ovarian function
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Medicina ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 58 (1) ◽  
pp. 119
Stephen J. Usala ◽  
María Elena Alliende ◽  
A. Alexandre Trindade

Background and Objectives: Home fertility assessment methods (FAMs) for natural family planning (NFP) have technically evolved with the objective metrics of urinary luteinizing hormone (LH), estrone-3-glucuronide (E3G) and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PDG). Practical and reliable algorithms for timing the phase of cycle based upon E3G and PDG levels are mostly unpublished and still lacking. Materials and Methods: A novel formulation to signal the transition to the luteal phase was discovered, tested, and developed with a data set of daily E3G and PDG levels from 25 women, 78 cycles, indexed to putative ovulation (day after the urinary LH surge), Day 0. The algorithm is based upon a daily relative progressive change in the ratio, E3G-AUC/PDG-AUC, where E3G-AUC and PDG-AUC are the area under the curve for E3G and PDG, respectively. To improve accuracy the algorithm incorporated a three-fold cycle-specific increase of PDG. Results: An extended negative change in E3G-AUC/PDG-AUC of at least nine consecutive days provided a strong signal for timing the luteal phase. The algorithm correctly identified the luteal transition interval in 78/78 cycles and predicted the start day of the safe period as: Day + 2 in 10/78 cycles, Day + 3 in 21/78 cycles, Day + 4 in 28/78 cycles, Day + 5 in 15/78 cycles, and Day + 6 in 4/78 cycles. The mean number of safe luteal days with this algorithm was 10.3 ± 1.3 (SD). Conclusions: An algorithm based upon the ratio of the area under the curve for daily E3G and PDG levels along with a relative PDG increase offers another approach to time the phase of cycle. This may have applications for NFP/FAMs and clinical evaluation of ovarian function.

Biology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 113
Shutong Fan ◽  
Xixi Li ◽  
Siyu Lin ◽  
Yunpeng Li ◽  
Huixin Ma ◽  

Foxl2 is an evolutionarily conserved female sex gene, which is specifically expressed in the ovary and mainly involved in oogenesis and ovarian function maintenance. However, little is known about the mechanism that regulates Foxl2 specific expression during the ovary development. In the present study, we constructed the gonadal yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) library of Chlamysfarreri with ovaries and testes at different developmental stages using the Gateway technology. The library capacity was more than 1.36 × 107 CFU, and the length of the inserted fragment was 0.75 Kb~2 Kb, which fully met the demand of yeast library screening. The highly transcriptional activity promoter sequence of C. farreri Foxl2 (Cf-Foxl2) was determined at −1000~−616 bp by dual-luciferase reporter (DLR) assay and was used as bait to screen possible transcription factors from the Y1H library. Eleven candidate factors, including five unannotated factors, were selected based on Y1H as well as their expressional differences between ovaries and testes and were verified for the first time to be involved in the transcriptional regulation of Cf-Foxl2 by RT-qPCR and DLR. Our findings provided valuable data for further studying the specific regulation mechanism of Foxl2 in the ovary.

Richard A. Anderson ◽  
Tom W. Kelsey ◽  
Anne Perdrix ◽  
Nathalie Olympios ◽  
Orianne Duhamel ◽  

Abstract Purpose Accurate diagnosis and prediction of loss of ovarian function after chemotherapy for premenopausal women with early breast cancer (eBC) is important for future fertility and clinical decisions regarding the need for subsequent adjuvant ovarian suppression. We have investigated the value of anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) as serum biomarker for this. Methods AMH was measured in serial blood samples from 206 premenopausal women aged 40–45 years with eBC, before and at intervals after chemotherapy. The diagnostic accuracy of AMH for loss of ovarian function at 30 months after chemotherapy and the predictive value for that of AMH measurement at 6 months were analysed. Results Undetectable AMH showed a high diagnostic accuracy for absent ovarian function at 30 months with AUROC 0.89 (96% CI 0.84–0.94, P < 0.0001). PPV of undetectable AMH at 6 months for a menopausal estradiol level at 30 months was 0.77. In multivariate analysis age, pre-treatment AMH and FSH, and taxane treatment were significant predictors, and combined with AMH at 6 months, gave AUROC of 0.90 (95% CI 0.86–0.94), with PPV 0.79 for loss of ovarian function at 30 months. Validation by random forest models with 30% data retained gave similar results. Conclusions AMH is a reliable diagnostic test for lack of ovarian function after chemotherapy in women aged 40–45 with eBC. Early analysis of AMH after chemotherapy allows identification of women who will not recover ovarian function with good accuracy. These analyses will help inform treatment decisions regarding adjuvant endocrine therapy in women who were premenopausal before starting chemotherapy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Ulrike Luderer ◽  
Jinhwan Lim ◽  
Laura Ortiz ◽  
Johnny D. Nguyen ◽  
Joyce H. Shin ◽  

Abstract Background Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure accelerates atherosclerosis and contains known ovotoxic chemicals. However, effects of exposure to PM2.5 on the finite ovarian follicle pool have hardly been investigated, nor have interactions between ovarian and cardiovascular effects. We hypothesized that subchronic inhalation exposure to human-relevant concentrations of PM2.5 results in destruction of ovarian follicles via apoptosis induction, as well as accelerated recruitment of primordial follicles into the growing pool. Further, we hypothesized that destruction of ovarian follicles enhances the adverse cardiovascular effects of PM2.5 in females. Results Hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E (Apoe) null ovary-intact or ovariectomized female mice and testis-intact male mice were exposed to concentrated ambient PM2.5 or filtered air for 12 weeks, 5 days/week for 4 h/day using a versatile aerosol concentration enrichment system. Primordial, primary, and secondary ovarian follicle numbers were decreased by 45%, 40%, and 17%, respectively, in PM2.5-exposed ovary-intact mice compared to controls (P < 0.05). The percentage of primary follicles with granulosa cells positive for the mitosis marker Ki67 was increased in the ovaries from PM2.5-exposed females versus controls (P < 0.05), consistent with increased recruitment of primordial follicles into the growing pool. Exposure to PM2.5 increased the percentages of primary and secondary follicles with DNA damage, assessed by γH2AX immunostaining (P < 0.05). Exposure to PM2.5 increased the percentages of apoptotic antral follicles, determined by TUNEL and activated caspase 3 immunostaining (P < 0.05). Removal of the ovaries and PM2.5-exposure exacerbated the atherosclerotic effects of hyperlipidemia in females (P < 0.05). While there were statistically significant changes in blood pressure and heart rate variability in PM2.5-compared to Air-exposed gonad-intact males and females and ovariectomized females, the changes were not consistent between exposure years and assessment methods. Conclusions These results demonstrate that subchronic PM2.5 exposure depletes the ovarian reserve by increasing recruitment of primordial follicles into the growing pool and increasing apoptosis of growing follicles. Further, PM2.5 exposure and removal of the ovaries each increase atherosclerosis progression in Apoe-/- females. Premature loss of ovarian function is associated with increased risk of osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer’s disease in women. Our results thus support possible links between PM2.5 exposure and other adverse health outcomes in women.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (3) ◽  
Xun Jin ◽  
Jie Cheng ◽  
Jie Shen ◽  
Xing Lv ◽  
Qian Li ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 229 ◽  
pp. 113081
Abdel Halim Harrath ◽  
Abdulkarem Alrezaki ◽  
Maroua Jalouli ◽  
Nouf Aldawood ◽  
Waleed Aldahmash ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 77-82
Bibek Pun Magar ◽  
Dilli Pun Magar ◽  
Kapil Amgain ◽  
Keshavraj Joshi ◽  
Niranjan Satyal ◽  

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age and a major cause of infertility. Anti- Mullerian Hormone (AMH), a valid marker of ovarian function, is used for the diagnosis of PCOS. The aim of this study is to assess the serum level of total antioxidant status (TAS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the premenopausal women with PCOS. Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted at Padmashree Diagnostics, Department of Gynecology, India from April 2016 to March 2017. Census method was used to select the samples. The oxidative stress was measured by measuring the level of TAS and MDA. The data was recorded in structured proforma and and enter in SPSS version 16.0. The data were expressed in frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation and the results obtained were analyzed using pearson’s correlation and student’s t-test. The p-value less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: The measured serum AMH level among the patients with PCOS was within normal range in 67.5% (27) and above normal range in 32.5% (13). The serum TAS level in normal AMH group was 814.0 + 291 µMol/L and in above normal range group was 720 + 240 µMol/L, (p <0.001). Similarly, the serum level of MDA in normal AMH group was 6.64 + 0.21 µMol/L, and in above normal range group was 8.78 + 0.22 µMol/L (p = 0.01). The measured level of AMH was significantly associated with the increased level of MDA (p<0.001) and decreased level of TAS (p<0.001). The measured MDA level in high AMH group did show statistically significant than the normal AMH group. Conclusions: Serum level of TAS and MDA along with AMH are valuable diagnostic biomarker for the diagnosis of PCOS in the resource poor settings where ultrasound facility is unavailable.

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