-up system was proposed following three stages: in first instance a hot gas clean-up using a cyclone designed to eliminate particles and compounds; then a heat exchanger was used for cooling the gas to condensate tars and water; finally a cold gas clean-up is performed by filtration using two filter steps: the first one using organic material (biomass) and the second one using a polypropylene cartridge filter. Experimental tests were performed using the developed imbert downdraft gasifier prototype, using pellets as feedstock. The preliminary results allow verifying several drawbacks that will difficult an effective integration of the developed prototype for small scale power generation applications based on ICE using low density feedstock.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (24) ◽  
pp. 11824
Seung-Yeop Chun ◽  
Geumyeon Lee ◽  
Su-jin Kim ◽  
Bora Jeong ◽  
Jeehoon Shin ◽  

Powder bed 3D printing can be applied to sandcasting mold manufacturing to ensure high quality and economy through process innovation. In this study, refractory alumina cement was used as an aqueous binder to ensure high-temperature thermal stability to minimize the addition of organic matter to reduce gas generation. In addition, spherical silica sand, the study material, was selected to a size of 30 µm to improve the casting mold resolution. To improve the surface quality through the post-treatment process, we confirmed the change in the surface roughness of the mold depending on the surface treatment of colloidal silica and the presence or absence of heat treatment, and finally made the mold through actual casting. Changes in the surface roughness and flowability of the cast body after mold post-treatment were confirmed. For aluminum castings, the shrinkage rate and surface roughness were confirmed in a box-shaped mold via gravity casting, and the flowability of the molten metal in the mold was confirmed in a hand-shaped mold. There was a change in the roughness and porosity of the mold, owing to the post-treatment, and the influence of the surface roughness and flowability of the cast body during actual casting was confirmed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 70
Vagia Makri ◽  
George Panagopoulos ◽  
Konstantinos Nikolaou ◽  
Spyridon Bellas ◽  
Nikos Pasadakis

It is evident that the increased focus on energy transition, will increase the demand for gas as it is the transitional fuel to the net zero CO2 emission era. The West Katakolo field is the only oil and gas discovery in Western Greece, and it is operated by Energean. The three offshore West Katakolo wells have defined both the oil and the gas zones, while onshore exploration wells have penetrated biogenic gas-saturated Plio-Pleistocene sands. This study assesses the gas generation potential of the local Plio-Pleistocene and Triassic sources using thermal maturity modelling based on the available legacy data, with limitations being addressed by running several case-scenarios. In conclusion, this study supports the generation of thermogenic and biogenic gas from the Triassic and Plio-Pleistocene sources respectively, demonstrating the importance of maturity modelling in hydrocarbon exploration, applied on the Katakolo case; a potential gas source to facilitate the energy transition in Greece.

2021 ◽  
Madhujya L. Phukan ◽  
Saad A. Siddiqi ◽  
Abdulla Alblooshi ◽  
Maryam Alshehhi ◽  
Ashis Shashanka ◽  

Abstract Objectives/Scope: The late Callovian to early Kimmeridigian deposited Tuwaiq Mountain, Hanifa and Jubaila Formations are among the most prolific source rocks in the middle east. These sediments have recently been considered as potential unconventional gas reservoir in UAE. This study integrates sedimentological, structural, geochemical and pore-scale datasets to provide a better understanding of the depositional framework and its effects on the reservoir properties. Methods, Procedures, Process: Dunham Classification (1962) which was later modified by Embry & Klovan (1971) is the basis of the descriptive lithofacies scheme used to characterize the organic-rich carbonate sediments. The association of these classified lithofacies based on their genetic relationship reflects their corresponding depositional environments. Petrographical and geochemical assessment including Rock-Eval pyrolysis were performed on selected samples. Mineralogical assessment was performed via whole-rock and clay-fraction XRD analysis, whereas pore-scale fabric/textural investigations were performed via conventional transmitted light microscopy and SEM using backscattered electron mode BS-SEM. Results, Observations, Conclusions: Sedimentological characterization of mud-dominated carbonate sediments indicates that they accumulated in a clastic starved, intrashelf basinal setting. The lack of textural variation is observed, highlighted by the dominance of mudstones noted across the Tuwaiq Mountain Fm., Hanifa and Jubaila Formations. Wackestones are the second most abundant texture observed. Wacke-packstones and packstones are rare but are present in the Tuwaiq Mountain Formation. also dominated by mudstone textures show presence of wackestones in form of thin beds. The occurrences of planktonic foraminifera along with thin shelled bivalves further emphasizes the low-energy, distal depositional setting. A quantitative description of the nature, density, and trends of the fracture network highlights the tectonic and structural history of the sediments. A certain degree of brittleness is associated with the organic-rich sediments, which is evident from the mineralogical analysis showing the abundance of calcite (&gt;82%). Rock-Eval data revealed high TOC content of the sediments. An evaluation of the HI and Tmax indicates that the sediments are dominantly gas prone (HI&lt;150mg HC/g TOC). Based on the calculated reflectance data (Ro: 0.06-3.30), the sediments display varied levels of thermal maturity, from immature to over mature. The vitrinite reflectance equivalent (%VRE) values assessed from microscopic investigations a range between 1.24-1.64, with the lower values suggesting late maturity with wet (condensate) gas generation and the higher values suggesting post maturity with dry gas generation. The TOC and TRA data highlight that the organic-rich, laminated mudstones associated with the Hanifa and Tuwaiq Mountain Formations have the highest TOC values (up to 4.25wt%) and the highest bulk volume (up to 3.39 %BV). It is also noted that the petroleum storage potential in these sediments largely resides with the mineral matrix pores along with the porosity hosted by the organic matter, which has been assessed by BS-SEM analysis. Novel/Additive Information: This integrated approach sheds light on the development of unconventional gas reservoirs. In addition, this study shows how the changes in depositional environment may have controlled the organic matter preservation. For a plausible way forward, this current understanding may be extrapolated to uncored intervals for representativeness.

2021 ◽  
Vol 54 (2E) ◽  
pp. 59-85
Dler Baban

Thirty rock samples were selected from the well Tq-1 that penetrated the Jurassic beds in the Taq Taq Oilfield to be studied the source rock potentiality of the Sargelu Formation. The formation is characterized by three types of microfacies, namely, foraminiferal packstone, grainstone microfacies, fossiliferous packstone microfacies, and foraminiferal wackestone which were deposited in an environment extending from middle to outer carbonate ramp. An average of 3.03 wt.% of total organic carbon was obtained from a Rock Eval pyrolysis analysis carried out on 24 selected rock samples. The petrographic analysis for such organic matters revealed that they are of kerogen types III and IV and they are currently in a post-mature state. Pyrolysis parameters showed that limited generation potential was remained for these sources to expel generated hydrocarbons. The palynological study showed that Amorphous Organic Matter forms the highest percentage of organic matter components with more than 70%, followed by phytoclasts with 10 – 25 % and palynomorphs of less than 10%. The organic matters within the Sargelu Formation are deposited at the distal part of the basin under suboxic to anoxic condition. The color of the organic matter components, examined under transmitted light, showed Thermal Alteration Index values between 3+ and 4-. Such values may indicate that these organic matters are thermally at the end of the liquid oil generation zone and beginning of condensate-wet gas generation zone. The thermal maturity of the Sargelu Formation depending on the calculated VRo% revealed that the formation in the studied oilfield is currently at the peak of the oil generation zone. The Sargelu Formation in the studied field is considered as an effective source rock, as it has already generated and expelled hydrocarbons.

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