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2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-19
Baining Cui ◽  
Yan Wang ◽  
Jiahui Jin ◽  
Zhen Yang ◽  
Ruoxi Guo ◽  

UVB exposure is one of the primary factors responsible for the development of photoaging, and the aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism involved in the photoprotective properties of resveratrol (RES) in UVB-induced photoaging. Photoaging models of Hacat cells and ICR mice were established by UVB irradiation. The effect of RES on cell viability was then assessed using the MTT assay. The effect of RES on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was detected through a fluorescent probe assay. The effect of RES on oxidized glutathione (GSSH) content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in photoaging Hacat cells, were measured separately, using kits. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the effect of RES on IL-6 secretion. The effect of VEGF-B on RES photoprotection was examined through the RT-qPCR method, after silencing VEGF-B through siRNA transfection. For animal experiments, the relative water content of the skin of ICR mice was determined using the Corneometer CM825 skin moisture tester. Starting from the third week of the study, the back skin of photoaging ICR mice was photographed weekly using the TIVI700 camera, and the depth of skin wrinkles in photoaging ICR mice was also analyzed. The thickness of the epidermis in photoaging ICR mice was assessed by the hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining method. The content of collagen fibers in the skin dermis of photoaging ICR mice was measured by the Masson trichrome staining method. The content of collagen III in the dermis of the skin in photoaging ICR mice was measured through immunohistochemistry (IHC) techniques. The effect of RES on the mRNA expression levels of MMP-1, MMP-9, HO-1, GPX-4, IL-6, TNF-α, VEGF-B, caspase9, and caspase3 in photoaging Hacat cells, and that of MMP-3, Nrf2, HO-1, NQO1, SOD1, GPX-4, caspase9, caspase3, and IL-6 in the skin of photoaging ICR mice, was measured by RT-qPCR. The effects of RES on caspase3, Nrf2 (intranuclear), COX-2, P-ERK1/2, ERK1/2, P-P38MAPK, and P38MAPK in photoaging Hacat cells, and on MMP-9, caspase3, COX-2, P-JNK, P-ERK1/2, and P-P38MAPK protein expression in the skin of photoaging ICR mice, were assayed by the WB method. The results of this study, therefore, show that RES has a protective effect against UVB-induced photoaging in both Hacat cells and ICR mice. Its mechanism of action may include reducing the expression of MMPs and the secretion of collagen and inflammatory factors by inhibiting the ROS-mediated MAPK and COX-2 signaling pathways, balancing oxidative stress in the skin of Hacat cells and ICR mice by promoting the Nrf2 signaling pathway, inducing antiapoptotic effects by inhibiting caspase activation, and exerting antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects by targeting the VEGF-B, demonstrating its photoprotective effects against UVB irradiation-induced photoaging.

Natsumi Takei ◽  
Takashi Kuda ◽  
Natsumi Handa ◽  
Sae Fujita ◽  
Hajime Takahashi ◽  

Antioxidants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 1889
Lei Liu ◽  
Yingdan Yuan ◽  
Jun Tao

This study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant effect of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. petal flavonoids extract (PPF) on d-galactose (d-gal)-induced ICR mice. In this study, sixty male ICR mice were randomly divided into six groups during an 8 weeks experimental period, including normal control (NC) group, d-gal group, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) group, low, medium, and high dose PPF groups (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg/day). The results showed that intragastric administration with PPF significantly reverses the atrophy of the visceral organs of oxidative damage mice in a dose-dependent relationship. PPF indicated the antioxidant capacity to decrease the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and improve the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) as well as glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). In addition, PPF treatment reversed gut microbiota dysbiosis by increasing the relative abundance of Lactobacillaceae. Spearman correlation analysis showed that the body’s oxidative stress markers were directly related to changes in gut microbiota. These findings reveal firstly that PPF could alleviate d-Gal-induced oxidative stress and modulate gut microbiota balance.

2021 ◽  
Vol 37 (1) ◽  
Yun Ju Choi ◽  
Ji Eun Kim ◽  
Su Jin Lee ◽  
Jeong Eun Gong ◽  
You Jeong Jin ◽  

Abstract Background The oral administration of polystyrene-microplastics (PS-MPs) causes chronic constipation of ICR mice, but there are no reports on their effects on the inflammatory response in the colon. To determine if the oral administration of MPs causes inflammation in the colon, the changes in the apoptosis-associated speck like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC)-inflammasome pathway, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling pathway, and inflammatory cytokine expression were evaluated in the mid colon of ICR mice treated with 0.5 μm size PS-MPs for two weeks. Results The thicknesses of the mucosa, muscle, flat luminal surface, and crypt layer were decreased significantly (p < 0.01) in the mid colon of the MPs treated group compared to the Vehicle treated group. On the other hand, a remarkable increase in the expression levels of NOD-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein (NLRP) 3, ASC, and Cleaved Caspase (Cas)-1 protein was observed in the MPs treated group. In addition, similar increasing pattern in the levels of p-NF-κB and phospho-inhibitory subunit of NF-κB (p-IkB) α protein was detected. Four inflammatory cytokines, including NF-κB, interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-1β, showed an increased expression level after the MPs treatment. Conclusions Therefore, the present study suggests that PS-MPs can be a novel cause of an inflammatory response in the mid colon of ICR mice.

2021 ◽  
Bo Lv ◽  
Yun-e Tang ◽  
Chao-min Li ◽  
Ou-lin Dai ◽  
Yong Peng ◽  

Abstract Cry1Ab toxin has been effectively integrated into crops such as rice and cotton for pest control, and the safety evaluation of transgenic rice has attracted widespread attention. Nevertheless, the effects of transgenic rice straw on animal model are still unclear. Hence, the present study conducted an integrated analysis to evaluate the unintended effects of transgenic rice straw expressing Cry1Ab protein on the Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice under 90-day treatment. The results indicated that Cry1Ab rice straw had no significant effects on the behavior and body weight of mice. In addition, physiological indicators, including hemogram, blood biochemistry, apoptosis rate, and calcium ion concentration of the blood lymphocytes, displayed no alterations under Cry1Ab protein stress. Similarly, Cry1Ab rice straw had no adverse effects on several antioxidase activities (i.e., catalase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase, and acetylcholine esterase). Moreover, we recorded that Cry1Ab stress did not adversely impact the sperm quality and follicular development of male and female ICR mice. Collectively, this integrated analysis indicates that Cry1Ab rice straw has no adverse or toxic effects on ICR mice after 90-day treatment and provides multi-level perspectives to assess the safety of genetically modified crops on non-target mammals.

2021 ◽  
Vol 86 ◽  
pp. 104700
Xianliang Luo ◽  
Wangxin Liu ◽  
Hao Zhong ◽  
Yongqiu Yan ◽  
Fengqin Feng ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (20) ◽  
pp. 11262
Jingli Tao ◽  
Liangliang Zhang ◽  
Xuan Zhang ◽  
Yuanyuan Chen ◽  
Qianqian Chen ◽  

In mammalian, the periodic growth and development of ovarian follicles constitutes the physiological basis of female estrus and ovulation. Concomitantly, follicular angiogenesis exerts a pivotal role in the growth of ovarian follicles. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, Mel), exists in follicle fluid, was suggested to affect the development of follicles and angiogenesis. This research was conducted to investigate the effects and mechanisms of Mel on the development of ovarian follicles and its angiogenesis. In total, 40 ICR mice at age of 3 weeks were allocated into four groups at liberty: control, Mel, FSH and FSH + Mel for a 12-day trial. Ovaries were collected at 8:00 a.m. on Day 13 for detecting the development of ovarian follicles and angiogenesis. Results indicated that Mel promoted the development of ovarian follicles of 50–250 μm (secondary follicles) and periphery angiogenesis, while FSH remarkably increased the number of antral follicles and periphery angiogenesis. Mechanically, Mel and FSH may regulate the expression of VEGF and antioxidant enzymes in different follicular stages. In conclusion, Mel primarily acted on the secondary follicles, while FSH mainly promoted the development of antral follicles. They both conduced to related periphery angiogenesis by increasing the expression of VEGF. These findings may provide new targets for the regulating of follicular development.

2021 ◽  
Vol 07 ◽  
Yeun-Hwa Gu ◽  
Takenori Yamashita ◽  
Ki-Mun Kang ◽  
Tota Inoue

Background: Radiation dose is limited by deleterious nontarget effects, such as immunosuppression, necessitating the development of safe radioprotectants. In this study, we examined the radioprotective and anticancer efficacies of the traditional medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (GL) in a mouse xenograft tumor model. Methods: An aqueous extract was prepared from raw GL and administered by intraperitoneal injection. For the assessment of antitumor efficacy, ICR mice were inoculated with Sarcoma 180 cells and tumor growth (size and weight) compared among control (no treatment), GL alone, radiation alone, and GL plus radiation groups. For the assessment of the protection of the immune system, ICR mice received whole-body irradiation at 2 Gy for 2 weeks or longer with or without intraperitoneal GL administration, and changes in leukocyte, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts were measured. To examine the antioxidant efficacy of GL, ICR mice received whole-body radiation at 2 Gy with or without GL and plasma antioxidant activity measured by the luminol method. Results: Finally, the effects of GL on T helper (CD4-positive) and natural killer (CD8-positive) cell numbers were measured in C57BL mice by flow cytometry. GL administration alone suppressed tumor growth and the tumor-associated increase in lymphocyte and monocyte numbers. In addition, GL enhanced plasma antioxidant activity as well as both helper and natural killer T cell numbers in the presence and absence of irradiation. Conclusion: Collectively, these results demonstrate the antitumor and radioprotective efficacies of GL, which are likely mediated by protection against oxidative stress and preservation of immune cell populations.

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