Strengths And Difficulties
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Othman B. Yonis ◽  
Yousef Khader ◽  
Abdel-Hameed Al-Mistarehi ◽  
Sara A. Khudair ◽  
Mourad Dawoud

Background: There is a high prevalence of mental illness, including depression, anxiety, nicotine dependence, and sleep disorders among Jordanian adolescents and schoolchildren. There are many young Syrian refugees in Jordan, who have an increased risk of physical and psychological illnesses. Aim: To assess the behavioural and emotional symptoms among Syrian schoolchildren refugees in Jordan and their Jordanian counterparts. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted from October to December 2018 on Syrian and Jordanian schoolchildren, aged 12–17 years, attending the same schools in 4 cities with the highest density of Syrian refugees. A self-reported questionnaire was used to collect information about sociodemographic characteristics. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to measure behavioural and emotional symptoms. Results: This study included 1877 Jordanian schoolchildren and 1768 Syrian schoolchildren refugees. The Syrian children’s parents were significantly less educated and had significantly lower incomes and larger families than Jordanian parents had. The total difficulties and peer relationship problems were abnormally high in more than half of children. Compared to Jordanians, Syrian schoolchildren had more total difficulties (58.2% vs 52.5%), and peer relationship (55.5 vs 53.6%), conduct (47.6% vs 44.8%), and emotional problems (32.0% vs 30.8%), but they had fewer hyperactivity/inattention problems (35.5% vs 36.9%), and prosocial behaviour problems (42.5% vs 43.0%). In binary logistic regression, Syrian were more likely than Jordanian schoolchildren to experience overall difficulties and emotional symptoms. Conclusion: There were significant but unspoken behavioural and emotional symptoms and mental health needs among Syrian and Jordanian schoolchildren. They are all in need of urgent psychosocial support.

2021 ◽  
Maxwell Mansolf ◽  
Courtney K. Blackwell ◽  
Peter Cummings ◽  
Seohyun Choi ◽  
David Cella

2021 ◽  
Silvana Mareva ◽  
Danyal Akarca ◽  
Joni Holmes ◽  

Behavioural and language difficulties co-occur in multiple neurodevelopmental conditions. Our understanding of these problems has arguably been slowed by an overreliance on case-control designs, which limit the conclusions we can draw because they fail to capture the overlap across different neurodevelopmental disorders and the heterogeneity within them. In this study, we recruited a large transdiagnostic cohort of children with complex diagnosed and undiagnosed needs (N = 805) to identify distinct subgroups of children with common profiles of behavioural and language strengths and difficulties. We then investigated whether and how these data-driven groupings could be distinguished from a comparison sample (N = 158) on academic, socio-emotional, and neural white matter characteristics. We identified three distinct subgroups of children, each with different levels of difficulties in structural language, pragmatic communication, and hot and cool executive functions. All three subgroups struggled with academic and socio-emotional skills relative to the comparison sample, potentially representing three alternative but related developmental pathways to difficulties in these areas. The children with the weakest language skills had the most widespread difficulties with learning, whereas those with more pronounced difficulties with hot executive skills experienced the most severe difficulties within the socio-emotional domain. Each data-driven subgroup could be distinguished from the comparison sample based on both shared and subgroup-unique patterns of neural white matter organisation. These findings advance our understanding of commonly co-morbid behavioural and language problems and their relationship to behavioural outcomes and neurobiological substrates.

2021 ◽  
Vol 66 ◽  
Miriama Lackova Rebicova ◽  
Zuzana Dankulincova Veselska ◽  
Daniela Husarova ◽  
Andrea Madarasova Geckova ◽  
Danielle E. M. C. Jansen ◽  

Objectives: To explore the role of resilience as a mediator in the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and emotional and behavioural problems (EBP) among adolescents.Methods: We used data from the Slovak 2018 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study, comprising 2,839 adolescents aged 13–15 (mean age 13.93; 49.6% boys). We used multivariate linear regression performed on 5000 bootstrap samples adjusted for age, gender, family affluence to explore mediation of the associations between ACE (measured using the adapted Adverse Childhood Experience Questionnaire) and EBP (measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) by resilience (measured with the Child and Youth Resilience Measure).Results: We found ACE [B = 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67|0.90] and resilience (B = −0.73; 95% CI: −0.79|−0.67) to be significantly associated with EBP. The association of ACE and EBP was mediated by resilience. The mediated indirect effect of resilience was ab = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.18|0.32.Conclusion: Resilience seems to play a mediator role in the relationship between ACE and EBP. Helping adolescents with ACE to build and use internal and external sources of resilience can decrease the negative impact of ACE on EBP.

2021 ◽  
pp. 135910452110565
Ioanna Giannopoulou ◽  
Evdokia Pasalari ◽  
Paraskevi Bali ◽  
Dimitra Grammatikaki ◽  
Panagiotis Ferentinos

The psychometric properties of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS-47) are established cross-culturally but lacking for the Greek population. The present study examined RCADS internal consistency and validity (structural and concurrent) in Greek adolescents, and tested measurement invariance across sex and age groups. We recruited 619 secondary school students ( n = 321 females), aged 12–18 years ( n = 318, 12–14-year-olds). Besides RCADS, all students completed Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), a subsample ( n = 300) completed Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), whereas a non-overlapping subsample ( n = 219) completed Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS). Structural validity was examined with Confirmatory Factor Analysis and measurement invariance was assessed with Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) modeling. Convergent and divergent validity were examined using Spearman correlations between RCADS subscales and DSRS, SCARED, and SDQ validators. The six-factor model fitted the data best, validating the originally proposed RCADS structure. Three items displayed differential item functioning for sex, another three for age group, and one item for both, albeit with trivial effect sizes ( d < 0.2). Cronbach’s alpha was .94. Convergent and divergent validity were also established. In conclusion, the RCADS is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing anxiety and depression symptoms in Greek adolescents.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
pp. 298
Mariyam Mariyam ◽  
Eni Hidayati ◽  
Titik Suerni

The World Health Organization has officially declared the coronavirus as a pandemic The impact of the pandemic is also experienced by children. Children experience major changes in their lives, one of which is child psychosocial. Psychosocial support needs for the children. This study aims to determine the effect of emotional ventilation on the psychosocial development of school-age children during the Covid-19 pandemic. This research design is a quasi-experiment with a one-group pretest and posttest design approach. Respondents were 43 school-age children. Psychosocial development was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Emotional ventilation is done once a week and twice a week. a week after the second intervention, a post-test was performed. The results showed that before the intervention prosocial behaviour, emotional problems and hyperactivity were mostly normal, behavioural problems and relationship problems with peers before the intervention showed mostly abnormal. After prosocial behaviour intervention, emotional problems, behavioural problems and hyperactivity were mostly normal and only peer relationship problems were still mostly abnormal. There are differences between emotional problems, behavioural problems, hyperactivity before and after emotional ventilation with a p-value ≤ 0.05.

Megan Garside ◽  
Barry Wright ◽  
Roshanak Nekooi ◽  
Victoria Allgar

Research reports high levels of mental health problems faced by young people in the UK. Schools provide a range of mental health support services, although these are often not robustly evaluated. This paper aims to explore the mental health provision of secondary schools across two large regions in the North of England and provide comparisons to the mental health questionnaire scores of their pupils. Results are part of a wider study providing an overview of the mental health of secondary school pupils. Measures include the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, distributed to year 8, 9, and 11 pupils attending secondary schools and a bespoke mental health service provision questionnaire for school staff at the same schools. A total of 6328 pupil questionnaires and 36 staff questionnaires were returned from 21 schools. Results showed a non-significant correlation between provision and young people’s mental health scores and highlight a range of factors to take into consideration. There is a need to improve the evaluation and recording of school-based mental health provision. Mental health difficulties in young people are prevalent in schools. Future research is needed to elucidate which types of services are most helpful in preventing, supporting, and signposting those with mental health problems.

Giulia Bassi ◽  
Adriana Lis ◽  
Tatiana Marci ◽  
Silvia Salcuni

AbstractThe increased smartphone use in adolescence has led clinicians and researchers to carry out in-depth studies on the matter. Adolescents seem to be at risk of smartphone addiction because they are yet to develop self-control in smartphone use. This psychometric study aimed at examining the levels of validity evidence for the Smartphone Addiction Inventory-Italian (SPAI-I) version for adults, among adolescents. Confirmatory Factor Analysis confirmed the factor structure of the SPAI-I version for adults among adolescents but not the exploratory factor structure for adults of the original Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI). Convergent validity was assessed by examining the relationship between SPAI-I, self-control, and internalized and externalized problems. A total of 446 Italian adolescents (mean age = 16.04, SD = 1.72, 36.3% males) completed the Self-Restraint Subscale of the Adolescent Self-Consciousness and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires—with a specific focus on the subscales of internalized and externalized problems. Present findings suggested that the SPAI-I version could be used to assess smartphone overuse among adolescents according to a multidimensional perspective.

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