pore diameter
Recently Published Documents





Gels ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 60
Stewart J. Taylor ◽  
Liu Yang ◽  
Ashleigh J. Fletcher

The production of resorcinol–formaldehyde xerogels has yielded insight into the gelation processes underpinning their structures. In this work, the role of the cation species from the catalyst is probed by studying the simultaneous addition of sodium carbonate and calcium carbonate to a resorcinol–formaldehyde mixture. Twenty-eight xerogels were prepared by varying the solids content, catalyst concentration, and catalyst composition, and each was analysed for its textural properties, including the surface area and average pore diameter. The results indicate that the role of the cation is linked to the stabilisation of the clusters formed within the system, and that the Group II catalyst causes the salting out of the oligomers, resulting in fewer, larger clusters, hence, an increase in pore size and a broadening of the pore size distribution. The results provide insight into how these systems can be further controlled to create tailored porous materials for a range of applications.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 374
Wenfang Zhao ◽  
Xiaowu Tang ◽  
Keyi Li ◽  
Jiaxin Liang ◽  
Weikang Lin ◽  

Characteristic pore-opening size O95 or O90 has been widely used in the filter design of woven geotextiles. These manufactured products have different pore size proportions of large pore diameters, medium pore diameters, and small pore diameters, respectively. Therefore, uncertainties still exist regarding the prediction of geotextile pore diameter variations under the uniaxial tensile strain. This paper investigates the variations in five characteristic pore-opening sizes O95, O80, O50, O30, and O10, with uniaxial tensile strain by using the image analysis method. The large pore diameters, medium pore diameters, and small pore diameters show different variation behaviors as the uniaxial tensile strain increases. Fifteen specific pores are selected and then their pore diameter variations are monitored under each tensile strain of 1%. The colorful pore size distribution diagram is a visual way to identify the variation of pores arranged in the tension direction (warp direction) and the direction perpendicular to tensile loads (weft direction). The various pore diameters are proved to agree well with the bell-shaped Gaussian distribution. The results exhibit an accurate prediction of the variation in large pore sizes, medium pore sizes, and small pore sizes, respectively, for all tested woven geotextiles with uniaxial tensile strain.

Membranes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 27
Nurlan Almassov ◽  
Sean Kirkpatrick ◽  
Zhanna Alsar ◽  
Nurzhan Serik ◽  
Christos Spitas ◽  

In this paper, we demonstrate a new, highly efficient method of crosslinking multilayer graphene, and create nanopores in it by its irradiation with low-energy argon cluster ions. Irradiation was performed by argon cluster ions with an acceleration energy E ≈ 30 keV, and total fluence of argon cluster ions ranging from 1 × 109 to 1 × 1014 ions/cm2. The results of the bombardment were observed by the direct examination of traces of argon-cluster penetration in multilayer graphene, using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Further image processing revealed an average pore diameter of approximately 3 nm, with the predominant size corresponding to 2 nm. We anticipate that a controlled cross-linking process in multilayer graphene can be achieved by appropriately varying irradiation energy, dose, and type of clusters. We believe that this method is very promising for modulating the properties of multilayer graphene, and opens new possibilities for creating three-dimensional nanomaterials.

Екатерина Николаевна Муратова

Изучение оптических свойств наноразмерных мембран пористого анодного оксида алюминия позволяет значительно расширить области применения данного материала. В работе представлены результаты тепловизионных исследований мембран пористого анодного оксида алюминия с различными структурными параметрами. Построены профили распределения температуры для мембран, полученных в различных электролитах на основе серной, щавелевой и ортофосфорной кислотах. Установлено, что экранирование ИК излучения сильнее (примерно на 30%) проявляется у мембран с меньшим диаметром пор d ≈ 20 нм по сравнению с мембранами, у которых d ≈ 200 нм. Это связано с рассеиванием теплового излучения на неоднородностях структуры, которых значительно больше в мембранах пористого анодного оксида алюминия, полученных на серной кислоте. В качестве источников неоднородности выступают поры малого диаметра, недотравленные области и дефекты. Также, за счет повышенной активности серной кислоты по сравнению с другими используемыми кислотами большее количество анионов встраивается в структуру образца. Study of optical properties of nanoscale membranes of porous anodic alumina can significantly expand the scope of this material. The paper presents the results of thermal imaging studies of porous anodic alumina membranes with various structural parameters. Temperature distribution profiles for membranes obtained in various electrolytes based on sulfuric, oxalic and orthophosphoric acids have been constructed. It was found that the shielding of IR radiation is more pronounced (approximately 30 %) in membranes with a smaller pore diameter d ≈ 20 nm compared to membranes with a larger pore diameter d ≈ 200 nm. This is due to the scattering of thermal radiation on structural inhomogeneities, which are much higher in porous anodic alumina membranes obtained with sulfuric acid. Small-diameter pores, under-etched areas and defects act as sources of inhomogeneity. Also, due to the increased activity of sulfuric acid in comparison with other acids used, more anions are incorporated into the structure of the sample.

Water ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (24) ◽  
pp. 3563
Jean-Charles Pavard ◽  
Julien Richirt ◽  
Lucie Courcot ◽  
Pascal Bouchet ◽  
Laurent Seuront ◽  

Among benthic foraminifera, the genus Ammonia is characterized by high morphological variability which makes it particularly challenging to recognize using traditional morphology-based taxonomy. Despite the joint efforts made by both molecular and morphological taxonomists, it is still hard to identify different phylotypes based on their morphology. A new method was developed recently to discriminate three NE Atlantic phylotypes of Ammonia (T1, T2, and T6). This method is based on two morphometrical parameters using scanning electron microscope (SEM) images (i.e., the average pore diameter and the elevation of sutures on the spiral side), resulting individuals being correctly assigned to their phylotype in more than 90% of cases. In this study, we assess the possibility of implementing these criteria using a stereomicroscope. Phylotype assignations by SEM and stereomicroscopic identifications are in accordance for 62.6% of the scrutinized foraminifera and increase up to 79.5% when only the phylotype T6 is considered. Though the stereomicroscopic identification of Ammonia phylotypes based on these two morphological parameters needs to be cross-validated using molecular tools, this approach noticeably allows the identification of an individual 3 to 7 times faster than using a SEM. The ratio between accuracy and efficiency, an issue that is also attributable to the use of the rose Bengal staining method, suggests prioritizing the use of stereomicroscope identifications in large foraminiferal surveys. Finally, in the context that Ammonia phylotype T6 potentially being an alien species in Europe, this method will help to quickly identify Ammonia phylotypes; hence contributing to monitor the presence of T6 in different regions and then, offering interesting research perspectives to assess the timing and/or the progression of the possible invasion.

Fermentation ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 277
Saowanee Wijitkosum ◽  
Thavivongse Sriburi

Many agronomical wastes are produced annually in significant amounts after cultivation, especially in agricultural countries. This study applied biochar produced from the pyrolysis of cassava stems to improve soil with low fertility for maize cultivation. The effect of soil biochar incorporation on maize yield and productivity was also investigated. Eight experimental plots, each with four replicates, were applied with cassava stem biochar (CSB) at different rates of 0.5 kg/m2 (TB0.5), 2.5 kg/m2 (TB2.5) and 3.0 kg/m2 (TB3.0), fertilizer at 0.56 kg/m2 (TM), fertilizer at 0.56 kg/m2 mixed with CSB at 0.5 kg/m2 (TMB0.5), 2.5 kg/m2 (TMB2.5), 3.0 kg/m2 (TMB3.0) and untreated soil (TC). Pyrolysis of cassava stems at 450–500 °C produced strongly alkaline CSB with pH 9.6 and increased nutrient contents. Specific surface area and total pore volume increased, and pores were classified as mesoporous, while average pore diameter decreased. CSB had a highly stable carbon content of 58.46%, with high aromaticity and polarity obtained from O/C and H/C ratios. Results indicated that CSB enhanced and supported maize growth by improving soil physicochemical properties to suit cultivation. Applying CSB into the soil gave higher maize yield and productivity than cultivation using fertilizer. The highest yield and nutrition contents were obtained in seed from cultivation using fertilizer mixed with biochar at 3.0 kg/m2. Biochar production from cassava stems generated a useful commodity from waste material.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (23) ◽  
pp. 12721
Arun Arjunan ◽  
John Robinson ◽  
Ahmad Baroutaji ◽  
Alberto Tuñón-Molina ◽  
Miguel Martí ◽  

COVID-19 pandemic and associated supply-chain disruptions emphasise the requirement for antimicrobial materials for on-demand manufacturing. Besides aerosol transmission, SARS-CoV-2 is also propagated through contact with virus-contaminated surfaces. As such, the development of effective biofunctional materials that can inactivate SARS-CoV-2 is critical for pandemic preparedness. Such materials will enable the rational development of antiviral devices with prolonged serviceability, reducing the environmental burden of disposable alternatives. This research reveals the novel use of Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) to 3D print porous Cobalt-Chromium-Molybdenum (Co-Cr-Mo) superalloy with potent antiviral activity (100% viral inactivation in 30 min). The porous material was rationally conceived using a multi-objective surrogate model featuring track thickness (tt) and pore diameter (ϕd) as responses. The regression analysis found the most significant parameters for Co-Cr-Mo track formation to be the interaction effects of scanning rate (Vs) and laser power (Pl) in the order PlVs>Vs>Pl. Contrastively, the pore diameter was found to be primarily driven by the hatch spacing (Sh). The study is the first to demonstrate the superior antiviral properties of 3D printed Co-Cr-Mo superalloy against an enveloped virus used as biosafe viral model of SARS-CoV-2. The material significantly outperforms the viral inactivation time of other broadly used antiviral metals such as copper and silver, as the material’s viral inactivation time was from 5 h to 30 min. As such, the study goes beyond the current state-of-the-art in antiviral alloys to provide extra protection to combat the SARS-CoV-2 viral spread. The evolving nature of the COVID-19 pandemic brings new and unpredictable challenges where on-demand 3D printing of antiviral materials can achieve rapid solutions while reducing the environmental impact of disposable devices.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (23) ◽  
pp. 7858
Danlong Li ◽  
Meiyan Fu ◽  
Yun Huang ◽  
Dong Wu ◽  
Rui Xue

The characteristics of shale micro-pore development and its main influencing factors have important theoretical guiding significance for shale gas exploration and resource evaluation. In order to clarify the micro-pore development characteristics of lower Cambrian shale and the main controlling factors of micro-pore development, we used the lower Cambrian Niutitang formation shale, in the Wenshuicun section of the Guizhou Province in southwest China. The micro-pore development characteristics of the shale in the region were studied by argon ion profile field emission scanning electron microscopy and a low-temperature liquid nitrogen adsorption and desorption experimental system. The relationship between micro-pore and kerogen maceral composition, total organic carbon (TOC) content and different mineral content was analyzed in combination with mineral and geochemical characteristics. Inorganic pores (clay mineral pores, dissolution pores and pyrite intergranular pores) and micro-fractures (clay mineral shrinkage crack, tectonic fractures and overpressure fractures) were the main type of pore developed in the shale of the Niutitang formation in the Wenshuicun section, and no organic pores had developed. The pore size of shale is usually 2–50 nm, accounting for 58.33% of shale pores, e.g. mesopores. Clay mineral content has an obvious positive correlation with macropore volume and average pore diameter, and an obvious negative correlation with micropore volume. In addition, the content of feldspar in brittle minerals has a strong negative correlation with macropore volume and average pore diameter, and a strong positive correlation with micropore volume and BET-specific surface area. TOC content and the content of different kerogen macerals have no obvious correlation with the development of shale micropores in this region. It is concluded that inorganic mineral composition is the main controlling factor of micro-pore development within lower Cambrian shale, and organic matter abundance and maceral content have little influence on the micro-pore development. This study provides a case study for the characteristics of micropores in lower Cambrian shale in China.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (23) ◽  
pp. 683
Bappi Sarker ◽  
Md. Arafat Rahman ◽  
Md. Mizanur Rahman ◽  
Md. Saiful Islam

Despite the importance of Nickel Oxide (NiO) in diverse functional applications, very little information is available on the mechanical properties of bulk or porous NiO or, mostly unnoticed. In this study, porous Ni-NiO foam was synthesized using space holding-powder metallurgy and sintering methods to produce opened-cell structure with macrogravel and Neolamarckia cadamba (Cadamba flower) like surface morphology. Four different types of porous Ni-NiO with different pore diameter of 35.65 ± 12.77, 36.10 ± 8.85, 68.20 ±7.36 and 62.45 ± 17.48 µm were fabricated for evaluating the effect of porosity on the mechanical properties of bulk porous Ni-NiO foam. The mechanical properties such as bulk crushing force of as synthesized Ni-NiO foam with various porosities such as 20.55, 27.35, 27.85 and 28.82 % exhibited the average crushing load of 115.40, 39.95, 138.10 and 151.20 N, respectively. This study suggests that crushing load of Ni-NiO foam is not only depending on the porosity but also on the sintering temperature and crystallite sizes of NiO. HIGHLIGHTS Ni-NiO foam is synthesized using space holding-powder metallurgy and sintering methods Different pore diameter is fabricated for evaluating the effect of porosity on the mechanical properties of bulk porous Ni-NiO foam Crushing strength of Ni-NiO foam is not only depending on the porosity but also on the sintering temperature and crystallite sizes of NiO GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (22) ◽  
pp. 6775
Przemysław Brzyski

Organic admixtures based on polysaccharides are used in construction for modifying the properties of mortars and concretes. Gum arabic is an example of a polysaccharide-based biopolymer. The aim of the article was to investigate the possibilities of improving the strength parameters of a binder paste based on hydrated lime and metakaolin. The paste was modified with powdered gum arabic at 1%, 3% and 5% (by mass) as a partial replacement for the binder mix. The influence of the admixture on the pore size distribution as well as flexural and compressive strength was investigated. The admixture enhanced the total porosity of the paste, increasing the pore diameter compared with the reference formulation. The increase in porosity, in turn, did not reduce the mechanical strength. Conversely, the admixture in the amount of 3% and 5% caused a significant increase in the flexural (by about 300% in relation to reference paste) and compressive strengths (by 25% and 60%, respectively). The tested pastes were used as a binder in a composite based on hemp shives. The influence of binder modification on the water absorption and compressive strength of hemp concrete was tested. The strength of the composite soaked in water was also tested. The modification of the binder with gum arabic in the amount of 3% and 5% increased the compressive strength of hemp concrete (not soaked in water) by 53% and 92%, respectively and reduced the mass absorptivity by 6.6% and 10.4%, respectively.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document