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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 81-86
Ashwini Ramji ◽  
Shanmugan C V

Background: To assess role of platelet aggregation in metastatic breast cancer patients.Methods:40 cases (Group I) of metastatic breast cancer patients and equal number of healthy control (Group II) subjects were included. Platelet aggregation studies in vitro using ADP and Thrombin were performed using an optical aggregometer. Detection of platelet aggregation was done by Chrono log series 490 dual and four channel optical aggregometer systems.Results:There were 4 subjects in group I and 12 in group II having ADP <60, 26 subjects in group I and 28 in group II with ADP 61-72 and 10 subjects in group I with ADP >72. Low thrombin <58 was seen in 8 in group II, normal thrombin between 61-72 was seen among 11 in group I and 32 in group II and high thrombin >82 among 29 in group I respectively. Amongst patients with normal platelet count, 14 patients had platelet aggregation with ADP in the normal range and 4 patients had platelet aggregation with ADP in the lower range. In patients with high platelet count, 12 showed aggregation in the normal range, and 10 patients showed aggregation in the higher range which was statistically significant (P< 0.05) (Table III, Graph II).Conclusion: Platelet aggregation has an important part to play in the tumor metastasis of breast cancer patients.

2022 ◽  
Francesca Azzolini ◽  
Geir Berentsen ◽  
Hans Skaug ◽  
Jacob Hjelmborg ◽  
Jaakko Kaprio

The heritability of traits such as body mass index (BMI), a measure of obesity, is generally estimated using family, twin, and increasingly by molecular genetic approaches. These studies generally assume that genetic effects are uniform across all trait values, yet there is emerging evidence that this may not always be the case. This paper analyzes twin data using a recently developed measure of heritability called the heritability curve. Under the assumption that trait values in twin pairs are governed by a flexible Gaussian mixture distribution, heritability curves may vary across trait values. The data consist of repeated measures of BMI on 1506 monozygotic (MZ) and 2843 like-sexed dizygotic (DZ) adult twin pairs, gathered from multiple surveys in older Finnish Twin Cohorts. The heritability curve and BMI value-specific MZ and DZ pairwise correlations were estimated, and these varied across the range of BMI. MZ correlations were highest at BMI values from 21 to 24, with a stronger decrease for women than for men at higher values. Models with additive and dominance effects fit best at low and high BMI values, while models with additive genetic and common environmental effects fit best in the normal range of BMI. Thus, we demonstrate that twin and molecular genetic studies need to consider how genetic effects vary across trait values. Such variation may reconcile findings of traits with high heritabilities and major differences in mean values between countries or over time.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Karoline Horgmo Jæger ◽  
Aslak Tveito

The bidomain model is considered to be the gold standard for numerical simulation of the electrophysiology of cardiac tissue. The model provides important insights into the conduction properties of the electrochemical wave traversing the cardiac muscle in every heartbeat. However, in normal resolution, the model represents the average over a large number of cardiomyocytes, and more accurate models based on representations of all individual cells have therefore been introduced in order to gain insight into the conduction properties close to the myocytes. The more accurate model considered here is referred to as the EMI model since both the extracellular space (E), the cell membrane (M) and the intracellular space (I) are explicitly represented in the model. Here, we show that the bidomain model can be derived from the cell-based EMI model and we thus reveal the close relation between the two models, and obtain an indication of the error introduced in the approximation. Also, we present numerical simulations comparing the results of the two models and thereby highlight both similarities and differences between the models. We observe that the deviations between the solutions of the models become larger for larger cell sizes. Furthermore, we observe that the bidomain model provides solutions that are very similar to the EMI model when conductive properties of the tissue are in the normal range, but large deviations are present when the resistance between cardiomyocytes is increased.

Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 143
Taipau Chia ◽  
Jian-Guo Bau ◽  
Guo-Dung Hung ◽  
Sz-Huan Tsai ◽  
Che-Ming Hu

Severe neck-shoulder pain induces functional limitations in both life and work. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of shoulder microcirculation abnormality in workers. This study recruited 32 workers and patients, both n = 16. Questionnaires were administered, and Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) was used to measure microcirculatory blood flow (MBF) at the myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) on the shoulders. The absolute-deviationMMBF represented the mean MBF (MMBF) variability among subjects. The differences in the life characteristics, shoulder pain level, and microcirculatory characteristics at MTrPs between the two groups were compared. It was found that shoulder pain level was significantly higher in the patient than in the control group (p < 0.001). Deviation of the MMBF value beyond the postulated “normal range” of 60–80 was significantly higher in the patient than in the control group (p < 0.001). The MMBF deviation was significantly correlated with shoulder pain level, pain duration, and the symptom effect (p < 0.01, n = 32). A normal range for the MMBF of 60–80 on the shoulder near MTrPs is hypothesized for the first time based on this study. Noninvasive LDF can be used to assess abnormality in the MBF on shoulder MTrPs at an early stage.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Kris Angkanaporn ◽  
Jidapha Sanguanwai ◽  
Taratip O. Baiyokvichit ◽  
Pichamon Vorrachotvarittorn ◽  
Montana Wongsompong ◽  

Background and Aim: Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) is a tropical endemic tick-borne disease that causes fatality or chronic infection involving many organs in dogs. This study aimed to examine the prevalence, risk factors, and hematological and ultrasonographic changes in the liver, gallbladder, kidneys, and spleen following CME infection. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study used 30,269 samples collected from dogs at the hematology section of the pathology unit of a university veterinary hospital and 35 samples collected from dogs at the diagnostic imaging unit. CME was determined using the buffy coat smear method. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and odds ratios. Results: CCl4 The data revealed that the average yearly prevalence of CME was 1.32%. Risk factors contributing to CME infection were a tick on the body during physical examination, lack of ectoparasite control, and outdoor living. All 148 dogs with CME infection had low platelet counts. The percentages of CME-infected dogs with elevated serum alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and both enzymes above the normal range were 33.6%, 65.9%, and 29.8%, respectively. The rates for elevated serum levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and both compounds were 33.1%, 19.1%, and 17.3%, respectively. The most common ultrasonographic changes were liver abnormalities (hyperechogenicity or hypoechogenicity, hepatomegaly, and hypoechoic nodules), hyperechogenicity of the kidneys, and an enlarged spleen. These ultrasonographic changes were consistent with the hematology results, which showed a greater elevation of serum liver enzyme levels than renal enzymes. Conclusion: Ultrasonographic changes during CME infection and after treatment with doxycycline can help to monitor and identify persistent pathological changes in the target organs resulting from immune response to CME.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Anhang Zhang ◽  
Man Li ◽  
Jiaojiao Qiu ◽  
Jin Sun ◽  
Yongkang Su ◽  

Abstract Background In patients with diabetes and hypertension, proteinuria is independently associated with all-cause death. However, in the general population, urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) is less used to predict all-cause mortality. When the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio is within the normal range (UACR< 30 mg/g), the clinical relevance of an increased urinary albumin excretion rate is still debated. We studied the relationship between UACR and all-cause mortality in community populations, and compared UACR groups within the normal range. Methods The participants were the inhabitants from the Wanshoulu community in Beijing, China. The average age is 71.48 years, and the proportion of women is 60.1%. A total of 2148 people completed random urine samples to determine the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). The subjects were divided into three groups according to UACR: Group 1 (UACR< 10 mg/g), Group 2 (10 mg/g < UACR< 30 mg/g), Group 3 (UACR> 30 mg/g). We used Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression model to verify the relationship between UACR and all-cause mortality. Results At an average follow-up of 9.87 years (718,407.3 years), the total mortality rate were 183.4/1000. In the Cox proportional hazards model, after adjusting for possible confounders, those with normal high-value UACR (group 2) showed a higher all-cause mortality than those with normal low-value UACR (group 1) [hazard ratio (HR) 1.289, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.002 ~ 1.659 for all-cause mortality]. Those with proteinuria (group 3) showed a higher all-cause mortality than those with normal low-value UACR (group 1) [hazard ratio (HR) 1.394, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.020 ~ 1.905 for all-cause mortality]. Conclusion Urinary albumin to creatinine ratio is an important risk factor for all-cause death in community population. Even if it is within the normal range (UACR< 30 mg/g), it occurs in people with high normal value (10 mg/g < UACR< 30 mg/g), the risk of all-cause death will also increase.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Badrah S. Alghamdi ◽  
Yasser Alatawi ◽  
Fahad S. Alshehri ◽  
Haythum O. Tayeb ◽  
Hanin AboTaleb ◽  

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread to over 150 countries worldwide. Since the first case of COVID-19 was confirmed in Saudi Arabia, cases have continued to escalate exponentially. The COVID-19 outbreak has had a negative effect on mental health and well-being. The study aimed to investigate the effects of the strict national regulations associated with the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of Saudi residents. Saudi residents aged 18 years or older were invited to complete an online questionnaire after one month of a nationwide 24-h curfew between May 6, 2020 and May 13, 2020. We measured psychological distress using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). We ran binary logistic regression analyses to detect variables that significantly predicted DASS-21 scores.Results: A sample of 2252 participants was recruited from the general population of Saudi Arabia. The DASS-21 score means and standard deviations for depression and anxiety for the whole sample (10.73 ± 10.29 and 6.98 ± 8.30, respectively) were in the range of mild depression and anxiety. In contrast, the mean DASS-21 stress score was within the normal range (11.97 ± 10.80). The mean stress score for healthcare workers was within the normal range (13.70 ± 10.68) but was significantly higher than the mean score for the public (11.56 ± 10.89; P = 0.0006). Several variables (e.g., age, gender, and history of contact with confirmed COVID-19 cases) were significantly associated with higher DASS-21 scores.Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic has created a psychological burden. Therefore, there is an urgent need to implement emergency public health interventions that ameliorate the risk perception of COVID-19 through the dissemination of adequate and targeted health information that could be a successful measure to mitigate the psychological impact of the Covid-19 pandemic.

Verónica Joomayra Quintana ◽  
Eduardo Javier Barragán Pérez ◽  
Daniel Eduardo Álvarez Amado ◽  
Juan Carlos García Beristaín

Introducción: La epilepsia representa una de las principales causas de morbilidad en neuropediatría. El inicio temprano de las crisis epilépticas, se relaciona con menor desempeño intelectual a largo plazo, y alteraciones en las habilidades adaptativas. Objetivo: Aplicar escala de evaluación pediátrica del inventario de discapacidad-prueba adaptativa por computadora (PEDI-CAT) en pacientes pediátricos con epilepsia. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de nivel descriptivo, tipo observacional, prospectivo, trasversal y analítico, realizado el Departamento de Neurología Pediátrica del Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez, en la Ciudad de México. El reclutamiento de los pacientes fue durante abril y diciembre de 2020. Resultados:  los pacientes con epilepsia presentaron un percentil <5 en sus habilidades de movilidad 22 (35,4%), actividades diarias 19(30,6%), social-cognitivas 19(30,6%), lo que significa que están por debajo de rango normal comparado con niños de su edad. Conclusiones:  los pacientes con epilepsia presentaron un percentil <5 en el dominio de actividades diarias, movilidad y social-cognitiva, lo que significa que están por debajo de rango normal comparado con niños de su edad. Por tanto, la epilepsia debe ser considerado un trastorno que afecta la capacidad adaptativa de los pacientes y no sólo una patología cuya manifestación son las crisis, su detección temprano con el uso de escalas como PEDI-CAT se traduce en la identificación y planificación de estrategias terapéuticas eficaces para mejorar calidad de vida de los pacientes Palabras Clave: Epilepsia, Conducta Adaptativa, Trastornos del Neurodesarrollo.   ABSTRACT Introduction: Epilepsy represents one of the main causes of morbidity in pediatric neurology. The early onset of epileptic seizures is related to lower long-term intellectual performance, and alterations in adaptive skills. Objective: To apply the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory Computer Adaptive Test (PEDI-CAT) report in pediatric patients with epilepsy. Methods: A descriptive, observational, prospective, cross-sectional and analytical study was carried out in the Department of Pediatric Neurology at Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez, in Mexico City. Patient recruitment took place between April and December 2020. Results: patients with epilepsy presented a <5 percentile in their mobility skills 22 (35.4%), daily activities19 (30.6%), social-cognitive 19 (30.6%), which means that they are below of normal range compared to children his age. Conclusions: patients with epilepsy presented a <5 percentile in the domain of daily activities, mobility and social-cognitive, which means that they are below the normal range compared to children of their age. Therefore, epilepsy should be considered a disorder that affects the adaptive capacity of patients and not just a pathology whose manifestation is seizures, its early detection with the use of scales such as PEDI-CAT translates into the identification and planning of strategies effective therapeutics to improve the quality of life of patients Keywords: Epilepsy, Adaptation, Psychological, Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

Said Darawshi ◽  
Mahmoud Darawshi ◽  
Deeb Daoud Naccache

Severe hypocalcaemia in breast cancer with bone metastasis is a rare finding usually associated with an advanced stage of the disease. We report a case of a 45-year-old woman with a history of local ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast, who presented with muscle tremors and general weakness. Hypocalcaemia was evident, with a positive Chvostek sign and a serum calcium level of 5.9 mg/dL (1.47 mmol/L), phosphorus 5.9 mg/dL (normal range: 2.3–4.7 mg/dL) with normal levels of albumin, magnesium and parathyroid hormone. High oral doses of alpha calcitriol and calcium with i.v. infusion of high calcium doses were instituted, altogether sufficient to maintain only mild hypocalcaemia. A whole-body CT revealed bone lesions along the axial skeleton. A biopsy from a bone lesion revealed a metastasis of breast carcinoma. With this pathological finding, leuprolide (GNRH analogue) and chlorambucil (alkylating agent) were initiated, followed by prompt tapering of infused calcium down to full discontinuation. Serum calcium was kept stable close to the low normal range by high doses of oral alpha calcitriol and calcium. This course raises suspicion that breast metastases to the skeleton caused tumour-induced hypocalcaemia by a unique mechanism. We assume that hypocalcaemia in this case was promoted by a combination of hypoparathyroidism and bone metastasis. Learning points Severe hypocalcaemia can a presenting symptom for breast cancer relapse.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 16-20
Yusak Mangara Tua Siahaan ◽  
Pricilla Yani Gunawan ◽  
Jeffry Foraldy Haryanto ◽  
Veli Sungono

Background: Plantar fasciitis is a common problem caused by thickening of the plantar fascia. The normal plantar fascia thickness ranged between 2-3 mm and it was generally accepted that value more than 4mm was considered pathologic. Objective: to identify normal plantar fascia thickness in adults using ultrasonography. Methods: This is a cross sectional study measuring the thickness of plantar fascia in 145 subjects with no history of heel pain. Plantar fascia thickness was measured in both feet using an ultrasound. Age, height and weight were recorded and analysed. Results: As much as 145 subjects were included in this study. Male to female ratio was 0.7. Mean age was 44 and body mass index (BMI) was mostly within normal range. Plantar fascia thickness in male was 2.71 ± 0.48 mm in right foot, and 2.74 ± 0.47 mm in left foot. Fascia thickness in female was 2.55 ± 0.50 mm in right foot, and 2.57 ± 0.45 mm in left foot. There was a significant plantar fascia thickness difference between male and female (p = 0.035 in right foot, and p=0.04 in left foot). Age, weight and BMI had a significant correlation towards plantar fascia thickness. In multivariate analysis, age and BMI revealed to have a linear correlation to plantar fascia thickness Conclusion: Age and BMI were found to be the best predictive factor of plantar fascia thickness.

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