Natural Recovery
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2022 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Author(s):  
Lucy V. Hiscox ◽  
Sidney Bray ◽  
Abigail Fraser ◽  
Richard Meiser-Stedman ◽  
Soraya Seedat ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Higher levels of PTSD symptoms are present among trauma-exposed females v. males in adulthood; however, much less is known about the emergence of this sex difference during development. Methods In a multi-study sample of 7–18-year-olds (n = 3397), we examined the effect of sex and age on the severity of PTSD symptoms after a single incident trauma at 1 month (T1), and on symptom change after a natural recovery period of 3 (T2) and 6 months (T3). PTSD scores were harmonised across measurement types, and linear regressions were used to determine sex and age effects, adjusting for study level variance and trauma type. Results A sex × age interaction was observed at T1 (p < 0.001) demonstrating that older age was associated with greater PTSD symptom severity in females (β = 0.008, p = 0.047), but less severe symptoms in males (β = −0.011, p = 0.014). The same pattern was observed at T2 and T3, with sex differences beginning to emerge by age 12 years. PTSD symptoms decreased naturally by ~25% at T2 with little further improvement by T3. Further, females showed a greater reduction in symptoms at T3 than males, although the same effect was not observed at T2. Conclusions Sex differences in PTSD symptoms become apparent during adolescence, due to opposing changes in susceptibility occurring in females and males with age. Understanding the factors contributing to these findings is likely to provide wider insight into sex-specific psychological vulnerability to trauma-related psychopathology.


2021 ◽  
Vol 24 (8) ◽  
pp. 26-36
Author(s):  
Tetiana Fedoniuk ◽  
Oleksandr Borsuk ◽  
Taras Melnychuk ◽  
Anastasia Zymaroieva ◽  
Viktor Pazych

The article presents the consequences of fires that occurred on the territory Chornobyl Radiation and Ecological Biosphere Reserve in April 2020. Research shows that the results of these events characterized as catastrophic. The condition of forests after fires was assessed using satellite data and field trips to review the condition of forests affected by wildfires. The total area affected by the fire in 4 foci was 51,806.5 hectares. The total area of fires in the exclusion zone is 66,222.5 hectares. About 25% of the territories affected by the fires have changed. To preserve the landscape diversity and mosaic of areas covered and not covered with forest vegetation, it is impractical to conduct afforestation (afforestation of fallows) on the territory of the reserve. Among the forests affected by fires, the majority has a high ecological and forestry potential and, accordingly, a high potential for natural recovery (81.6%). In dead forests, the share with a high potential for natural reforestation is slightly lower and amounts to 66.8%. The share of forests with low natural recovery potential is low and amounts to 1.9% and 4.8% in forests affected by fires and dead, respectively. Significantly damaged, and sometimes destroyed, were a number of rare settlements, which are not only important for nature conservation, but also classified by the Standing Committee of the Bern Convention (Resolution 4) as particularly valuable settlements, as well as the “Green Book of Ukraine” (2009). 2 groups were marked as excessively damaged on the territory of the reserve. It should be noted that there is a slight general violation of the protected core of this object of the nature reserve fund, which will allow it to preserve its environmental potential and the functions of protecting and reproducing biodiversity. Most of the areas of the reserve affected by fires have a high forestry potential and are able to recover independently, so they do not require intervention in natural processes for reforestation. The degree of transformation of the ground cover in pine and oak-pine forests of the reserve under the influence of pyrogenic factor is determined by the intensity of the fire. Reforestation in areas with low forest potential should be carried out with clear planning


2021 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Author(s):  
Kritpipat Pongsavee ◽  
Anusorn Payakkakom ◽  
Darunee Phukao ◽  
Thomas E. Guadamuz

2021 ◽  
pp. 000486742110660
Author(s):  
Jon E Grant ◽  
Samuel R Chamberlain

Objectives: Trichotillomania is characterized by repetitive pulling out of one’s hair, leading to distress and/or functional impairment. Long considered a chronic condition if left untreated (albeit with fluctuating intensity), there have been intimations that the disorder may be of limited duration in some people. Methods: A sample of 10,169 adults, aged 18–69 years, representative of the general US population, were recruited and screened for current and lifetime trichotillomania. Potential differences in demographic and clinical variables and lifetime comorbidities, between those with natural recovery from trichotillomania, and those with current trichotillomania, were identified using analysis of variance or likelihood-ratio chi-square tests as appropriate. Additional analyses using binary logistic regression were used to control for potential confounding differences between the groups initially identified. Results: In total, 24.9% of the entire sample of people with lifetime trichotillomania reported that they no longer had symptoms of trichotillomania and had never received therapy or medication treatment for it (i.e. they experienced natural recovery). Those who experienced natural recovery did not differ from those with current trichotillomania in terms of demographic or clinical characteristics, except that they were currently older. Natural recovery was associated with significantly lower rates of related comorbidities: obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, panic disorder, skin picking disorder and tic disorder. Discussion: These findings from the first epidemiology study examining natural recovery in trichotillomania highlight the importance of screening for and treating such comorbidities in patients with trichotillomania, in order to maximize chance of clinical recovery.


2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (12) ◽  
pp. 1288
Author(s):  
Anton Loonen ◽  
Taichi Ochi ◽  
Lisanne Geers ◽  
German Simutkin ◽  
Nikolay Bokhan ◽  
...  

This article develops the idea that clinical depression can be seen as a typical human response, largely rooted in human culture, to events of loss or times of adversity. Various biological, psychological, and social factors may cause some individuals to have a depressive reaction that is ineffectually limited in time and/or severity. Recovery occurs mainly based on natural resilience mechanisms, which come into play spontaneously, but which are sometimes inhibited or blocked by specific pathological biopsychosocial mechanisms. One of the mechanisms for this could be the influence of the circuits that regulate pleasure and happiness, along the dorsal diencephalic connection (DDC) pathway from the forebrain to the midbrain via the habenula. Therapy works by undermining the biopsychosocial factors that prevent the natural recovery mechanism from working. Treatment should, therefore, be seen as facilitating rather than causing natural recovery. This approach is in line with the high recovery rate after placebo treatments and the positive influence of pharmacological treatments with completely different sites of action. Acceptance of this model means that when studying new treatments for depression, a new paradigm must be applied in which the relative value of antidepressant treatment is specifically weighted in terms of enabling the natural resilience process.


Biomedicines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 1849
Author(s):  
Qianqian Liu ◽  
Yanwei Guo ◽  
Rui Han

The key target and regulatory mechanism of electroacupuncture of Zusanli (ST36) on extensor longus muscle injury in a jumping rat model were investigated. To this end, 24 female SD rats were randomly divided into the following four groups: no-treatment control group (NON), 6-week jumping group (J6O), electroacupuncture group after 6-week jumping (J6A), and natural recovery group after 6-week jumping (J6N). After 6 weeks of jumping, in the electroacupuncture group (J6A), electroacupuncture stimulation was applied at Zusanli(ST36) for 20 min per day over the course of 5 days. In the natural recovery group (J6N), rats were fastened with a special apparatus without electroacupuncture stimulation for 20 min at the same time. Transmission electron microscopy, transcriptome sequencing and analysis, Western blotting assay and immunofluorescence staining were performed at the end of our experiment. The recovery effect of J6A rats was more obvious than that of J6N rats and J6O rats as indicated by changes of infiltration of inflammatory cells and morphological structure. Notably, the morphological structure of J6A rats was closer to NON rats in the observation of transmission electron microscopy. CISH/STAT3 regulation was identified by mRNA-seq. The pro-inflammatory response to STAT3 activation was alleviated through up-regulating the expression of CISH protein in J6A rats relative to J6O rats. The level of BAX was decreased and the level of Bcl-2 level was increased in J6A rats relative to J6O rats. Moreover, when compared to J6N rats, the level of Bcl-2 was significantly up-regulated in J6A rats. Increased caspase-3 expression but decreased CDKN2α expression was shown in J6A rats relative to NON rats. These results indicate that the potential mechanism underlying electroacupuncture stimulation of Zusanli (ST36) in repairing the injured extensor digitorum longus following overused jumping may be attributed to CISH/STAT3 regulation of proteins associated with inflammation, apoptosis, and proliferation.


Author(s):  
Steven Kirshblum ◽  
Amanda Botticello ◽  
John Benedetto ◽  
Fatma Eren ◽  
Jayne Donovan ◽  
...  
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2021 ◽  
Vol 895 (1) ◽  
pp. 012035
Author(s):  
Y A Ozaryan ◽  
T V Kozhevnikova ◽  
I S Manzhula

Abstract The processes of natural recovery of biota in the area disturbed by mining enterprises of the Khabarovsk region have been investigated. The specifics of the formation of secondary phytocenoses on man-made tumors have been revealed. Cluster analysis methods are used as an instrument to identify the key parameters that affect the state of vegetation during natural recovery.


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