High Productivity
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2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (2) ◽  
pp. 219-230
Author(s):  
Erik Febriarta ◽  
Muh Aris Marfai ◽  
Dhandhun Wacano ◽  
Ajeng Larasati ◽  
Dyah Rahmawati Hizbaron

Fomasi litologi akuifer batugamping mempunyai karakteristik media aliran berupa celah, rekahan, dan lorong pelarutan, sehingga memiliki potensi mengalirkan airtanah dengan kecepatan tinggi. Produktivitas yang tinggi ini mengakibatkan sumber pencemar di permukaan dapat dengan cepat meresap ke sistem akuifer dan bercampur dengan airtanah; kondisi inilah yang memicu kerentanan tinggi. Salah satu langkah pengelolaan airtanah pesisir adalah penentuan zona kerentanan airtanah terhadap pencemaran. Dengan demikian, tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui tingkat kerentanan airtanah pesisir terhadap pencemaran di formasi batugamping menggunakan metode COP dengan pendekatan intrinsik dan metode EPIK dengan pendekatan perkembangan karst. Hasil penilaian menggunakan kedua metode tersebut menunjukkan tingkat kerentanan rendah hingga sangat tinggi. Pemetaan metode COP menghasilkan dua kelas kerentanan: rendah (95% dari luas wilayah) dan sedang (4%), sedangkan metode EPIK menghasilkan zona indeks kerentanan yang lebih panjang dengan empat kelas kerentanan, yaitu rendah (1,23%), sedang (17,82%), tinggi (17,82%), dan sangat tinggi (21,65%). Dibandingkan dengan COP, EPIK menghasilkan kelas kerentanan yang lebih tinggi karena pengaruh koefisien pembobot pada formula penghitungannya. Hasil penilaian kerentanan divalidasi dengan indikator limbah domestik berupa senyawa nitrat (NO3). Uji laboratorium menunjukkan kandungan nitrat (NO3) airtanah yang bervariasi dari 0,12 mg/l (terendah) hingga 9,80 mg/l (tertinggi). Variasi ini masih berada di bawah baku mutu air minum tetapi di atas baku mutu air limbah domestik atau melebihi kadar nitrat di alam. Berdasarkan hasil validasi, zona kerentanan berkorelasi dengan kandungan nitrat (NO3). Pada zona kerentanan yang tinggi, ditemukan kadar nitrat yang tinggi pula.ABSTRACTA limestone aquifer is lithologically characterized by three flow media: fissures, fractures, and dissolution channels, thus creating the potential to drain groundwater at a high rate. This high productivity, however, means that the groundwater is highly vulnerable to pollution. If a pollutant source is present on the surface, it can quickly seep into and mix with the subsurface system. Among the widely proposed management strategies is groundwater vulnerability zoning. This study was intended to determine the degrees of coastal groundwater vulnerability to pollution in a limestone formation with two methods: COP intrinsic vulnerability) and EPIK (karst development-based vulnerability). The assessment results showed that the vulnerability produced with both methods varied from low to very high. In the mapping, COP produced two levels: low (95% of the total area) and medium (4%), while EPIK generated a longer vulnerability index zone with four levels: low (1.23%), medium (17.82%), high (17.82%), and very high (21.65%). Compared to COP, EPIK results in a higher vulnerability class due to the weighting values in its vulnerability assessment. The results were validated with a domestic waste indicator: the presence of nitrate (NO3). Laboratory tests showed NO3 concentrations in the range 0.12 of 9.80 mg/l. These figures are still below the quality standard for drinking water but above that of domestic wastes or exceeding the maximum NO3 content found in nature. The validation revealed that the vulnerability zone is correlated with NO3 levels: the higher the vulnerability class of the zone, the higher the nitrate content.


10.29007/ch88 ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Mai Thuc Vy Huynh ◽  
Thi Tien Pham ◽  
My Nga Truong ◽  
Tran Hong Duyen Trinh

Applying laser technology to the growth of plants to limit the use of chemical fertilizers is an interesting topic in agriculture. The main idea is to preserve the environment, ensuring product quality while still achieving high productivity, we decided to carry out this research project, to investigate the effect of the low-level laser (the wavelengths 532nm, 850nm, and 940nm) on stems and leaf development. It is expected that with these research results, the implementation method will be widely disseminated in the high agricultural sector, coming closer to farmers. Moreover, the results of the analysis of the composition of bitter melon stems and leaves will be applied in medical treatment (such as diabetes, wound treatment, anti-oxidation, anti-bacteria ...)


2022 ◽  
pp. 31-42
Author(s):  
Youssef Chegdali ◽  
Hassan Ouabbou ◽  
Abdelkhalid Essamadi

Durum wheat is one of the most important cereal crops in Morocco. The development of high-yielding varieties of durum wheat is one of the major goals of breeding programs in Morocco. Crop genetic diversity should play an essential role in this context. The objective of this study was to assess the genetic variation among 280 durum wheat accessions conserved at the Moroccan Gene Bank by using twelve agro-morphological characters. All accessions are planted in field conditions and arranged in augmented design. The results showed a large variability among the durum wheat accessions. Analysis of variance demonstrated significant to highly significant differentiation between the accessions for the most traits. The number of plants at the emergence stage, the biomass of the plant at the flowering stage, the chlorophyll content, and the number of spikes showed high genetic advance coupled with high heritability (broad sense). Moreover, highly significant coefficients of correlation were revealed between agro-morphological characters offering the possibility of direct or indirect selection. The first two axes of the principal component analysis explained 45% of the total variation and showed that Moroccan landraces and North American cultivars shared similar morphological characters. However, Moroccan cultivars have shown better agronomic characters. This important agro-morphological variation should be utilized as a gene pool in durum wheat improvement to develop novel varieties with high productivity and the best quality.


2022 ◽  
Vol 354 (11-12) ◽  
pp. 109-113
Author(s):  
A. T. Sadikov

The most important factor in the intensification and rise of the production of the cotton industry in Tajikistan is the selection of new varieties characterized by high yield and its quality. The increase in the production of the cotton industry can be achieved not by expansion of acreage, since this possibility is very limited in a mountainous country, but by breeding new varieties of cotton and spreading them into production. The use of photosynthetic test characteristics in breeding contributes to the process of creating new varieties that meet the demand of agricultural production and the textile industry, i.e. varieties with a complex of economically useful features — precocity, high productivity, resistance to diseases and pests, optimal adaptive properties, characterized by high fiber yield and its technological quality. By methods of hybridization and selection by offspring on the basis of photosynthetic test characteristics from domestic and foreign variety samples, 28 introgressive genotypes were created that are characterized by complex of economically useful traits. It was found that out of the 28 genotypes of medium-fiber cotton studied by us, according to the main indicators of productivity — the number of full-fledged boxes per plant, the mass of raw cotton of one box and the yield — 6 genotypes were notable. The number of boxes per plant in the most productive was 12–15 pieces, the mass of raw cotton of one box is up to 6.6 g, and the yield of raw cotton is from 71.5 to 93.0 g/plant, which is significantly higher than in the standard Hisor variety.


Author(s):  
Matthew Story ◽  
Phil Webb ◽  
Sarah R. Fletcher ◽  
Gilbert Tang ◽  
Cyril Jaksic ◽  
...  

AbstractCurrent guidelines for Human-Robot Collaboration (HRC) allow a person to be within the working area of an industrial robot arm whilst maintaining their physical safety. However, research into increasing automation and social robotics have shown that attributes in the robot, such as speed and proximity setting, can influence a person’s workload and trust. Despite this, studies into how an industrial robot arm’s attributes affect a person during HRC are limited and require further development. Therefore, a study was proposed to assess the impact of robot’s speed and proximity setting on a person’s workload and trust during an HRC task. Eighty-three participants from Cranfield University and the ASK Centre, BAE Systems Samlesbury, completed a task in collaboration with a UR5 industrial robot arm running at different speeds and proximity settings, workload and trust were measured after each run. Workload was found to be positively related to speed but not significantly related to proximity setting. Significant interaction was not found for trust with speed or proximity setting. This study showed that even when operating within current safety guidelines, an industrial robot can affect a person’s workload. The lack of significant interaction with trust was attributed to the robot’s relatively small size and high success rate, and therefore may have an influence in larger industrial robots. As workload and trust can have a significant impact on a person’s performance and satisfaction, it is key to understand this relationship early in the development and design of collaborative work cells to ensure safe and high productivity.


2022 ◽  
Vol 07 ◽  
Author(s):  
Punit Kumar ◽  
Sujata Malik ◽  
Kashyap Kumar Dubey

Background: The present world population is about 7.9 billion and it is increasing continuously. Thus, there is an urgent requirement to enhance the agricultural output sustainably. Agricultural approaches such as the use of advanced agriculture methods, high productivity varieties, and enhanced application of fertilizers and pesticides have significantly increased food grain production but in an unsustainable way. Chemical-based conventional fertilizers and pesticides have been found associated with environmental pollution and other unwanted effects on the ecosystem, soil quality, and soil microflora, etc. Nanomaterials may be used to replace conventional fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture. Objective: The aim of this review is to provide information about the harmful effects of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and the use of nanomaterials in agriculture. Including this, the health risks of nanomaterials are discussed. Method: This review article includes a survey of literature from different online sources (for example, Web of Science, PubMed, and Google Scholar, etc.). Results: The improvement in agricultural output using chemical fertilizers and pesticides is considered unsustainable as it is increasing the cost of production, affecting the soil quality, disturbing nutrient availability in crops, and causing environmental pollution. Nanotechnology is a potent innovative practice and nanomaterials may be used in agriculture as nanofertilizers, nanopesticides, and nanosensors. Although these approaches have the potential to enhance agricultural productivity in a sustainable way, nanomaterials are also assumed to exhibit potential health risks to humans. Reports have indicated that nanomaterials have been found associated with many systematic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, neurotoxicity, and toxicity to the reproductive system, etc. Conclution: It is well accepted that chemical fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture cause environmental toxicity and affect ecosystem activity. Nanomaterials have the potential to enhance agricultural output, but these are also associated with health risks. Thus, detailed scientific studies must be conducted about the potential health risk of nanomaterials before their commercial applications in agriculture.


Author(s):  
Beatrice Elohor Ifie ◽  
Nana Afranaa Kwapong ◽  
Mawulawoe Anato-Dumelo ◽  
Beatrice Agyapomaa Konadu ◽  
Pangirayi Bernard Tongoona ◽  
...  

Author(s):  
Alexis Caillaud ◽  
Melesio Quijada ◽  
Stephan R. Hlohowskyj ◽  
Anthony Chappaz ◽  
Viviane Bout-Roumazeilles ◽  
...  

The Marnes Bleues Formation from the Vocontian Basin (Southeastern France) shows many organic rich levels, some concomitant to oceanic anoxic events OAE1a and OAE1b. These organic-rich levels are scattered through a thick homogeneous succession of marls, poor in organic matter (OM). Through a multi-parameter approach, the organic-rich levels from the Aptian-Albian were characterized. Our results show that all OM-rich levels exhibit variable characteristics, such as OM nature (marine vs. continental), sedimentation and accumulation rates, redox conditions, surface-water productivity and relative sea level, but they all show low to modest enrichments in OM. Furthermore, all the levels share in common the fact that they formed under conditions of normal to low productivity and oxic to suboxic conditions. Thus, our results strongly suggest that, in the absence of high productivity and anoxic bottom conditions, the other factors reputed to favor OM accumulation only led to sporadic and low enrichments in organic contents. It is as if such factors could only enhance OM accumulation but could not induce it alone. What was true for the Vocontian Basin may be extended to other settings, regardless of their time of deposition or location.


Author(s):  
G. Kovaleva ◽  
N. Sulyga ◽  
M. Lapina ◽  
V. Vitol

Purpose: Comparative assessment of the fullness of lactation of primarmels of different genotypes.Materials and methods. The article presents the results of the assessment of the lactation activities, which was carried out in the SEC "Kazminsky" Kochubeevsky district of the Stavropol region on the livestock of the black and motley breed of local and brown populations from the Vologda region from LLC "Zaozerier" (farm №. 1) and SHPK "Proseukhon" (farm №2). Three experienced animals groups of 30 goals were formed in each, studies were carried out according to generally accepted methods.Results. The greatest amount of milk for 305 days I lactation was obtained from the first elevations brought from LLC "Zaozerier" - 7368 kg, which is 3.64% more than from the cows of their own reproduction and 8.85% more than from animals grown in SEC "Proseukhonskoye". The lactation stability ratio was calculated in two ways, and in both cases there was more than 100, the factor of the fullness of lactation in the cows of the studied genotypes this indicator was also very high and amounted to 87.7-91.6, which indicates a high level of breeding and tribal work, and On the significant influence of genetic factors on the lactation activity of the studied animals. According to the nature of the lactation curve, the pilot of all three genotypes can be attributed to the I type - high stable lactation. However, the greatest amount of milk from cows was obtained in the third phase of lactation.Conclusion. Thus, it can be concluded that the period of adaptation did not have a significant impact on the lactation activity of the delivered first elements. The animals studied were characterized by high productivity and sustainable lactation.It is desirable when evaluating the cows, along with productivity for 305 days of lactation, consider individual qualities and the ability to hold high productivity to a large part of the lactation period. For more differentiated selection of cows in the breeding group, we recommend using the stability coefficients and the usefulness of lactation.


Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 50
Author(s):  
Gabriela Madureira Barroso ◽  
Tayna Sousa Duque ◽  
Isabela Goulart Custódio ◽  
Maehssa Leonor Franco Leite ◽  
Juliano Miari Corrêa ◽  
...  

Planted forests include forests established through human planting or deliberate seeding. They are systems that offer us timber and non-timber forest products and ecosystem services, such as wildlife protection, carbon sequestration, soil, and watershed maintenance. Brazil has 7.6 million hectares of planted forests, with 72% of the total area occupied by Eucalyptus spp. A favorable climate and management and genetic improvement research are the main factors responsible for high productivity. In recent years, the expansion of planted areas has been accompanied by the commercial release of several pesticides, mainly herbicides. A recent change in the Brazilian legislation allows mixing phytosanitary products in a spray tank, having a new approach to managing pests, diseases, and weeds. Antagonism is the main risk of tank mixes, and to reduce the dangers associated with this practice, we review all products registered for growing Eucalyptus. This literature review aims to identify the effects of product mixtures registered for Eucalyptus reported for other crops. In addition, environmental and social risk assessment has been widely adopted to export wood and cellulose, making the results of this review an indispensable tool in identifying the nature and degree of risks associated with pesticides. The results classify the effects of the mixtures as an additive, antagonistic or synergistic. The use of pesticide tank mixtures has the potential for expansion. However, there are still challenges regarding variations in the effects and applications in different climatic conditions. Therefore, studies that prove efficient mixtures for the forest sector are essential and the training of human resources.


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