BMC Sports Science Medicine and Rehabilitation
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Published By Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)

2052-1847, 2052-1847

J. Flodin ◽  
R. Juthberg ◽  
P. W. Ackermann

Abstract Background Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) may prevent muscle atrophy, accelerate rehabilitation and enhance blood circulation. Yet, one major drawback is that patient compliance is impeded by the discomfort experienced. It is well-known that the size and placement of electrodes affect the comfort and effect during high-intensity NMES. However, during low-intensity NMES the effects of electrode size/placement are mostly unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate how electrode size and pragmatic placement affect comfort and effect of low-intensity NMES in the thigh and gluteal muscles. Methods On 15 healthy participants, NMES-intensity (mA) was increased until visible muscle contraction, applied with three electrode sizes (2 × 2 cm, 5 × 5 cm, 5 × 9 cm), in three different configurations on quadriceps and hamstrings (short-transverse (ST), long-transverse (LT), longitudinal (L)) and two configurations on gluteus maximus (short-longitudinal (SL) and long-longitudinal (LL)). Current–density (mA/cm2) required for contraction was calculated for each electrode size. Comfort was assessed with a numerical rating scale (NRS, 0–10). Significance was set to p < 0.05 and values were expressed as median (inter-quartile range). Results On quadriceps the LT-placement exhibited significantly better comfort and lower current intensity than the ST- and L-placements. On hamstrings the L-placement resulted in the best comfort together with the lowest intensity. On gluteus maximus the LL-placement demonstrated better comfort and required less intensity than SL-placement. On all muscles, the 5 × 5 cm and 5 × 9 cm electrodes were significantly more comfortable and required less current–density for contraction than the 2 × 2 cm electrode. Conclusion During low-intensity NMES-treatment, an optimized electrode size and practical placement on each individual muscle of quadriceps, hamstrings and gluteals is crucial for comfort and intensity needed for muscle contraction.

Dimitrije Kovac ◽  
Zarko Krkeljas ◽  
Ranel Venter

Abstract Background Improving the quality of functional movements in athletes generally requires additional training targeting specific functional deficiencies. However, well-rounded, traditional strength and conditioning program should also improve player’s movement quality. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to compare the effect of two different six-week interventions on the functional score of female netball players. Methods In a randomized controlled study, players were divided into control and intervention group. Both groups completed identical six-week strength and conditioning program, with the intervention group also completing additional corrective exercises three sessions per week during the same period. Results The FMS® score was significantly higher in the intervention group after 6-week program (f = 9.85, p = 0.004). However, the differences in total score may be attributed mainly to differences between groups in active straight leg raise (p = 0.004) and trunk stability push-up test (p = 0.02), as other individual tests demonstrated similar time and group effect. Conclusion These results indicate that although FMS® based intervention may improve overall functional movement score, the athletes in both groups have demonstrated similar improvements in most of the individual tests. Hence, a well-rounded strength and conditioning program incorporating athlete-specific exercises based on limitations identified in the functional movement screen, may result in a balanced training strategy and reduce the need for supplementary functional training sessions.

Liv Riseth ◽  
Tom Ivar Lund Nilsen ◽  
Torunn Hatlen Nøst ◽  
Aslak Steinsbekk

Abstract Background Knowledge on the relationship between fitness center use and long-term members’ subsequent goal achievement is limited. Therefore, the aim was to investigate the prospective association between the use of fitness centers during 18 months and subsequent self-reported goal achievement among long-term members. Methods This was a registry- and survey-based longitudinal study of 2851 people who had been members at a Norwegian fitness center chain for more than two years. Fitness center use from December 2016 to June 2018 was obtained from registry data. Subsequent goal achievement was measured in a survey in June 2018, assessed by a 1–100 visual analogue scale, and a score between 0 and 50 was defined as low goal achievement. Results Visiting the fitness center frequently and regularly, and having frequent group activity bookings were associated with higher subsequent self-reported goal achievement. Participants with fewest visits (1–57 days) during 18 months were more likely to report low goal achievement than participants with most visits (118–543 days) (OR = 8.5; 95% CI 6.3–11.4). Fitness trainer bookings was not clearly associated with subsequent goal achievement. Conclusions Frequent and regular long-term fitness center use were associated with higher subsequent self-reported goal achievement.

Gershon Zinger ◽  
Alexander Bregman ◽  
Ori Safran ◽  
Shaul Beyth ◽  
Amos Peyser

Abstract Background For most patients, tennis elbow (TE) resolves within 6 months of onset. For those with persistent and painful TE, nonsurgical treatment options are limited. Thousands of studies have tried to find effective treatments for TE but have usually failed. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that injections with hyaluronic acid (HA) would be effective at reducing pain from chronic TE. Methods Patients with a minimum of six months of pain from TE and with a pain level of 50 or greater (out of 100) were included in the study. They were randomized equally into one of two treatment groups: injection with HA or injection with saline control. Follow-up was conducted at 3, 6 and 12 months from the initial injection. Both the patient and the examiner at the follow-up visits were blinded to the treatment arm. The primary outcome measure was the visual analog scale (VAS pain) score at one year. Additional outcome measures included the shortened Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (QuickDASH) and Patient Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) scores. Results Eighteen patients were randomized into the HA injection treatment arm, and 17 (94%) completed the study. The average age was 51.9 years, and 10 of the subjects were male. Patients had an average of 28.1 months of pain before entering the study. The VAS score in the HA group decreased from a baseline of 76.4–14.3 at 12 months. All 17 patients in the HA group showed VAS score reductions above the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) of at least 18. The PRTEE score improved from 67 to 28.1. The QuickDASH score improved from 53.7 to 22.5. Follow-up in the saline group was less than 50% and was therefore not used as a comparator. Conclusions HA injections yielded significant success in pain relief by three months. Patients continued to improve for the 12-month duration of the study. This study indicates that patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis may benefit from receiving injections of hyaluronic acid rather than having to undergo surgery.

Vahid Parvizi Mastali ◽  
Rastegar Hoseini ◽  
Mohammad Azizi

Abstract Background Exercise-induced muscle damage typically caused by unaccustomed exercise results in pain, soreness, inflammation, and muscle and liver damages. Antioxidant supplementation might be a useful approach to reduce myocytes and hepatocytes damages. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of short-term vitamin D (Vit D) supplementation on the response to muscle and liver damages indices by Exhaustive Aerobic Exercise (EAE) in untrained men. Methods In this clinical trial, 24 untrained men were randomly divided into experimental (Exp; n = 12) and control (C; n = 12) groups. Exp received 2000 IU of Vit D daily for six weeks (42 days), while C daily received a lactose placebo with the same color, shape, and warmth percentage. Two bouts of EAE were performed on a treadmill before and after six weeks of supplementation. Anthropometric characteristics (Bodyweight (BW), height, Body Fat Percentage (BFP), Body Mass Index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR)) were measured at the Pre 1 and Pre 2. Blood samples were taken to measure the Creatine Kinase (CK), Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), and Vit D levels at four stages: Pre 1 (before the first EE session), Post 1 (after the first EE session), Pre 2 (before the second EE session), and Post 2 (after the second EE session). The data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA, Bonferroni's post hoc test, independent t test, and dependent t-test at the significant level of P < 0.05 using SPSS version 26. Results The results show significant differences between Exp and C in alterations of BW (P = 0.039), BMI (P = 0.025), BFP (P = 0.043), and WHR (P = 0.035). The results showed that EAE increased muscle and liver damage indices and Vit D (P < 0.05). Compared with C, the results of the independent t-test showed significantly lower ALT (P = 0.001; P = 0.001), AST (P = 0.011; P = 0.001), GGT (P = 0.018; P = 0.001), and ALP (P = 0.001; P = 0.001); while significantly higher Vit D (P = 0.001, P = 0.001) in the Exp in both Pre 2 and Post 2; receptivity. The independent t test showed significantly lower ALT (P = 0.001; P = 0.001), AST (P = 0.011; P = 0.001), GGT (P = 0.018; P = 0.001), and ALP (P = 0.001; P = 0.001) and considerably greater Vit D (P = 0.001, P = 0.001) in the Exp in both Pre 2 and Post 2 compared to C. The results of an independent t test showed that LDH and CK levels in the Exp were significantly lower than those in the Post 2 (P = 0.001). Conclusions Short-term Vit D supplementation could prevent myocytes and hepatocytes damage induced by EAE.

Xingdong Zhou

Abstract Background The rules of attack in table tennis tactics have been discovered by the coaches and researchers of the Chinese table tennis team (CTTT) through long-term practice. However, they are only empirical judgements and have not been objectively verified. Methods The software "Table Tennis Master" has been used to analyse 200 matches of top players of CTTT against various opponents in recent years to obtain detailed statistics by analysing the effect of attack in the end line (AIEL) and attack out of the end line (AOEL). Results (1) The scoring rate of the players was high after AIEL but very low after AOEL (p < 0.05); (2) the round of service (serve/receive) and level of skills had little influence on the effect of AIEL and AOEL; and (3) the timing of attack had a great influence on the effect of AIEL and AOEL (r > 0.9). Conclusions In the high-level table tennis match, the rules of AIEL and AOEL are scientific. In accordance with the rules, the complex tactics can be simplified to the two concepts, AIEL and AOEL.

Sophie Docherty ◽  
Rachael Harley ◽  
Joseph J. McAuley ◽  
Lindsay A. N. Crowe ◽  
Carles Pedret ◽  

AbstractThe physiological effects of physical exercise are ubiquitously reported as beneficial to the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems. Exercise is widely promoted by medical professionals to aid both physical and emotional wellbeing; however, mechanisms through which this is achieved are less well understood. Despite numerous beneficial attributes, certain types of exercise can inflict significant significant physiological stress. Several studies document a key relationship between exercise and immune activation. Activation of the innate immune system occurs in response to exercise and it is proposed this is largely mediated by cytokine signalling. Cytokines are typically classified according to their inflammatory properties and evidence has shown that cytokines expressed in response to exercise are diverse and may act to propagate, modulate or mitigate inflammation in musculoskeletal health. The review summarizes the existing literature on the relationship between exercise and the immune system with emphasis on how exercise-induced cytokine expression modulates inflammation and the immune response.

Alessandro M. Zagatto ◽  
Gabriel M. Claus ◽  
Yago M. Dutra ◽  
Rodrigo A. de Poli ◽  
Vithor H. F. Lopes ◽  

Abstract Background The aim of the investigation was to compare the occurrence of post-activation performance enhancement (PAPE) after drop jumps, or heavy sled towing, and the subsequent effect on repeated sprint ability (RSA). Methods Ten young basketball players (17 ± 1 yrs) performed, in randomized order, RSA test with changes of direction after a standardized warm up followed by drop jumps, heavy sled towing, or no exercise (control condition). Neuromuscular assessments composed of two maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors, peripheral nerve stimulation, and surface electromyography (EMG), responses were recorded before and immediately after the RSA. The EMG signal of leg muscles during sprinting were also recorded as well as the blood lactate concentration. Results The drop jumps improved the RSA mean time (P = 0.033), total time (P = 0.031), and slowest time (P = 0.029) compared to control condition, while heavy sled towing did not change RSA outcomes (P > 0.05). All conditions exhibited a decrease of doublet high frequency stimulation force (pre-post measurement) (P = 0.023) and voluntary activation (P = 0.041), evidencing the occurrence from peripheral and central components of fatigue after RSA, respectively, but no difference was evident between-conditions. There was a significantly greater EMG activity during sprints for the biceps femoris after drop jumps, only when compared to control condition (P = 0.013). Conclusion Repeated drop jumps were effective to induce PAPE in the form of RSA, while heavy sled towing had no effect on RSA performance in young basketball players. Furthermore, both conditioning activities exhibited similar levels of fatigue following the RSA protocol. Thus, drop jumps may be used as an alternative to induce PAPE and thus improve performance during sprints in young male basketball players.

Kuei-Yu Chien ◽  
Wei-Gang Chang ◽  
Wan-Chin Chen ◽  
Rong-Jun Liou

Abstract Background Water jumping exercise is an alternative method to achieve maintenance of bone health and reduce exercise injuries. Clarifying the ground reaction force (GRF) of moderate and high cardiopulmonary exercise intensities for jumping movements can help quantify the impact force during different exercise intensities. Accelerometers have been explored for measuring skeletal mechanical loading by estimating the GRFs. Predictive regression equations for GRF using ACC on land have already been developed and performed outside laboratory settings, whereas a predictive regression equation for GRF in water exercises is not yet established. The purpose of this study was to determine the best accelerometer wear-position for three exercise intensities and develop and validate the ground reaction force (GRF) prediction equation. Methods Twelve healthy women (23.6 ± 1.83 years, 158.2 ± 5.33 cm, 53.1 ± 7.50 kg) were recruited as participants. Triaxial accelerometers were affixed 3 cm above the medial malleolus of the tibia, fifth lumbar vertebra, and seventh cervical vertebra (C7). The countermovement jump (CMJ) cadence started at 80 beats/min and increased by 5 beats per 20 s to reach 50%, 65%, and 80% heart rate reserves, and then participants jumped five more times. One-way repeated analysis of variance was used to determine acceleration differences among wear-positions and exercise intensities. Pearson’s correlation was used to determine the correlation between the acceleration and GRF per body weight on land (GRFVLBW). Backward regression analysis was used to generate GRFVLBW prediction equations from full models with C7 acceleration (C7 ACC), age, percentage of water deep divided by body height (PWDH), and bodyweight as predictors. Paired t-test was used to determine GRFVLBW differences between values from the prediction equation and force plate measurement during validation. Lin’s CCC and Bland–Altman plots were used to determine the agreement between the predicted and force plate-measured GRFVLBW. Results The raw full profile data for the resultant acceleration showed that the acceleration curve of C7 was similar to that of GRFv. The predicted formula was − 1.712 + 0.658 * C7ACC + 0.016 * PWDH + 0.008 * age + 0.003*weight. Lin’s CCC score was 0.7453, with bias of 0.369%. Conclusion The resultant acceleration measured at C7 was identified as the valid estimated GRFVLBW during CMJ in water.

Violeta Sánchez-Migallón ◽  
Álvaro López-Samanes ◽  
Juan Del Coso ◽  
Archit Navandar ◽  
Per Aagaard ◽  

Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two competitive field hockey matches, played on consecutive days, on maximal isometric hip adductor and abductor strength, wellness and fatigue. Methods Fourteen professional female field hockey players (age: 20.4 ± 5.4 years; body mass: 60.7 ± 7.2 kg; height: 167.0 ± 1.0 cm) volunteered to participate in this investigation. Maximal isometric hip adductor and abductor strength were obtained before (pre-match 1) and after the first match (post-match 1), after the second match (post-match 2), and 48 h after the second match. Locomotion patterns during the matches were obtained with portable Global Positioning System (GPS) and perceived exertion (RPE) was assessed after each match. In addition, Wellness Questionnaire (5-WQ) and the Total Quality Recovery Scale (TQR) were employed before the matches and 48 h after the second match. Results For the non-dominant limb, the maximal isometric hip adductor and abductor strength were lower after post-match 2 when compared to pre-match 1 (p = 0.011). Hip abductor strength in the non-dominant limb remained reduced 48 h after post-match 2 (p < 0.001). There were no differences in the total distance covered when comparing match 1 and match 2. Players reported more acute fatigue (5-WQ, p = 0.009) and increased muscle soreness on pre-match 2 compared to pre-match 1 (p = 0.015), while fatigue returned to pre-competition levels 48 h after post-match 2 (p = 0.027). No changes were observed in the TQR. Conclusion The assessment of maximal adductor and abductor strength before and after competitive matches, in addition to evaluating self-perceived fatigue by a wellness questionnaire can help to identify field hockey players with excessive fatigue responses during tournaments with a congested match program.

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