communicable diseases
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2022 ◽  
Rezarta Lalo ◽  

Recently, mental health issue and chronic physical condition are substantially linked and this comorbidity is likely to increase.Patient focusing in the self-care activities is an important component in the mechanism of coping with chronic disease with a significant impact on clinical and psychological outcomes. In this context, the current study is conducted to assess the impact of self-care and social integration mechanisms on anxiety levels among patients with chronic non-communicable diseases.This observational study of cross-sectional design was performed in the pathology service of Fier city hospital, in Albania during August-September 2020. To assess the level of anxiety, we used the scale of 7 items of General Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) with a score of ≥10 indicating GAD. Subscales of the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) were used in order to evaluate social integration and self-care mechanism. The data were entered into the statistical program SPSS, version 23. The regression analysis is performedto examine the relationship between variables. The findings revealed that 56% of participants had GAD, 47% of participants were unable to self-monitor the disease, while 89% of them didnot performe any type of physical activity. The scale of anxiety was significantly associated with variables of Self–monitoring (p=0.000<0.05; OR=0.10) and Social integration (p=0.000<0.05; OR=21.4). These findings address the need to support peoplewho struggle with chronic non-communicable diseases developing adaptive ways to deal with their chronic condition and improve their lifestyle for better overall health.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Joyce H. Lee ◽  
Miranda Duster ◽  
Timothy Roberts ◽  
Orrin Devinsky

We reviewed data on the American diet from 1800 to 2019.Methods: We examined food availability and estimated consumption data from 1808 to 2019 using historical sources from the federal government and additional public data sources.Results: Processed and ultra-processed foods increased from &lt;5 to &gt;60% of foods. Large increases occurred for sugar, white and whole wheat flour, rice, poultry, eggs, vegetable oils, dairy products, and fresh vegetables. Saturated fats from animal sources declined while polyunsaturated fats from vegetable oils rose. Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) rose over the twentieth century in parallel with increased consumption of processed foods, including sugar, refined flour and rice, and vegetable oils. Saturated fats from animal sources were inversely correlated with the prevalence of NCDs.Conclusions: As observed from the food availability data, processed and ultra-processed foods dramatically increased over the past two centuries, especially sugar, white flour, white rice, vegetable oils, and ready-to-eat meals. These changes paralleled the rising incidence of NCDs, while animal fat consumption was inversely correlated.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (8) ◽  
pp. 3172
O. M. Drapkina ◽  
L. Y. Drozdova ◽  
S. N. Avdeev ◽  
S. A. Boytsov ◽  
E. S. Ivanova ◽  

Guidelines were approved at the meeting of the academic council of the National Medical Research Center for Therapy and Preventive Medicine, Moscow (Protocol No. 10 of 19.10.2021).The aim of these guidelines is to provide primary care physicians with scientifically based algorithms for the implementation of dispensary monitoring in patients with chronic non-communicable diseases in the conditions of the new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) pandemic, including the use of telemedicine technologies.The organization and conduct of high-quality medical follow-up are the most important tasks aimed at both reducing the risks of developing complications of chronic non-communicable diseases and reducing overall mortality, especially in the current conditions of the COVID-19 pandemic. The guidelines contain clinical aspects of dispensary follow-up, general principles of tactics for managing patients with various chronic non-communicable diseases in COVID-19 conditions, in addition, brief checklists with options for interviewing patients with various chronic non-communicable diseases are presented, topical aspects of the interaction of drugs used in the treatment of chronic non-communicable diseases with antiviral drugs are considered.The guidelines are intended for general practitioners, district therapists, general practitioners (family doctors), as well as doctors of other specialties providing primary health care.

M. N. Ramli ◽  
A. R. Abdul Rasam ◽  
M. A. Rosly

Abstract. A well-developed healthcare system, decent access to clean water and sanitation, and programmes to eliminate poverty and build modern infrastructure are essential components to create healthier Malaysia's population. Non-communicable diseases currently account for most of the mortality and morbidity, although communicable diseases such as dengue fever, avian flu and covid-19 still pose a threat. The World Health Organization (WHO) identified COVID-19 is a rare pneumonia disease that originated in Wuhan, on January 12, 2020, before it became an outbreak in all countries including Malaysia. The requirement of a precise mapping and Cartography for the accurate disease mapping and data management are crucial due to a precise map gives higher resolution of the data and for more specific data analysis, interpretation and decision making process. In Malaysia, there no specific report on precise mapping for health applications, and it is therefore this paper is to identify the potential criteria and factors needed for precise health mapping applications. A precise health mapping is essential to create a precise risk map towards the surveillance and signal detection, predicting future risk, targeted interventions, and understanding disease phenomena.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Mohamed-Ridha Barbouche ◽  
Brian Stephen Eley

2022 ◽  
Anung Ahadi Pradana

BACKGROUND Dementia is a serious terminal and irreversible disease that often does not receive attention from the public compared to other non-communicable diseases. This disease causes a decline in cognitive function in individuals and makes them have to depend on others for 5-20 years of their life span. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of dementia and other things related to this disease. METHODS The writing method in this article uses a narrative review on several scientific sources and journal articles published in 2011-2021 from several databases such as Google Scholar, CINAHL, ProQuest, PubMed, and EBSCO. RESULTS Dementia is one of the non-communicable diseases that can cause a high burden on individuals, families, communities, and countries as a result of the unproductiveness and total dependence of people with dementia on their surrounding environment due to the decline in body functions that occur. The caregiver burden experienced by caregivers includes physical, psychological, social and financial burdens. Support and assistance from professional health workers for people with dementia as well as caregivers and families can be provided through several efforts such as providing information related to illness, assistance in the care provided, providing counseling to prevent caregiver burdens and other problems, forming support groups for dementia caregivers, and advocacy for people with dementia and their families to get their rights. CONCLUSIONS Change efforts and policy making by the government that are more pro-people with dementia can change the perception that has been in society so far to be more positive and can potentially contribute to people with dementia.

Mohammad Sediq Sahrai ◽  
Inge Huybrechts ◽  
Carine Biessy ◽  
Sabina Rinaldi ◽  
Pietro Ferrari ◽  

Abstract Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) cause more than 70% of deaths worldwide and share modifiable risk factors including obesity and metabolic abnormalities. Over the past 15 years, many changes in lifestyle, dietary patterns, physical activity, and socioeconomic status have been observed in the Afghan population. This study aims to investigate which specific lifestyle factors, dietary patterns, and characteristics of Westernization are associated with an increased risk of being overweight or obese and with poor metabolic health in the Afghan population. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted where a total of 729 male and female participants were recruited. Face-to-face interviews and anthropometric measurements were conducted by trained health staff using standardized questionnaires which included information on socio-demographic and housing characteristics, income, occupation, ethnicity, personal and family medical history, stress, anthropometry, diet, and physical activity. Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) was used to estimate body composition, including overall body fatness. Physical activity was measured using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). For a comprehensive assessment of dietary intake, a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) specific to the Afghan population was developed which included all local food items relevant to the population. Lipid profile and fasting glucose were measured in a local laboratory. Biospecimens were collected using dried blood spots (DBS) and dried stool cards to perform microbiome and biomarker-based research. Discussion This is the first study which will assess dietary patterns, lifestyle factors, and their association with obesity and metabolic health in Afghanistan. Such a study will aid the development of dietary and lifestyle guidelines in Afghanistan which will promote better health and educate people to make healthy food choices. The findings will also help in designing and implementing effective public health strategies to promote a healthy lifestyle and prevent the epidemic of overweight and obesity, and, hence, reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases in the region.

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