recovery period
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2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (1) ◽  
pp. 31-33
Xiumei Zhang

ABSTRACT Introduction: Heart rate and blood pressure are important physiological indicators that reflect cardiovascular function, and they are widely used because they are convenient and practical to measure. Objective: To study the characteristics of cardiovascular changes in athletes under different training conditions. Methods: Thirty-four male students majoring in physical education in universities (group A) and 22 male non-sports majors (group B) with no formal training history were randomly selected. Heart rate before and after exercise and heart rate recovery rate at different stages of the recovery period were compared. Results: As regards heart rate changes in the recovery phase after loading, both groups showed a continuous decline, although the drop in heart rate of group A was slightly lower than that of group B (153.03± 15.88 beats/min, dropped to 110.69± 15.78 beats/minute, 171.00± 14.67 beats/minute dropped to 122. 82± 13.77 beats/min, respectively). However, the heart rate recovery rate of group A (59.40%) was significantly higher than that of group B (49.42%) (P<0.05). Conclusions: Physical exercise plays a significant role in promoting physical fitness and its effect on improving cardiovascular function is especially evident. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
R. Ejaz ◽  
M. T. Ashraf ◽  
S. Qadeer ◽  
M. Irfan ◽  
A. Azam ◽  

Abstract COVID-19 is reported as an extremely contagious disease with common symptoms of fever, dry cough, sore throat, and tiredness. The published literature on incidence and gender-wise prevalence of COVID-19 is scarce in Pakistan. Therefore, the present study was designed to compare the distribution, incubation period and mortality rate of COVID-19 among the male and female population of district Attock. The data were collected between 01 April 2020 and 07 December 2020 from the population of district Attock, Pakistan. A total of 22,962 individuals were screened and 843 were found positive for RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2. The confirmed positive cases were monitored carefully. Among the positive cases, the incidence of COVID-19 was 61.7% among males and 38.2% among females. The average recovery period of males was 18.89±7.75 days and females were 19±8.40 days from SARS-CoV-2. The overall mortality rate was 8.06%. The death rate of male patients was significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to female patients. Also, the mortality rate was higher (P<0.05) in male patients of 40-60 years of age compared to female patients of the same age group. Moreover, the mortality rate significantly increased (P<0.05) with the increase of age irrespective of gender. In conclusion, the incidence and mortality rate of COVID-19 is higher in males compared to the female population. Moreover, irrespective of gender the mortality rate was significantly lower among patients aged <40 years.

Miguel Lecina ◽  
Carlos Castellar ◽  
Francisco Pradas ◽  
Isaac López-Laval

A series of case studies aimed to evaluate muscular fatigue in running a 768-km ultra-trail race in 11 days. Four non-professional athletes (four males) were enrolled. Muscle damage blood biomarkers (creatine kinase (CK), lactodeshydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lower limb strength were evaluated by using Bosco jumps test; squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ) and Abalakov jump (ABA) were assessed before (pre), after the race (post) and for two and nine days during the recovery period (rec2 and rec9), respectively. Results showed: pre-post SJ = −28%, CMJ = −36% and ABA = −21%. Values returned to basal during rec9: SJ = −1%, CMJ = −2% or even exceeded pre-values ABA = +3%. On the contrary, muscle damage blood biomarkers values increased at post; CK = +888%, LDH = +172%, AST = +167% and ALT = +159% and the values returned gradually to baseline at rec9 except for AST = +226% and ALT = +103% which remained higher. Nonparametric bivariate Spearman’s test showed strong correlations (Rs ≥ 0.8) between some jumps and muscle damage biomarkers at post (SJ-LDH Rs = 0.80, SJ-AST Rs = 0.8, ABA-LD H Rs = 0.80 and ABA-AST Rs = 0.80), at rec2 (SJ-CK Rs = 0.80 and SJ-ALT Rs = 0.80) and even during rec9 (ABA-CK). Similarly, some parameters such as accumulated elevation and training volume showed a strong correlation with LDH values after finishing the ultra-trail race. The alteration induced by completing an ultra-trail event in the muscle affects lower limb strength and may in some circumstances result in serious medical conditions including post- exertional rhabdomyolysis.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Lucy V. Hiscox ◽  
Sidney Bray ◽  
Abigail Fraser ◽  
Richard Meiser-Stedman ◽  
Soraya Seedat ◽  

Abstract Background Higher levels of PTSD symptoms are present among trauma-exposed females v. males in adulthood; however, much less is known about the emergence of this sex difference during development. Methods In a multi-study sample of 7–18-year-olds (n = 3397), we examined the effect of sex and age on the severity of PTSD symptoms after a single incident trauma at 1 month (T1), and on symptom change after a natural recovery period of 3 (T2) and 6 months (T3). PTSD scores were harmonised across measurement types, and linear regressions were used to determine sex and age effects, adjusting for study level variance and trauma type. Results A sex × age interaction was observed at T1 (p < 0.001) demonstrating that older age was associated with greater PTSD symptom severity in females (β = 0.008, p = 0.047), but less severe symptoms in males (β = −0.011, p = 0.014). The same pattern was observed at T2 and T3, with sex differences beginning to emerge by age 12 years. PTSD symptoms decreased naturally by ~25% at T2 with little further improvement by T3. Further, females showed a greater reduction in symptoms at T3 than males, although the same effect was not observed at T2. Conclusions Sex differences in PTSD symptoms become apparent during adolescence, due to opposing changes in susceptibility occurring in females and males with age. Understanding the factors contributing to these findings is likely to provide wider insight into sex-specific psychological vulnerability to trauma-related psychopathology.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Satoshi Kubota ◽  
Yutaka Endo ◽  
Mitsue Kubota ◽  
Hiroko Miyazaki ◽  
Tomohiko Shigemasa

Purpose: Water drinking has been proposed for the treatment of orthostatic hypotension because it can increase blood pressure in patients. This study aimed to investigate whether drinking water with a cold or carbonation stimulus would cause a more effective pressor response, and whether it would be greater in older than in younger adults.Methods: We assessed blood pressure and heart rate from non-invasive arterial pressure (a volume-clamp method) and type II electrocardiography in 13 healthy young adults (6 females, 7 males; mean age, 19.9 ± 1.1 years) and nine healthy older adults (all females; mean age, 71.4 ± 4.2 years) who drank 200 mL of cold, cold carbonated, and room temperature water.Results: The pressor response to the drinking of cold and cold carbonated water was greater than that to room temperature water in both younger and older participants (p &lt; 0.05; changes in systolic blood pressure of room temperature water, cold water and cold carbonated water in young: 15.31 ± 9.66, 22.56 ± 11.51 and 32.6 ± 17.98 mmHg, respectively; changes in systolic blood pressure of room temperature water, cold water and cold carbonated water in elderly: 21.84 ± 14.31, 41.53 ± 19.82 and 48.16 ± 16.77 mmHg, respectively). In addition, the pressor response to cold and cold carbonated water was persistent during the recovery period by about 5–10 mmHg (p &lt; 0.05). Furthermore, the pressor response during the drinking and recovery periods was greater in the older than in the younger participants (p &lt; 0.05).Conclusion: Our data suggest that even smaller amounts of water are able to elicit a sustained pressor response, in particular if the water is cold and carbonated. We speculate that the pressor effect may render cold and carbonated water an appropriate first aid method against certain forms of acute hypotension.

Nese Yaksi ◽  
Ayse Gulsen Teker ◽  
Ayfer Imre

Background: We aimed to evaluate the Long COVID frequency, and related factors in patients followed up after hospitalization. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 133 inpatients with COVID-19 PCR test positivity from Nigde Province, Turkey between 01.01.2021 and 28.02.2021. The characteristics of the patients were recorded by examining the files, and the symptom questioning was made by telephone interviewing with the patients approximately four months after the date of diagnosis. The presence of at least one symptom lasting more than four weeks was described as Long COVID. Results: The frequency of Long COVID was 64.7%. The most common Long COVID symptoms were fatigue (45.9%), respiratory distress (25.6%), and muscle / joint pain (24.8%), respectively. In comparison analysis to identify factors associated with Long COVID; Long COVID was found to be more frequent among women (P=0.04); patients with severe COVID-19 (P<0.01), patients with prolonged hospital stay (P=0.03), patients with the comorbid disease (P=0.03), and Diabetes Mellitus patients (P=0.02). Additionally, the frequency of Long COVID increased as the depression score stated by the person increased after COVID-19 disease (P=0.02). Conclusion:  The treatment of COVID-19 patients should not end when they are discharged from the hospital. On the contrary, these patients, especially high-risk patients, should be followed up in post-COVID clinics and rehabilitated physically and psychosocially with a multidisciplinary approach following the recovery period of the acute illness.

Péter Gulyássy ◽  
Katalin Todorov-Völgyi ◽  
Vilmos Tóth ◽  
Balázs A. Györffy ◽  
Gina Puska ◽  

AbstractSleep deprivation (SD) is commonplace in the modern way of life and has a substantial social, medical, and human cost. Sleep deprivation induces cognitive impairment such as loss of executive attention, working memory decline, poor emotion regulation, increased reaction times, and higher cognitive functions are particularly vulnerable to sleep loss. Furthermore, SD is associated with obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and a vast majority of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders are accompanied by sleep disturbances. Despite the widespread scientific interest in the effect of sleep loss on synaptic function, there is a lack of investigation focusing on synaptic transmission on the proteome level. In the present study, we report the effects of SD and recovery period (RP) on the cortical synaptic proteome in rats. Synaptosomes were isolated after 8 h of SD performed by gentle handling and after 16 h of RP. The purity of synaptosome fraction was validated with western blot and electron microscopy, and the protein abundance alterations were analyzed by mass spectrometry. We observed that SD and RP have a wide impact on neurotransmitter-related proteins at both the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes. The abundance of synaptic proteins has changed to a greater extent in consequence of SD than during RP: we identified 78 proteins with altered abundance after SD and 39 proteins after the course of RP. Levels of most of the altered proteins were upregulated during SD, while RP showed the opposite tendency, and three proteins (Gabbr1, Anks1b, and Decr1) showed abundance changes with opposite direction after SD and RP. The functional cluster analysis revealed that a majority of the altered proteins is related to signal transduction and regulation, synaptic transmission and synaptic assembly, protein and ion transport, and lipid and fatty acid metabolism, while the interaction network analysis revealed several connections between the significantly altered proteins and the molecular processes of synaptic plasticity or sleep. Our proteomic data implies suppression of SNARE-mediated synaptic vesicle exocytosis and impaired endocytic processes after sleep deprivation. Both SD and RP altered GABA neurotransmission and affected protein synthesis, several regulatory processes and signaling pathways, energy homeostatic processes, and metabolic pathways.

Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 71
Jiamei Sun ◽  
Xinyuan Wei ◽  
Yu Zhou ◽  
Catherine Chan ◽  
Jiaojiao Diao

Because nutrients including nitrogen and phosphorus are generally limited in tropical forest ecosystems in Puerto Rico, a quantitative understanding of the nutrient budget at a watershed scale is required to assess vegetation growth and predict forest carbon dynamics. Hurricanes are the most frequent disturbance in Puerto Rico and play an important role in regulating lateral nitrogen and phosphorus exports from the forested watershed. In this study, we selected seven watersheds in Puerto Rico to examine the immediate and lagged effects of hurricanes on nitrogen and phosphorous exports. Our results suggest that immediate surges of heavy precipitation associated with hurricanes accelerate nitrogen and phosphorus exports as much as 297 ± 113 and 306 ± 70 times than the long-term average, respectively. In addition, we estimated that it requires approximately one year for post-hurricane riverine nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations to recover to pre-hurricane levels. During the recovery period, the riverine nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations are 30 ± 6% and 28 ± 5% higher than the pre-hurricane concentrations on average.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Richard Grainger ◽  
David Raubenheimer ◽  
Victor M. Peddemors ◽  
Paul A. Butcher ◽  
Gabriel E. Machovsky-Capuska

Multisensor biologging provides a powerful tool for ecological research, enabling fine-scale observation of animals to directly link physiology and movement to behavior across ecological contexts. However, applied research into behavioral disturbance and recovery following human interventions (e.g., capture and translocation) has mostly relied on coarse location-based tracking or unidimensional approaches (e.g., dive profiles and activity/energetic metrics) that may not resolve behaviors and recovery processes. Biologging can improve insights into both disturbed and natural behavior, which is critical for management and conservation initiatives, although challenges remain in objectively identifying distinct behavioral modes from complex multisensor datasets. Using white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) released from a non-lethal catch-and-release shark bite mitigation program, we explored how combining multisensor biologging (video, depth, accelerometers, gyroscopes, and magnetometers), track reconstruction and behavioral state modeling using hidden Markov models (HMMs) can improve our understanding of behavioral processes and recovery. Biologging tags were deployed on eight white sharks, recording their continuous behaviors, movements, and environmental context (habitat, interactions with other organisms/objects) for periods of 10–87 h post-release. Dive profiles and tailbeat analysis (as a standard, activity-based method for assessing recovery) indicated an immediate “disturbed” period of offshore movement, displaying rapid tailbeats and an average tailbeat-derived recovery period of 9.7 h, with evidence of smaller individuals having longer recoveries. However, further integrating magnetometer-derived headings, track reconstruction and HMM modeling revealed a cryptic shift to diurnal clockwise-counterclockwise circling behavior, which we argue represents compelling new evidence for hypothesized unihemispheric sleep amongst elasmobranchs. By simultaneously providing critical information toward conservation-focused shark management and understudied aspects of shark behavior, our study highlights how integrating multisensor information through HMMs can improve our understanding of both post-release and natural behavior, especially in species that are difficult to observe directly.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 307
Ingen Perser ◽  
Ian Alistair Frigaard

Utilizing a deep Borehole Heat Exchanger (BHE) has been recognized as a clean, renewable, low-carbon-emission, and sustainable way for heating of residential buildings and greenhouses. In this study, the long-term performance of horizontal deep BHE in intermittent mode is scrutinized. In this regard, to predict the transient heat transfer process in the deep BHEs, a mathematical model is developed and then verified by using the experimental results. The effect various key parameters including flow rate of circulating fluid, undisturbed ground temperature, inlet fluid temperature, and ground thermal conductivity on the thermal performance of deep BHE in continuous and intermittent mode is studied. According to the results, increasing the flow rate of circulating fluid, undisturbed ground temperature, and ground thermal conductivity is favorable for heat extraction rate. Moreover, the effect of three specific parameters for intermittent operation including periodic time interval, flow rate ratio, and recovery period ratio on the long-term performance of horizontal deep BHE are scrutinized. Based on the results, by decreasing the periodic time interval and increasing the flow rate ratio, the mean heat extraction rate in the period of 30 years is increased and the mean borehole’s wall temperature is decreased. Furthermore, by increasing the recovery period ratio, the heat extraction rate increases significantly while the total extracted energy decreases.

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