apolipoprotein e
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2022 ◽  
pp. 0271678X2110690
Charles E Seaks ◽  
Erica M Weekman ◽  
Tiffany L Sudduth ◽  
Kevin Xie ◽  
Brandi Wasek ◽  

Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) are the second leading cause of dementia behind Alzheimer’s disease. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a lipid transporting lipoprotein found within the brain and periphery. The APOE ε4 allele is the strongest genetic risk factor for late onset Alzheimer’s disease and is a risk factor for VCID. Our lab has previously utilized a dietary model of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) to induce VCID pathology and cognitive deficits in mice. This diet induces perivascular inflammation through cumulative oxidative damage leading to glial mediated inflammation and blood brain barrier breakdown. Here, we examine the impact of ApoE ε4 compared to ε3 alleles on the progression of VCID pathology and inflammation in our dietary model of HHcy. We report a significant resistance to HHcy induction in ε4 mice, accompanied by a number of related differences related to homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism and methylation cycle, or 1-C, metabolites. There were also significant differences in inflammatory profiles between ε3 and ε4 mice, as well as significant reduction in Serpina3n, a serine protease inhibitor associated with ApoE ε4, expression in ε4 HHcy mice relative to ε4 controls. Finally, we find evidence of pervasive sex differences within both genotypes in response to HHcy induction.

2022 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Amina Nasri ◽  
Ikram Sghaier ◽  
Alya Gharbi ◽  
Saloua Mrabet ◽  
Mouna Ben Djebara ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Ulrike Luderer ◽  
Jinhwan Lim ◽  
Laura Ortiz ◽  
Johnny D. Nguyen ◽  
Joyce H. Shin ◽  

Abstract Background Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure accelerates atherosclerosis and contains known ovotoxic chemicals. However, effects of exposure to PM2.5 on the finite ovarian follicle pool have hardly been investigated, nor have interactions between ovarian and cardiovascular effects. We hypothesized that subchronic inhalation exposure to human-relevant concentrations of PM2.5 results in destruction of ovarian follicles via apoptosis induction, as well as accelerated recruitment of primordial follicles into the growing pool. Further, we hypothesized that destruction of ovarian follicles enhances the adverse cardiovascular effects of PM2.5 in females. Results Hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E (Apoe) null ovary-intact or ovariectomized female mice and testis-intact male mice were exposed to concentrated ambient PM2.5 or filtered air for 12 weeks, 5 days/week for 4 h/day using a versatile aerosol concentration enrichment system. Primordial, primary, and secondary ovarian follicle numbers were decreased by 45%, 40%, and 17%, respectively, in PM2.5-exposed ovary-intact mice compared to controls (P < 0.05). The percentage of primary follicles with granulosa cells positive for the mitosis marker Ki67 was increased in the ovaries from PM2.5-exposed females versus controls (P < 0.05), consistent with increased recruitment of primordial follicles into the growing pool. Exposure to PM2.5 increased the percentages of primary and secondary follicles with DNA damage, assessed by γH2AX immunostaining (P < 0.05). Exposure to PM2.5 increased the percentages of apoptotic antral follicles, determined by TUNEL and activated caspase 3 immunostaining (P < 0.05). Removal of the ovaries and PM2.5-exposure exacerbated the atherosclerotic effects of hyperlipidemia in females (P < 0.05). While there were statistically significant changes in blood pressure and heart rate variability in PM2.5-compared to Air-exposed gonad-intact males and females and ovariectomized females, the changes were not consistent between exposure years and assessment methods. Conclusions These results demonstrate that subchronic PM2.5 exposure depletes the ovarian reserve by increasing recruitment of primordial follicles into the growing pool and increasing apoptosis of growing follicles. Further, PM2.5 exposure and removal of the ovaries each increase atherosclerosis progression in Apoe-/- females. Premature loss of ovarian function is associated with increased risk of osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer’s disease in women. Our results thus support possible links between PM2.5 exposure and other adverse health outcomes in women.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Raúl González-Domínguez ◽  
Pol Castellano-Escuder ◽  
Sophie Lefèvre-Arbogast ◽  
Dorrain Y. Low ◽  
Andrea Du Preez ◽  

Abstract Background Fatty acids play prominent roles in brain function as they participate in structural, metabolic and signaling processes. The homeostasis of fatty acids and related pathways is known to be impaired in cognitive decline and dementia, but the relationship between these metabolic disturbances and common risk factors, namely the ɛ4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (ApoE-ɛ4) gene and sex, remains elusive. Methods In order to investigate early alterations associated with cognitive decline in the fatty acid-related serum metabolome, we here applied targeted metabolomics analysis on a nested case-control study (N=368), part of a prospective population cohort on dementia. Results When considering the entire study population, circulating levels of free fatty acids, acyl-carnitines and pantothenic acid were found to be increased among those participants who had greater odds of cognitive decline over a 12-year follow-up. Interestingly, stratified analyses indicated that these metabolomic alterations were specific for ApoE-ɛ4 non-carriers and women. Conclusions Altogether, our results highlight that the regulation of fatty acids and related metabolic pathways during ageing and cognitive decline depends on complex inter-relationships between the ApoE-ε4 genotype and sex. A better understanding of the ApoE-ɛ4 and sex dependent modulation of metabolism is essential to elucidate the individual variability in the onset of cognitive decline, which would help develop personalized therapeutic approaches.

2022 ◽  
pp. 101582
Sei-Young Lim ◽  
Kosuke Yamaguchi ◽  
Masanori Itakura ◽  
Miho Chikazawa ◽  
Tomonari Matsuda ◽  

2021 ◽  
Hamish Innes ◽  
Hans Dieter Nischalke ◽  
Indra Neil Guha ◽  
Karl Heinz Weiss ◽  
Will Irving ◽  

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-16
Makoto Kurano ◽  
Kazuhisa Tsukamoto ◽  
Eri Sakai ◽  
Masumi Hara ◽  
Yutaka Yatomi

Background: Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and ceramides have been implicated in the development of Alzheimer’s disease. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) isoforms are also involved in the development of Alzheimer’s disease. Objective: We aimed at elucidating the potential association of the ApoE isoforms with sphingolipid metabolism in the central nervous system. Methods: We investigated the modulations of apolipoprotein M (apoM), a carrier of S1P, S1P, and ceramides in Apoeshl mice, which spontaneously lack apoE, and U251 cells and SH-SY5Y cells infected with adenovirus vectors encoding for apoE2, apoE3, and apoE4. Results: In the brains of Apoeshl mice, the levels of apoM were lower, while those of ceramides were higher. In U251 cells, cellular apoM and S1P levels were the highest in the cells overexpressing apoE2 among the apoE isoforms. The cellular and medium contents of ceramides decreased in the order of the cells overexpressing apoE3 > apoE2 and increased in the cells overexpressing apoE4. In SH-SY5Y cells, apoM mRNA and medium S1P levels were also the highest in the cells overexpressing apoE2. The cellular contents of ceramides decreased in the order of the cells overexpressing apoE3 > apoE2 = apoE4 and those in medium decreased in the order of the cells overexpressing apoE3 > apoE2, while increased in the cells overexpressing apoE4. Conclusion: The modulation of apoM and S1P might partly explain the protective effects of apoE2 against Alzheimer’s disease, and the modulation of ceramides might be one of the mechanisms explaining the association of apoE4 with the development of Alzheimer’s disease.

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