staining method
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2022 ◽  
Mostafa Sayyadi ◽  
Saeid Hosseinzadeh ◽  
Gholamreza Abdollahpour ◽  
Seyed Shahram Shekarforoush ◽  
Azadeh Samiei ◽  

Abstract Leptospirosis is a relatively rare bacterial infection that affects people and animals caused by pathogenic species of Leptospira. The present study was conducted using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and hematological and biochemical tests on 200 blood samples of renal disorders patients in Shiraz, Iran. Also nested-PCR assay and Warthin-Starry (WS) silver staining method was performed on 30 nephrectomised kidney sample. The frequency of pathogenic species of Leptospira infection in patients with renal disorders was 20 % and this infection was significantly correlated with BUN, anemia, RDW, MCV, MCH and hemoglobin levels (P < 0.01). MAT analysis showed that serum samples had positive titers against L. Grippotyphosa (13 samples), L. Ballum (6 sample), L. Pomona (3 samples), L. Canicola (2 samples), L. Icterohaemorrhagiae (1 sample) and L. Hardjo (1 sample) serovars. Twenty-three percent of the kidney samples from the patients with pyelonephritis were infected with the pathogenic species of Leptospira. This study showed that pathogenic Leptospira serovars are present in this area and in patients with renal disorders more attention should be paid to this zoonotic disease.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-19
Baining Cui ◽  
Yan Wang ◽  
Jiahui Jin ◽  
Zhen Yang ◽  
Ruoxi Guo ◽  

UVB exposure is one of the primary factors responsible for the development of photoaging, and the aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism involved in the photoprotective properties of resveratrol (RES) in UVB-induced photoaging. Photoaging models of Hacat cells and ICR mice were established by UVB irradiation. The effect of RES on cell viability was then assessed using the MTT assay. The effect of RES on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was detected through a fluorescent probe assay. The effect of RES on oxidized glutathione (GSSH) content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in photoaging Hacat cells, were measured separately, using kits. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the effect of RES on IL-6 secretion. The effect of VEGF-B on RES photoprotection was examined through the RT-qPCR method, after silencing VEGF-B through siRNA transfection. For animal experiments, the relative water content of the skin of ICR mice was determined using the Corneometer CM825 skin moisture tester. Starting from the third week of the study, the back skin of photoaging ICR mice was photographed weekly using the TIVI700 camera, and the depth of skin wrinkles in photoaging ICR mice was also analyzed. The thickness of the epidermis in photoaging ICR mice was assessed by the hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining method. The content of collagen fibers in the skin dermis of photoaging ICR mice was measured by the Masson trichrome staining method. The content of collagen III in the dermis of the skin in photoaging ICR mice was measured through immunohistochemistry (IHC) techniques. The effect of RES on the mRNA expression levels of MMP-1, MMP-9, HO-1, GPX-4, IL-6, TNF-α, VEGF-B, caspase9, and caspase3 in photoaging Hacat cells, and that of MMP-3, Nrf2, HO-1, NQO1, SOD1, GPX-4, caspase9, caspase3, and IL-6 in the skin of photoaging ICR mice, was measured by RT-qPCR. The effects of RES on caspase3, Nrf2 (intranuclear), COX-2, P-ERK1/2, ERK1/2, P-P38MAPK, and P38MAPK in photoaging Hacat cells, and on MMP-9, caspase3, COX-2, P-JNK, P-ERK1/2, and P-P38MAPK protein expression in the skin of photoaging ICR mice, were assayed by the WB method. The results of this study, therefore, show that RES has a protective effect against UVB-induced photoaging in both Hacat cells and ICR mice. Its mechanism of action may include reducing the expression of MMPs and the secretion of collagen and inflammatory factors by inhibiting the ROS-mediated MAPK and COX-2 signaling pathways, balancing oxidative stress in the skin of Hacat cells and ICR mice by promoting the Nrf2 signaling pathway, inducing antiapoptotic effects by inhibiting caspase activation, and exerting antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects by targeting the VEGF-B, demonstrating its photoprotective effects against UVB irradiation-induced photoaging.

2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (2(49)) ◽  
pp. 73-85
Yu. A. Popovych ◽  
O. M. Blagodarova ◽  
S. V. Chebotar

Introduction. Gliadins are monomeric and highly polymorphic storage proteins of wheat endosperm, which together with glutenins form a gluten complex that determines the breadmaking properties of wheat. Allelic variants of gliadins are an important feature in the selection of material for breeding, but their determination by electrophoresis in acid PAGE is quite difficult. Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the polymorphism of the Taglgap microsatellite locus and to analyze its correspondence to the polymorphism of allelic variants of gliadins that have been revealed by acid PAGE electrophoresis. Methods. 140 cultivars and lines of bread wheat of Ukrainian and foreign selection were analyzed. Electrophoresis of storage proteins was performed in an acid PAGE according to the method of F. O. Poperellia (1989), allelic variants were designated according to the international nomenclature (Metakovsky et al., 2018). DNA was isolated by CTAB method and PCR was performed with primers to the Taglgap microsatellite (Devos et al., 1995). PCR products were fractionated in 7% PAGE and stained with silver staining method. Nucleotide sequences were searched by BLAST and aligned by MAFT methods. The main results. 19 allelic variants of gliadins and 11 alleles of the Taglgap locus were identified. In the collection of Ukrainian varieties there were Gli-B1b, Gli-B1c, Gli-B1d, Gli-B1e, Gli-B1f, Gli-B1g, Gli-B1h, Gli-B1l and Gli-B1o allelic variants and alleles of Taglgap 216 bp, 237 bp, 246 bp, 248 bp, 252 bp, 267 bp, 270 bp and null. In the foreign collection of varieties − Gli-B1a, Gli-B1b, Gli-B1c, Gli-B1d, Gli-B1e, Gli-B1f, Gli-B1g, Gli-B1h, Gli-B1i, Gli-B1j, Gli-B1k, Gli -B1l, Gli-B1m, Gli-B1n, Gli-B1o, Gli-B1p, Gli-B1q, Gli-B1r, Gli-B1s and 213 bp, 216 bp, 237 bp, 246 bp, 248 bp, 250 bp, 252 bp, 270 bp, 285 bp and null. Nucleotide sequence analysis in the NCBI database showed the presence of a number of other alleles of the Taglgap microsatellite not only in bread wheat but also in some species of the Triticum L. and Aegilops L. genus. Conclusions. The detected polymorphism correlates with the polymorphism of allelic variants of gliadins of Gli-B1 locus and makes it possible to identify Gli-B1a, Gli-B1d, Gli-B1h and Gli-B1l allelic variants, and for Ukrainian varieties with high probability also Gli-B1b allelic variant. However, this marker does not allow identifying Gli-B1c, which is important for selection.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (4) ◽  
pp. 602-607
Romy Muhammad Dary Mufa ◽  
Nunuk Dyah Retno Lastuti ◽  
Djoko Legowo ◽  
Mufasirin .

The need for maintaining pets, such as dogs, is increasing along with the human population. When individuals keep dogs as their pets, they must be aware of disease transmission from dogs. One of the disease agents transmitted from pets to their owners is Cryptosporidium spp. causing cryptosporidiosis. The aim of the present study was to detect Cryptosporidium spp. infection in dogs through a fecal examination using the acid-fast staining method (Ziehl Neelsen) confirmed with the molecular examination of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Detection of Cryptosporidium sp. in feces of dogs was set up by using an acid-fast staining method. Positive results of the acid-fast staining were further confirmed using PCR. Polymerase Chain Reaction used primary AB210854 specific to the Cryptosporidium canis and S139-S141 genes which were specific primary for the Cryptosporidium parvum gene. Results of the acid-fast staining showed that 80% of the samples (40 samples from total samples) were infected with Cryptosporidium spp. Further detection using PCR showed that four samples were positive for Cryptosporidium canis infection, and two samples showed positive results of Cryptosporidium parvum infection. Dog samples were mostly infected with Cryptosporidium spp. including Cryptosporidium canis and Cryptosporidium parvum through a fecal examination using acid-fast staining and PCR. Keywords: Acid-fast staining, Cryptosporidium spp., Dogs, PCR

Water ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (24) ◽  
pp. 3563
Jean-Charles Pavard ◽  
Julien Richirt ◽  
Lucie Courcot ◽  
Pascal Bouchet ◽  
Laurent Seuront ◽  

Among benthic foraminifera, the genus Ammonia is characterized by high morphological variability which makes it particularly challenging to recognize using traditional morphology-based taxonomy. Despite the joint efforts made by both molecular and morphological taxonomists, it is still hard to identify different phylotypes based on their morphology. A new method was developed recently to discriminate three NE Atlantic phylotypes of Ammonia (T1, T2, and T6). This method is based on two morphometrical parameters using scanning electron microscope (SEM) images (i.e., the average pore diameter and the elevation of sutures on the spiral side), resulting individuals being correctly assigned to their phylotype in more than 90% of cases. In this study, we assess the possibility of implementing these criteria using a stereomicroscope. Phylotype assignations by SEM and stereomicroscopic identifications are in accordance for 62.6% of the scrutinized foraminifera and increase up to 79.5% when only the phylotype T6 is considered. Though the stereomicroscopic identification of Ammonia phylotypes based on these two morphological parameters needs to be cross-validated using molecular tools, this approach noticeably allows the identification of an individual 3 to 7 times faster than using a SEM. The ratio between accuracy and efficiency, an issue that is also attributable to the use of the rose Bengal staining method, suggests prioritizing the use of stereomicroscope identifications in large foraminiferal surveys. Finally, in the context that Ammonia phylotype T6 potentially being an alien species in Europe, this method will help to quickly identify Ammonia phylotypes; hence contributing to monitor the presence of T6 in different regions and then, offering interesting research perspectives to assess the timing and/or the progression of the possible invasion.

Marlon R. Schneider

AbstractOne hundred and twenty years ago, the Hungarian physician Julius von Kossa developed a now classical staining method for detecting mineral deposits in animal tissues. Since then, this method has been widely adapted and combined with different counterstains, but still bears the name of its original inventor, who, if alive, would have turned 150 in 2015. As a rather inexpensive technique that does not require special instrumentation, von Kossa’s staining method became extremely popular for demonstrating mineralized tissues in vivo and in vitro. This article pays tribute to von Kossa and to his handy staining method.

2021 ◽  
Vol 70 (11) ◽  
Letícia Roloff Stallbaum ◽  
Beatriz Bohns Pruski ◽  
Suelen Cavalheiro Amaral ◽  
Stella Buchhorn de Freitas ◽  
Daniela Rodriguero Wozeak ◽  

Introduction. A significant cause of mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU) is multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria, such as Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC). Biofilm production is a key factor in KPC colonization and persistence in the host, making the treatment difficult. Gap Statement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic resistance, molecular and phenotypic biofilm profiles of 12 KPC isolates associated with nosocomial infection in a hospital in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Methodology. Clinical isolates were obtained from different sources, identified and characterized by antibiotic resistance and carbapenemase synthesis following the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to evaluate the presence of carbapenemase (blaKPC ) and biofilm formation-associated genes (fimA, fimH, rmpA, ecpA, mrkD and wabG). Additionally, phenotypic evaluation of in vitro biofilm formation capacity was evaluated by Congo red agar (CRA) assay and the crystal violet staining method. Results. The 12 isolates evaluated in this study presented the blaKPC gene and were positive for synthesizing carbapenemases in vitro. In the carbapenem class, 83.3 % isolates were resistant and 16.7 % intermediately resistant to imipenem and meropenem. Molecular analyses found that the fimA and wabG genes were detected in 75 % of isolates, while fimH and ecpA were detected in 42 % and mrkD were detected in 8.3 % (1). The CRA assay demonstrated that all isolates were slime producers and 91.7 % (11) of isolates were classified as strong and 8.3 % (1) as moderate biofilm producers by the crystal violet staining method. The optical density (OD540nm) for strong biofilm formers ranged from 0.80±0.05 to 2.47±0.28 and was 0.55±0.12 for moderate biofilm formers. Conclusion. Our study revealed a high level of antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation in KPC isolates obtained from a hospital in Pelotas, RS, Brazil.

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