The aim of the study is to assess the impact of latent iron deficiency on students' cognitive abilities. Material and methods. The study was conducted during 2018-2021 at the Department of Hygiene and Medical Ecology of Odessa National Medical University. A survey of 188 medical students aged 18-20 was conducted using a screening survey. Estimation of the qualitative content of iron compounds in the diet was performed by a calculation method using the USDA / FDA database. Persons with probable iron deficiency were examined for hemoglobin, erythrocytes, hematocrit (general clinical blood test) and serum ferritin. Additionally, the cognitive abilities of people with latent iron deficiency were assessed using MoSA, TMT, GPB, Schulte tables and TAS-20. As a control, 30 students aged 18-20 years who showed no signs of latent or overt iron deficiency were interviewed. Statistical processing was performed by methods of variance and correlation anamnesis using the software Statistica 13.0 (TIBCO, USA). Results. When evaluating diets, probable iron deficiency was identified in 69 (36.7%) students surveyed. A significant number of students reported signs of iron deficiency, namely general weakness (27 or 14.4%), increased fatigue (30 cases or 15.9%), pale skin and mucous membranes (6 or 3.2%), drowsiness (8 or 4.3%), dry mouth (11 or 5.9%), brittle hair (4 or 2.1%), bleeding gums (3 or 1.6%). In isolated cases, hyposmia, dysgeusia and dysphagia have occurred. Probable iron deficiency was found at the previous stage of the study in 29 (15.4%) patients, they subsequently underwent verifying laboratory tests. In the analysis of the obtained data, the diagnosis of mild iron deficiency anemia was confirmed in 2 (6.9%) girls. Latent iron deficiency was identified in 16 (55.2%) students, among whom girls predominated (10 people or 62.5%). Subsequent studies have shown that a significant number of students with latent iron deficiency showed moderate signs of decreased cognition. Conclusions: 1. The frequency of latent iron deficiency in the surveyed contingent was 8.5%, with an absolute predominance of girls (62.5%). 2. Latent iron deficiency in student youth can be manifested by cognitive impairment, and therefore affect academic performance. 3. The most pronounced correlation was found for ferritin content and severity of alexithymia (r = -0.61).
Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is the commonest bariatric procedure worldwide but there is also a high conversion rate mainly due to weight regain and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) reported in studies with long-term follow-up. The aim of this study is to highlight benefits and limitations of converting SG patients to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and one-anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB).
Retrospective cross-sectional-study, medical university clinic setting.
This study includes all patients converted from primary SG to RYGB or OAGB by 12/2018 at the Medical University of Vienna. Patients were examined using gastroscopy, esophageal manometry, 24-h pH-metry, and questionnaires.
Fifty-eight patients were converted from SG to RYGB (n = 45) or OAGB (n = 13). Total weight loss of patients converted to RYGB and OAGB was 41.5% and 44.8%, respectively, at nadir. Six patients had Barrett’s esophagus (BE) after SG. In four out of these six patients, a complete remission of BE after conversion to RYGB was observed; nevertheless, two patients after RYGB and one after OABG newly developed BE. Clinical GERD improved at a higher rate after RYGB than after OAGB. Both revisional procedures improved associated medical problems.
Conversion to RYGB is probably the best option for patients with GERD after SG. OAGB has shown a low potential to cure patients from GERD symptoms after SG. In terms of additional weight loss and remission of associated medical problems, both procedures studied were equal. Surveillance gastroscopies every 5 years after SG revisions are recommended.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an incurable neurodegenerative disease. It is the most common form of dementia among the elderly population. So far, no effective methods of its treatment have been found. Research to better understand the mechanism of pathology may provide new methods for early diagnosis. This, in turn, could enable early intervention that could slow or halt disease progression and improve patients’ quality of life. Therefore, minimally invasive markers, including serum-based markers, are being sought to improve the diagnosis of AD. One of the important markers may be the concentration of UCHL1 and the proteasome in the blood serum. Their concentration can be affected by many factors, including eating habits. This study was conducted in 110 patients with early or moderate AD, with a mean age of 78.0 ± 8.1 years. The patients were under the care of the Podlasie Center of Psychogeriatrics and the Department of Neurology (Medical University of Białystok, Poland). The control group consisted of 60 healthy volunteers, matched for gender and age. The concentration of UCHL1 and the 20S proteasome subunit were measured by surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI). In addition, a nutritional interview was conducted with patients with AD, which assessed the frequency of consumption of 36 groups of products. In the group of patients with AD, compared to the control group, we showed a significantly higher concentration of UCHL1 (56.05 vs. 7.98 ng/mL) and the proteasome (13.02 vs. 5.72 µg/mL). Moreover, we found a low negative correlation between UCHL1 and the proteasome in the control group, and positive in the AD group. The analysis of eating habits showed that the consumption of selected groups of products may affect the concentration of the tested components, and therefore may have a protective effect on AD.
Administration of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors after achieving a response to platinum-containing drugs significantly prolonged relapse-free survival compared to placebo administration. PARP inhibitors have been used in clinical practice. However, patients with platinum-resistant relapsed ovarian cancer still have a poor prognosis and there is an unmet need. The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical significance of metabolic genes and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activity in advanced ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC).
The RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data and clinical data of HGSC patients were obtained from the Genomic Data Commons (GDC) Data Portal and analysed (https://portal.gdc.cancer.gov/). In addition, tumour tissue was sampled by laparotomy or screening laparoscopy prior to treatment initiation from patients diagnosed with stage IIIC ovarian cancer (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) classification, 2014) at the Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, and among the patients diagnosed with HGSC, 16 cases of available cryopreserved specimens were included in this study. The present study was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board of Saitama Medical University International Medical Center (Saitama, Japan). Among the 6307 variable genes detected in both The Cancer Genome Atlas-Ovarian (TCGA-OV) data and clinical specimen data, 35 genes related to metabolism and FAK activity were applied. RNA-seq data were analysed using the Subio Platform (Subio Inc, Japan). JMP 15 (SAS, USA) was used for statistical analysis and various types of machine learning. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis, and the Wilcoxon test was used to analyse significant differences. P < 0.05 was considered significant.
In the TCGA-OV data, patients with stage IIIC with a residual tumour diameter of 1-10 mm were selected for K means clustering and classified into groups with significant prognostic correlations (p = 0.0444). These groups were significantly associated with platinum sensitivity/resistance in clinical cases (χ2 test, p = 0.0408) and showed significant relationships with progression-free survival (p = 0.0307).
In the TCGA-OV data, 2 groups classified by clustering focusing on metabolism-related genes and FAK activity were shown to be associated with platinum resistance and a poor prognosis.
To assess the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness in a Central European country. The findings may have implications for the planning of further research and development of therapies in order to prevent blindness.
Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Graz, Austria.
Retrospective, epidemiological study.
The database of the Main Confederation of Austrian Social Insurances was searched for patients with visual impairment, legal blindness or deaf-blindness. This database gathers data from patients of all insurance providers in the country who receive care due to visual impairment and blindness. To determine the prevalence of these conditions, the number of all entries recorded in February 2019 was evaluated. Additionally, all new entries between (January 1st,) 2017, and (December 31st,) 2018, were analysed for distinct characteristics, such as sex, the cause of blindness/visual impairment, and age. Since health care allowances can provide a considerable source of income (459.90€-936.90€ per month), good coverage of practically all patients who are blind and visually impaired in the country can be assumed.
On February 2nd, 2019, 17,730 patients with visual impairments, blindness or deaf-blindness were registered in Austria, resulting in a prevalence of these diagnoses of 0.2% in the country. During the observational period from 2017 to 2018, 4040 persons met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 2877 were female (65.3%), and 1527 were male (34.7%). The mean age was 75.7 ± 18.0 years (median 82). Most patients (n = 3675, 83.4%) were of retirement age, while 729 (16.6%) were working-age adults or minors. In total, an incidence of 25.0 (95% confidence limit (CL) 24.3–25.8) per 100,000 person-years was observed from 2017 to 2018. A higher incidence was observed for females (32.2, 95% CL 31.0–33.3) than for males (17.7, 95% CL 16.8–18.5). Incidences where higher for males in lower age groups (e.g. 10–14 years: rate ratio RR = 2.7, 95% CL 1.1–6.8), and higher for females in higher age groups (e.g. 70–74 years: RR = 0.6, 95% CL 0.5–0.8). In total, the most frequent diagnoses were macular degeneration (1075 persons, 24.4%), other retinal disorders (493 persons, 11.2%) and inherited retinal and choroidal diseases (IRDs) (186 persons, 4.2%). Persons with IRDs were significantly younger compared to persons with macular degeneration or retinal disorders (IRDs: median 57, range 2–96 vs 83, 5–98 and 82, 1–98 years, p<0.001). For persons of retirement age, macular degeneration, other retinal disorders and glaucoma were the three most frequent diagnoses. In contrast, among working-aged adults and children, IRDs were the leading cause of visual impairment and blindness (103 persons, 14.1%).
These data show that IRDs are the leading cause of blindness and visual impairment in working-aged persons and children in Austria. Thus, these findings suggest to draw attention to enhance further research in the fields of emerging therapies for IRDs.
The deliberate killing of a foetus in the womb, or a child from the first 24 h of birth to one month of age, or within the first year of life, is called foeticide, neonaticide and infanticide, respectively. Socioeconomic stress, mental illness, gender selection, shame or fear of punishment of adultery or illegitimacy, grudge and jealousy with parents and negligent delivery by dai are major causative factors in such cases. This is a retrospective, descriptive, observational study, and the sample pool consisted of 35 cases. Foeticide cases were 42.9% of the total and the same percentage of cases were neonaticides, while 14.3% of cases were of infanticide. The male-to-female ratio was 1.26:1 and the major cause of death was head injury. The study shows a prevalence of foeticide and neonaticide as compared to infanticide. It also displays the prevalence of males in overall cases and a higher number of unknown cases in our setting.
Purpose and methods: We surveyed a large sample of health-related sciences undergraduate students at the Medical University of Gdańsk (MUG), Poland in a pilot study to assess self-reported somatic/mental health-related issues, measure the level of burnout using Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI), the presence of depressive symptoms with Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item (PHQ-9) and assess the problematic alcohol intake (CAGE questionnaire). Additionally, stress coping mechanisms were investigated. Results: A total of 864 students participated in the survey. The mean total OLBI and PHQ-9 scores equalled 43.3 ± 2.7 and 11.3±5.8 points, respectively. The CAGE questionnaire was positive in 21.6% of students. Three most prevalent stress coping mechanisms included TV binge-watching, binge-eating and cigarette chain smoking (51.0%, 45.0% and 28.0% respectively). Conclusions: Future studies are required to confirm the obtained results, assess, and monitor trends and set-up interventions to improve the welfare of health-related science MUG students.
Background: Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) has been used as one of the treatment modalities of neurological diseases. Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) and Therapeutic Plasma Exchange (TPE)are treatment options in Guillain Barre syndrome (GBS). In developing countries IVIG is not easily available and it is also expensive, TPE is preferred for treatment of GBS as it is affordable. Study on TPE for GBS are scarce here. Most of the study regarding TPE in GBS has been conducted in high –income countries as it is expensive treatment modality. Reports on TPE in GBS is very scared from Bangladesh.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of TPE with a standard hemolysis equipment for the treatment of Guillain Barre syndrome (GBS) was conducted A 50 patients of GBS who received TPE conducted between January 2017 to December 2018 in the department of Transfusion Medicine, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh were analyzed. All patients had underdone at least 2 cycles of plasma exchange. Volume exchanged in each cycle was one plasma volume.
Results: Out of 50 cases there were 43 (86%) male and 7 (14%) female. Age range of patients was from 11 – 50 years. Approximately 40% improved clinically of first cycle of PE & 85% after second cycle, 95% after third cycle and 95-100% after 5 cycle. 1(2%) patient died, and 49(98%) patients survived and recovered.
Conclusion: The treatment is cost affection in Compassion to IVIG. TPE is and affection, safe and affordable treatment modality for GBS.