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Weibin Ruan ◽  
Xinyun Ji ◽  
Yating Qin ◽  
Xinxin Zhang ◽  
Xiaoning Wan ◽  

Sepsis is a dysregulated systemic inflammatory response that often leads to cardiac dysfunction, which is termed sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy (SIC). Harmine, a natural β-carboline alkaloid compound, has been shown to exert pharmacological effects on several diseases. Here, we investigated whether harmine protected against SIC development and the underlying mechanisms. In vitro, the expression of the M1 phenotype markers iNOS and COX-2 was increased in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), but this effect was reversed by the harmine intervention. Furthermore, LPS-induced increases in the levels of inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, iNOS, COX-2, PGE2 and TXB2, generated by macrophages were suppressed when the cells were pretreated with harmine. Meanwhile, our findings showed that harmine administration effectively attenuated inflammation and apoptosis in H9c2 cells in the proinflammatory environment produced by macrophages, as evidenced by reductions in NLRP3 and cleaved caspase 3 levels and the p-NF-κB/NF-κB ratio. The western blot results indicated that the mechanisms underlying harmine-mediated inhibition of M1 polarization might be associated with suppression of STAT1/3, NF-κB and MAPK activation. Furthermore, an LPS injection induced cardiac dysfunction and decreased the survival rate of mice, which were alleviated by harmine treatment, and the relevant mechanism was possibly attributed to a drug-induced attenuation of the inflammatory and apoptotic processes in cardiomyocytes. Collectively, these results implied that harmine treatment protected against SIC by suppressing M1 phenotypic polarization and inflammation in macrophages.

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Zafer Sahin ◽  
Yağmur Özhan ◽  
Hande Sipahi ◽  
Sevde Nur Biltekin ◽  
Leyla Yurttaş ◽  

Abstract Novel benzofurane-pyrazolone hybrids have been synthesized for evaluating their anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic properties. 4-(2-chloroacetyl)-1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1,2-dihydro-3H-pyrazol-3-one were reacted with α-hydroxy aldehyde or α-hydroxy ketone derivatives to obtain nine novel pyrazolone derivatives. Structures were successfully elucidated by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR and HRMS. Enzyme inhibitory activity was measured on cyclooxygenases (COXs) as considered to address anti-inflammatory activity. Compound 2 showed the highest activity on both COX-1 and COX-2 subtypes with 12.0 μM and 8.0 μM IC50, respectively. This activity was found close to indomethacin COX-2 inhibition measured as 7.4 μM IC50. Rest of the compounds (1, 3–9) showed 10.4–28.1 μM IC50 on COX-2 and 17.0–35.6 μM IC50 on COX-1 (Compound 1 has no activity on COX-1). Tested compounds (1–9) showed activity on NO production. Only compound was the 4, which showed a low inhibition on IL-6 levels. Cell viability was up to 60% at 100 μM for all compounds (1–9) on RAW 264.7 and NIH3T3 cell lines, thus compounds were reported to be noncytotoxic.

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 188
Pablo Rayff da Silva ◽  
Renan Fernandes do Espírito Santo ◽  
Camila de Oliveira Melo ◽  
Fábio Emanuel Pachú Cavalcante ◽  
Thássia Borges Costa ◽  

The compound (E)-2-cyano-N,3-diphenylacrylamide (JMPR-01) was structurally developed using bioisosteric modifications of a hybrid prototype as formed from fragments of indomethacin and paracetamol. Initially, in vitro assays were performed to determine cell viability (in macrophage cultures), and its ability to modulate the synthesis of nitrite and cytokines (IL-1β and TNFα) in non-cytotoxic concentrations. In vivo, anti-inflammatory activity was explored using the CFA-induced paw edema and zymosan-induced peritonitis models. To investigate possible molecular targets, molecular docking was performed with the following crystallographic structures: LT-A4-H, PDE4B, COX-2, 5-LOX, and iNOS. As results, we observed a significant reduction in the production of nitrite and IL-1β at all concentrations used, and also for TNFα with JMPR-01 at 50 and 25 μM. The anti-edematogenic activity of JMPR-01 (100 mg/kg) was significant, reducing edema at 2–6 h, similar to the dexamethasone control. In induced peritonitis, JMPR-01 reduced leukocyte migration by 61.8, 68.5, and 90.5% at respective doses of 5, 10, and 50 mg/kg. In silico, JMPR-01 presented satisfactory coupling; mainly with LT-A4-H, PDE4B, and iNOS. These preliminary results demonstrate the strong potential of JMPR-01 to become a drug for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
Chih-Yuan Ko ◽  
Jian-Hua Xu ◽  
Yu-Wei Chang ◽  
Yangming Martin Lo ◽  
James Swi-Bea Wu ◽  

Background and objectives: This study aimed to investigate the enhancing effect of vitamin-like alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) on phagocytosis of oligomeric beta-amyloid (oAβ)1–42 in BV-2 mouse microglial cells.Methods: An in vitro model was established to investigate phagocytosis of oAβ1–42 in BV-2 cells. Transmission electron microscopy images indicated that the morphology of prepared oAβ1–42 was spherical particles. BV-2 cells treated with ALA were incubated with 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein-labeled oAβ1–42 (FAM-oAβ1–42) for 24 h, followed by flow cytometer analysis, western blotting, real-time quantitative PCR, and immunocytochemistry (ICC) analysis to assess the in vitro phagocytosis ability of oAβ1–42.Results: Alpha-lipoic acid significantly increased messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of the CD36 receptor in BV-2 cells. ICC analysis showed that ALA significantly elevated CD36 protein expression in BV-2 cells both with and without oAβ1–42 treatment. Results from the flow cytometry analysis indicated that the CD36 receptor inhibitor significantly attenuated ALA-promoted phagocytosis of FAM-oAβ1–42 in BV-2 cells. Moreover, ICC analysis revealed that ALA caused the translocation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), which is known to regulate the expression of CD36 mRNA in BV-2 cells. ALA also elevated both the mRNA and protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), which is a key enzyme involved in the synthesis of 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 in BV-2 cells.Conclusion: We postulated that ALA enhances oAβ1–42 phagocytosis by upregulating the COX-2/15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2/PPAR-γ/CD36 pathway in BV-2 cells. Finally, future studies should be conducted with an in vivo study to confirm the findings.

Yunfei Xu ◽  
Ying Liu ◽  
Kexin Li ◽  
Dun Yuan ◽  
Shun Yang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Vani Verma ◽  
Chetana Chandrashekar ◽  
Raghu Radhakrishnan ◽  
Monica Charlotte Solomon

Purpose:  Odontogenic cysts and tumors comprise a major component of lesions of the oral and maxillofacial region. The pathogenesis of these lesions involves the interaction between the odontogenic epithelium and the ectomesenchyme. However, the clinical behavior of these biological entities is unpredictable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) in the pathogenesis and prognostication of odontogenic lesions.Material and method:  : In this study formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue section of Odontogenic Keratocyst (n=10) Dentigerous cyst (n=10), Radicular cyst (n=10) and unicystic ameloblastoma (n=10) were immunohistochemically stained with COX-2 (NCL2-COX-2- 4H12) and with Ki 67 (Ki-67 GM001) using standard staining protocols. The cytoplasmic expression of COX-2 in all the lesions was semi-quantitatively assessed. The pattern of expression of COX-2 among the different odontogenic lesions was statistical analyzed using the ANOVA test and the chi-square test.Results: All the 40 odontogenic lesions that were evaluated expressed COX-2 immunohistochemically. A high number of odontogenic epithelial cells expressed COX-2 in most of the odontogenic keratocyst, radicular cyst and unicystic ameloblastomas. The expression of COX-2 was significantly (p=0.036) higher in Unicystic Ameloblastomas and Radicular cyst compared to that of Odontogenic Keratocyst and the dentigerous cyst.Conclusion: The recognition that expression of COX-2 by odontogenic epithelial cells may indeed shed a new light on the biological mechanisms involved in the development of these benign yet aggressive lesions of the jaws. An insight into the molecular interactions occurring in the odontogenic epithelium will aid in better management of these lesions. 

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Huining Dai ◽  
Shuai Lv ◽  
Zi'an Qiao ◽  
Kaiyu Wang ◽  
Xipeng Zhou ◽  

The sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) calathide is gradually used as an alternative treatment for hyperuricemia; nevertheless, evidence regarding its main components and therapeutic capacity for urate nephropathy is lacking. Identification of sunflower calathide aqueous extract (SCE) was rapidly done by UPLC-ESI-Q-Orbitrap, and 32 water-soluble compounds with a comprehensive score >80 were discovered. Besides, yeast extract was administrated to induce high UA levels and hyperuricemic renal injury. We found that SCE treatment not only decreased UA levels to a comparable degree as allopurinol and benzbromarone, but also reduced the BUN levels and participated in kidney injury repair induced by uric acid. Moreover, it regulated the expression of URAT1 and ABCG2, especially inhibiting the GLUT9 in the normal kidney. Results were multifacetedly evaluated with a view to suggesting a possible mechanism of action as compared with those of allopurinol and benzbromarone by western blotting, H&E staining, and immunohistochemistry. However, the H&E staining showed histological changes in model, benzbromarone, and allopurinol groups rather than SCE treatments, and at the same time, the uric acid was identified as a cause of renal damage. The antiinflammatory effects and the regulations of COX-2/PGE2 signaling pathway were revealed on the LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells, indicating that the SCE not only increased cellular proliferation but also downregulated the COX-2, PGE2, NO, and IFN-γ cytokines in the RAW264.7 cells. To conclude, the SCE acts on urate transporters and contributes to prevent urate nephropathy via alleviating inflammatory process involving COX-2/PGE2 signaling pathway. It is available to develop SCE as food supplemental applications for hyperuricemia and nephritic inflammation.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 440
Yanisa Mittraphab ◽  
Yhiya Amen ◽  
Maki Nagata ◽  
Masako Matsumoto ◽  
Dongmei Wang ◽  

The extract from Entada phaseoloides was employed as active ingredients of natural origin into cosmetic products, while the components analysis was barely reported. Using LC-DAD-MS/qTOF analysis, eleven compounds (1–11) were proposed or identified from acetone extract of E. phaseoloides leaves (AE). Among them, six phenolic compounds, protocatechuic acid (2), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (3), luteolin-7-O-β-d-glucoside (5), cirsimaritin (6), dihydrokaempferol (9), and apigenin (10), were isolated by various chromatographic techniques. Protocatechuic acid (2), epicatechin (4), and kaempferol (11) at a concentration 100 μM increased the HaCaT cells viability of the UVB-irradiated cell without any cytotoxicity effect and reduced the expression of COX-2 and iNOS inflammation gene. Moreover, compounds 2 and 4 could have potent effects on cell migration during wound closure. These results suggest that compounds 2, 4, and 11 from AE have anti-photoaging properties and could be employed in pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical products.

Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 97
Olaia Martínez-Iglesias ◽  
Ivan Carrera ◽  
Vinogran Naidoo ◽  
Ramón Cacabelos

Novel and effective chemotherapeutic agents are needed to improve cancer treatment. Epidrugs are currently used for cancer therapy but also exhibit toxicity. Targeting the epigenetic apparatus with bioproducts may aid cancer prevention and treatment. To determine whether the lipoprotein marine extract AntiGan shows epigenetic and antitumor effects, cultured HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma) and HCT116 (colorectal carcinoma) cell lines were treated with AntiGan (10, 50, 100, and to 500 µg/mL) for 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h. AntiGan (10 µg/mL) reduced cell viability after 48 h and increased Bax expression; AntiGan (10 and 50 µg/mL) increased caspase-3 immunoreactivity in HepG2 and HCT116 cells. AntiGan (10 and 50 µg/mL) attenuated COX-2 and IL-17 expression in both cell lines. AntiGan (10 µg/mL) increased 5mC levels in both cell types and reduced DNMT1 and DNMT3a expression in these cells. AntiGan (10 and 50 µg/mL) promoted DNMT3a immunoreactivity and reduced SIRT1 mRNA expression in both cell types. In HCT116 cells treated with AntiGan (10 µg/mL), SIRT1 immunoreactivity localized to nuclei and the cytoplasm; AntiGan (50 µg/mL) increased cytoplasmic SIRT1 localization in HCT116 cells. AntiGan is a novel antitumoral bioproduct with epigenetic properties (epinutraceutical) for treating liver and colorectal cancer.

Deniz Kirac ◽  
Aysun Erdem Yaman ◽  
Tansu Doran ◽  
Mujgan Mihmanli ◽  
Elif Cigdem Keles

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