cellular damage
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Antioxidants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 167
Sulagna Dutta ◽  
Pallav Sengupta ◽  
Shubhadeep Roychoudhury ◽  
Srikumar Chakravarthi ◽  
Chee Woon Wang ◽  

The pathophysiology of male infertility involves various interlinked endogenous pathways. About 50% of the cases of infertility in men are idiopathic, and oxidative stress (OS) reportedly serves as a central mechanism in impairing male fertility parameters. The endogenous antioxidant system operates to conserve the seminal redox homeostasis required for normal male reproduction. OS strikes when a generation of seminal reactive oxygen species (ROS) overwhelms endogenous antioxidant capacity. Thus, antioxidant treatment finds remarkable relevance in the case of idiopathic male infertility or subfertility. However, due to lack of proper detection of OS in male infertility, use of antioxidant(s) in some cases may be arbitrary or lead to overuse and induction of ‘reductive stress’. Moreover, inflammation is closely linked to OS and may establish a vicious loop that is capable of disruption to male reproductive tissues. The result is exaggeration of cellular damage and disruption of male reproductive tissues. Therefore, limitations of antioxidant therapy in treating male infertility are the failure in the selection of specific treatments targeting inflammation and OS simultaneously, two of the core mechanisms of male infertility. The present review aims to elucidate the antioxidant paradox in male infertility treatment, from the viewpoints of both induction of reductive stress as well as overlooking the inflammatory consequences.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Etelka Pöstyéni ◽  
Alma Ganczer ◽  
Andrea Kovács-Valasek ◽  
Robert Gabriel

The mammalian retina contains approximately 30 neuropeptides that are synthetized by different neuronal cell populations, glia, and the pigmented epithelium. The presence of these neuropeptides leaves a mark on normal retinal molecular processes and physiology, and they are also crucial in fighting various pathologies (e.g., diabetic retinopathy, ischemia, age-related pathologies, glaucoma) because of their protective abilities. Retinal pathologies of different origin (metabolic, genetic) are extensively investigated by genetically manipulated in vivo mouse models that help us gain a better understanding of the molecular background of these pathomechanisms. These models offer opportunities to manipulate gene expression in different cell types to help reveal their roles in the preservation of retinal health or identify malfunction during diseases. In order to assess the current status of transgenic technologies available, we have conducted a literature survey focused on retinal disorders of metabolic origin, zooming in on the role of retinal neuropeptides in diabetic retinopathy and ischemia. First, we identified those neuropeptides that are most relevant to retinal pathologies in humans and the two clinically most relevant models, mice and rats. Then we continued our analysis with metabolic disorders, examining neuropeptide-related pathways leading to systemic or cellular damage and rescue. Last but not least, we reviewed the available literature on genetically modified mouse strains to understand how the manipulation of a single element of any given pathway (e.g., signal molecules, receptors, intracellular signaling pathways) could lead either to the worsening of disease conditions or, more frequently, to substantial improvements in retinal health. Most attention was given to studies which reported successful intervention against specific disorders. For these experiments, a detailed evaluation will be given and the possible role of converging intracellular pathways will be discussed. Using these converging intracellular pathways, curative effects of peptides could potentially be utilized in fighting metabolic retinal disorders.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Heather R. Siedhoff ◽  
Shanyan Chen ◽  
Hailong Song ◽  
Jiankun Cui ◽  
Ibolja Cernak ◽  

Most traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) during military deployment or training are clinically “mild” and frequently caused by non-impact blast exposures. Experimental models were developed to reproduce the biological consequences of high-intensity blasts causing moderate to severe brain injuries. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms of low-intensity blast (LIB)-induced neurological deficits have been understudied. This review provides perspectives on primary blast-induced mild TBI models and discusses translational aspects of LIB exposures as defined by standardized physical parameters including overpressure, impulse, and shock wave velocity. Our mouse LIB-exposure model, which reproduces deployment-related scenarios of open-field blast (OFB), caused neurobehavioral changes, including reduced exploratory activities, elevated anxiety-like levels, impaired nesting behavior, and compromised spatial reference learning and memory. These functional impairments associate with subcellular and ultrastructural neuropathological changes, such as myelinated axonal damage, synaptic alterations, and mitochondrial abnormalities occurring in the absence of gross- or cellular damage. Biochemically, we observed dysfunctional mitochondrial pathways that led to elevated oxidative stress, impaired fission-fusion dynamics, diminished mitophagy, decreased oxidative phosphorylation, and compensated cell respiration-relevant enzyme activity. LIB also induced increased levels of total tau, phosphorylated tau, and amyloid β peptide, suggesting initiation of signaling cascades leading to neurodegeneration. We also compare translational aspects of OFB findings to alternative blast injury models. By scoping relevant recent research findings, we provide recommendations for future preclinical studies to better reflect military-operational and clinical realities. Overall, better alignment of preclinical models with clinical observations and experience related to military injuries will facilitate development of more precise diagnosis, clinical evaluation, treatment, and rehabilitation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (2) ◽  
pp. 01-06
Prince N. Agbedanu ◽  
Troy B. Puga ◽  
Joshua Schafer ◽  
Pearce Harris ◽  
Gary Branum ◽  

1. Aim/Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been identified as compounds responsible for producing cellular damage. The purpose of this research is to examine if there is production of reactive oxygen species through free radical intermediates within human hepatocytes treated with morphine, bilirubin, or furosemide. The investigation examines the early stages of biotransformation by measuring the levels of reactive oxygen species produced inside of the treated hepatocytes within the first and second hours of treatment. The experiment was designed upon a case of a jaundiced (elevated bilirubin) infant who received morphine and furosemide and later died through unknown mechanisms. The experiment looks to examine if these drug compounds could contribute to cellular damage. This can help to further understand the potential interactions and complications of free radical intermediates produced during the phases of biotransformation. 2. Method: Previously cultured human hepatocytes were washed by centrifugation and re-suspended in 1x supplemental buffer to a concentration of 1x106 cells/mL and seeded in a dark clear bottom 96-well microplate at 100,000 stained cells/well. The cells were treated with either furosemide, morphine, bilirubin, a Tert-Butyl hydro peroxide (TBHP) positive control, or left as a background. Reactive oxygen generated in the presence of these agents were quantified by fluorescence excitation/emission measurement at 495nm/529nm. Fluorescence was measured at one and two hours. ROS generated convert 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate to 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein within the cells, which fluoresces. The fluorescence intensity detected is equivalent to the level of ROS generated. Wells that were untreated were used as blanks and subtracted from background and TBPH. 3. Results: Furosemide and Morphine did not produce statistically significant levels of ROS (p >0.05) above the background in both hours 1 and 2 of biotransformation and ROS measurement (Figure 1). Although Bilirubin did not produce statistically significant (p >0.05) levels of ROS above the background (Figure 2) during the first hour, it did produce statistically significant levels in the second hour of biotransformation. Each compound’s level of ROS was reduced during the second hour, signaling the removal of intermediate ROS metabolites (Figure 2). The production of ROS in each compound signifies that there is biotransformation to an intermediate that produces ROS. 4. Conclusion: The production of ROS above the background by each of the compounds shows there is an intermediate free radical compound that is produced during the biotransformation of each compound [21]. In this study, although furosemide and morphine did not produce statistically significant levels of ROS in both hours of biotransformation, bilirubin did produce significant levels of ROS in the second hour of biotransformation. This finding is in line with previous studies that shows morphine to offer protective effects against ROS production [16, 17]; and bilirubin demonstrating deleterious production of ROS at high doses [18]. Further work must be done to examine the correlation between the levels of ROS and extent of hepatocellular damage.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-16
Guoshuai Cao ◽  
Sidong Yang ◽  
Jianye Cao ◽  
Zixuan Tan ◽  
Linyu Wu ◽  

Intervertebral disc degeneration is a very common type of degenerative disease causing severe socioeconomic impact, as well as a major cause of discogenic low back pain and herniated discs, placing a heavy burden on patients and the clinicians who treat them. IDD is known to be associating with a complex process involving in extracellular matrix and cellular damage, and in recent years, there is increasing evidence that oxidative stress is an important activation mechanism of IDD and that reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species regulate matrix metabolism, proinflammatory phenotype, autophagy and senescence in intervertebral disc cells, apoptosis, autophagy, and senescence. Despite the tremendous efforts of researchers within the field of IDD pathogenesis, the proven strategies to prevent and treat this disease are still very limited. Up to now, several antioxidants have been proved to be effective for alleviating IDD. In this article, we discussed that oxidative stress accelerates disc degeneration by influencing aging, inflammation, autophagy, and DNA methylation, and summarize some antioxidant therapeutic measures for IDD, indicating that antioxidant therapy for disc degeneration holds excellent promise.

2022 ◽  
Vol 32 (1) ◽  
Faruk Hadziselimovic

AbstractSpermatogenesis in mammals is a heat-sensitive developmental pathway incompatible with the typical mammalian body temperature of 37 °C. It is thought that this is the reason why the testicles of most mammalian males are outside of the body cavity, in the scrotum, where they function at approximately 33 °C. It has been suggested that the abnormally high temperature environment of cryptorchid testes may lead to impaired testicular development and adult infertility. Here, I summarize the clinical, genetic, and histological evidence that argues against temperature stress and in favor of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism as the underlying cause of adult infertility in cryptorchidism.Patient summary: Infertility and an increased risk of testicular cancer in patients diagnosed with undescended testes are the consequence of a hormonal deficiency rather than temperature-induced cellular damage. Cryptorchidism therefore requires both surgical and hormonal treatment.

2022 ◽  
Cindy E. Prescott

Abstract Plants engage in many processes and relationships that appear to be wasteful of the high-energy compounds that they produce through carbon fixation and photosynthesis. For example, living trees keep leafless tree stumps alive (i.e. respiring) and support shaded understory trees by sharing carbohydrates through root grafts or mycorrhizal fungal networks. Plants exude a variety of organic compounds from their roots and leaves, which support abundant rhizosphere and phyllosphere microbiomes. Some plants release substantial amounts of sugar via extra-floral nectaries, which enrich throughfall and alter lichen communities beneath the canopy. Large amounts of photosynthetically fixed carbon are transferred to root associates such as mycorrhizal fungi and N-fixing micro-organisms. In roots, some fixed C is respired through an alternative non-phosphorylating pathway that oxidizes excess sugar. Each of these processes is most prevalent when plants are growing under mild-to-moderate deficiencies or nutrients or water, or under high light or elevated atmospheric CO2. Under these conditions, plants produce more fixed carbon than they can use for primary metabolism and growth, and so have ‘surplus carbon’. To prevent cellular damage, these compounds must be transformed into other compounds or removed from the leaf. Each of the above phenomena represents a potential sink for these surplus carbohydrates. The fundamental ‘purpose’ of these phenomena may therefore be to alleviate the plant of surplus fixed C.

2022 ◽  
Vol 82 ◽  
R. Jaouani ◽  
M. Dellali ◽  
C. Mouneyrac ◽  
S. Ben Hassine ◽  
M. Ben Ali ◽  

Abstract The cockle Cerastoderma edule was exposed to four concentrations (5, 10, 20 and 70 μg L-1) of carbamazepine (CBZ). This anticonvulsant was found to alter the mussel behavior of by reducing its clearance rate (CR). Analysis of CBZ accumulation in tissues of C. edule was carried out using HPLC-UV after 48 or 96 hours of exposure. In addition, an overproduction of H2O2 by the bivalves was detected following exposure to CBZ but nitrite levels remained unchanged. Moreover, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities showed a significant increase in relation to their contact with CBZ. The activity of the biotransformation enzyme gluthatione-S-transferase did not change during exposure. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels indicating cellular damage, increased when bivalves were exposed to 20 and 70 μg l-1 of carbamazepine for 96 h CBZ. The results also indicate that acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) was inhibited in all CBZ concentrations during the 48 h exposure period. However, during the 96 h exposure period, AChE was only inhibited at the highest concentration. Further studies are needed now for more exploration of the toxicity of CBZ since it could be bioaccumulable throughout the food web and may affect non-target organisms.

Biomolecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 60
Marco Casciaro ◽  
Eleonora Di Salvo ◽  
Sebastiano Gangemi

Psoriasis is a multifactorial pathology linked to systemic inflammation. Enhanced keratinocytes proliferation and a minor maturation state of the cells are typical features. Perivascular T cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, and neutrophilic granulocytes are part of the scenario completed by apoptosis dysregulation. Several proinflammatory mediators, alarmins and growth factors are increased too, both in the skin and the patients’ blood. HMGB1 is important as an alarmin in several inflammatory conditions. Released after cellular damage, HMGB1 acts as a danger signal. Several studies have considered its role in psoriasis pathogenesis. We evaluated its level in psoriasis and the potential of the alarmin blockade through standard therapies, biological treatments and using monoclonal antibodies. PV patients were shown to have significantly increased levels of HMGB1 both in lesional skin and in serum, which were linked, in some cases, to other pro-inflammatory markers and alarmins. In most cases these parameters were correlated with PASI score. Data demonstrated that blocking HMGB1 is effective in ameliorating psoriasis. Focusing on this approach could be valuable in terms of a therapeutic option for counteracting immune-related diseases in a way unthinkable until few years ago.

2021 ◽  
Jun Wang ◽  
Ruijia Liu ◽  
Md Nabiul Hasan ◽  
Sydney Fischer ◽  
Matt Como ◽  

Abstract Background: The mechanisms underlying dysfunction of choroid plexus (ChP) blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier and lymphocyte invasion in neuroinflammatory responses to stroke are not well understood. In this study, we investigated whether stroke damaged the blood-CSF barrier integrity due to dysregulation of major ChP ion transport system Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporter (NKCC1) and regulatory Ste20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase (SPAK). Methods: Sham or ischemic stroke was induced in C57Bl/6J mice. Changes of the SPAK-NKCC1 complex and tight junction proteins (TJs) in the ChP were quantified by immunofluorescence staining and immunoblotting. Immune cell infiltration in the ChP was assessed by flow cytometry and immunostaining. Cultured ChP epithelium cells (CPECs) and cortical neurons were used to evaluate H2O2-mediated oxidative stress in stimulating the SPAK-NKCC1 complex and cellular damage. In vivo or in vitro pharmacological blockade of the ChP SPAK-NKCC1 cascade with SPAK inhibitor ZT-1a or NKCC1 inhibitor bumetanide were examined. Results: Ischemic stroke stimulated activation of the CPECs apical membrane SPAK-NKCC1 complex, NF-κB, and MMP9, which was associated with loss of the blood-CSF barrier integrity and increased immune cell infiltration into the ChP. Oxidative stress directly activated SPAK-NKCC1 pathway and resulted in apoptosis, neurodegeneration, and NKCC1-mediated ion influx. Pharmacological blockade of the SPAK-NKCC1 pathway protected the ChP barrier integrity, attenuated ChP immune cell infiltration or neuronal death. Conclusion: Stroke-induced pathological stimulation of the SPAK-NKCC1 cascade caused CPECs damage and disruption of TJs at the blood-CSF barrier. The ChP SPAK-NKCC1 complex emerged as a therapeutic target for attenuating ChP dysfunction and lymphocyte invasion after stroke.

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