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2022 ◽  
Vol 30 (1) ◽  
Malene S. Enevoldsen ◽  
Per Hostrup Nielsen ◽  
J. Michael Hasenkam

Abstract Background To assess the achieved risk and benefits of inserting temporary epicardial pacemaker electrodes after open-heart surgery for potential treatment of postoperative cardiac arrhythmias, and to investigate the extent of its use in clinical practice. Main text A systematic search was conducted in PubMed and repeated in Embase and Scopus using the PRISMA guidelines. The search identified 905 studies and resulted in 12 included studies, where the type of surgery, study design, total number of included patients, number of patients having temporary pacemaker electrodes inserted, number of patients requiring temporary pacing, primary reason for pacing, significant factors predicting temporary pacing, registered complications and study conclusion were assessed. Eight papers concluded that routine insertion of temporary pacemaker electrodes in all postoperative patients is unnecessary. One paper concluded that they should always be inserted, while three papers concluded that pacing is useful in the postoperative period, but did not recommend a frequency of which they should be inserted. Conclusions The literature suggests that the subgroup of younger otherwise healthy patients without preoperative arrhythmia having isolated coronary artery bypass grafting surgery or single valve surgery should not routinely have temporary pacemaker electrodes inserted.

2022 ◽  
Amit Kumar Srivast ◽  
Thomas Gaiser ◽  
Akinola Shola Akinwumiju ◽  
Wenzhi Zeng ◽  
Andrej Ceglar ◽  

Abstract Cassava production is essential for food security in Sub-Saharan Africa and serves as a major calorie- intake source in Nigeria. Here we use a crop model, LINTUL5, embedded into a modeling framework SIMPLACE to estimate potential cassava yield gaps (Yg) in 30 states of Nigeria. Our study of climate parameter influence on the variability of current and potential yields and Yg shows that cumulative radiation and precipitation were the most significant factors associated with cassava yield variability (p = 0.01). The cumulative Yg mean was estimated as 18202 kg∙ha-1, with a maximum of 31207 kg ha-1 in Kano state. Across the states, nutrient limitation accounts for 55.3% of the total cassava yield gap, while the remaining 44.7% is attributed to water limitation. The highest untapped water-limited yields were estimated in States, such as Bauchi, Gombe, and Sokoto, characterized by the short rainy season. Conclusively, the current cassava yield levels can be increased by a factor of five through soil fertility enhancement and with irrigation, particularly in semi-arid regions.

Atmosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 113
Tina Sri Purwanti ◽  
Syafrial Syafrial ◽  
Wen-Chi Huang ◽  
Mohammad Saeri

The potato is the third most consumed crop globally after rice and wheat, but climate change has often disrupted its production. Therefore, adaptation practices are needed to maintain potato productivity. This study investigates the determinants of on- and off-farm climate change adaptation practices among smallholder farmers in Indonesia, considering adaptation intensity, which has not discussed in previous literature. The cross-sectional data were collected from 302 smallholder potato farmers in East Java, Indonesia, analyzed by a multivariate probit model to estimate the determinants. An ordered probit model was subsequently employed to understand the intensity factors. The findings indicated that the significant factors that affect farmers’ choice of on-farm adaptations were the farmers’ education, their participation in farmers’ groups, agricultural-related infrastructure, and agriculture output prices. Meanwhile, the off-farm adaptations were significantly affected by the farmers’ education, employed family members, agriculture-related infrastructure, and livestock ownership. The ordered probit model also suggested that participation in farmers groups and agricultural-related infrastructure were the most significant factors that encouraged adaptation. Therefore, adaptation planning should consider these factors to optimally improve farmers’ adaptation capacity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 696
Mohammadreza Koloushani ◽  
Mahyar Ghorbanzadeh ◽  
Mehmet Baran Ulak ◽  
Eren Erman Ozguven ◽  
Mark W. Horner ◽  

Over the last three decades, traffic crashes have been one of the leading causes of fatalities and economic losses in the U.S.; compared with other age groups, this is especially concerning for the youth population (those aged between 16 and 24), mostly due to their inexperience, greater inattentiveness, and riskier behavior while driving. This research intends to investigate this issue around selected Florida university campuses. We employed three methods: (1) a comparative assessment for three selected counties using both planar Euclidean Distance and Roadway Network Distance-based Kernel Density Estimation methods to determine high-risk crash locations, (2) a crash density ratio difference approach to compare the maxima-normalized crash densities for the youth population and those victims that are 25 and up, and (3) a logistic regression approach to identify the statistically significant factors contributing to young-driver-involved crashes. The developed GIS maps illustrate the difference in spatial patterns of young-driver crash densities compared to those for other age groups. The statistical findings also reveal that intersections around university areas appear to be significantly problematic for youth populations, regardless of the differences in the general perspective of the characteristics of the selected counties. Moreover, the speed limit countermeasures around universities could not effectively prevent young-driver crash occurrences. Hence, the results of this study can provide valuable insights to transportation agencies in terms of pinpointing the high-risk locations around universities, assessing the effectiveness of existing safety countermeasures, and developing more reliable plans with a focus on the youth population.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Rana Vafaei ◽  
Mitra Samadi ◽  
Aysooda Hosseinzadeh ◽  
Khadijeh Barzaman ◽  
MohammadReza Esmailinejad ◽  

AbstractMucin-1 (MUC-1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein, which bears many similarities between dogs and humans. Since the existence of animal models is essential to understand the significant factors involved in breast cancer mechanisms, canine mammary tumors (CMTs) could be used as a spontaneously occurring tumor model for human studies. Accordingly, this review assessed the comparison of canine and human MUC-1 based on their diagnostic and therapeutic aspects and showed how comparative oncology approaches could provide insights into translating pre-clinical trials from human to veterinary oncology and vice versa which could benefit both humans and dogs.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 443
Aurelia Rybak ◽  
Ewelina Włodarczyk

The paper presents the results of an analysis of the impact of activities related to the implementation of Poland’s climate policy on the level of demand for hard coal. The authors used sets of indicators built by Eurostat during the analysis. The analysis was based on a set of indicators that had not previously been used for this purpose. The applied ARAMAX model made it possible to study the impact of the presented indicators on the volume of demand for hard coal in Poland. They were introduced to the ARMAX model as explanatory variables. The demand for hard coal in Poland was the dependent variable. The set of indicators was verified, and finally only statistically significant factors were used to build the model. The forecast of the demand for hard coal was made until 2022. It showed that the volume of coal sales would systematically fall as long as factors affecting demand remain constant. However, an additional factor was taken into account in the analysis, namely the increase in demand and prices for hard coal on world markets. The ARIMA model was used to forecast price levels for the next 12 months. The forecast indicates that the time series of prices should maintain an upward trend within the examined time period. Building an accurate and reliable forecast is the basis for effective planning of coal production and is adjusted to the demand for this fuel.

E. V. Trubacheev

In the article, the author carried out an integral qualitative assessment of the readiness of the domestic economy for the transition of its functioning to the format of industry 4.0. The degree of infrastructural and institutional compliance of the country’s economy with the criteria necessary for the implementation of the digital transition is investigated. The relevance of the article is due to the compression of the time available for the domestic economy to implement digital transformation, which are caused by the economic and infrastructural consequences of the Covid–19 pandemic and the tightening of competition between countries for the right to dominate the information space. The result of the scientific work done by the author is a comprehensive assessment of the readiness of the Russian economy for digital transformation, indicating its strengths and weaknesses. Taking into account the most significant factors determining Russia’s readiness for digital transformation, the framework directions for supporting the digital transformation of the country’s economy are proposed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 267
Ajda Novak ◽  
Karmen Vizjak ◽  
Martin Rakusa

People with epilepsy frequently have cognitive impairment. The majority of cognitive problems is influenced by a variety of interlinked factors, including the early onset of epilepsy and the frequency, intensity and duration of seizures, along with the anti-epileptic drug treatment. With a systematic review, we investigate significant factors about the cognitive impairment in epilepsy. Most cognitive problems in adult people with epilepsy include memory, attention and executive function deficits. However, which cognitive area is mainly affected highly depends on the location of epileptic activity. Moreover, modifications in signalling pathways and neuronal networks have an essential role in both the pathophysiology of epilepsy and in the mechanism responsible for cognitive impairment. Additionally, studies have shown that the use of polytherapy in the treatment of epilepsy with anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) heightens the risk for cognitive impairment. It can be challenging to distinguish the contribution of each factor, because they are often closely intertwined.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yuxiu Xue

Different elements in education should be taken into account in the development of education which affects learners' success. Educators are one of the main elements of any educational program, primarily in mainstream education, and there is considerable research recognizing this and the fact that educators have a significant effect on learners' success. Therefore, education can be enhanced simply by enhancing educators' effectiveness. Moreover, because of the importance of educators' factors, many researchers have emphasized educator attributes over the last 20 years. In an attempt to better explain the interaction between educator-related concepts in the setting of English as a Foreign Language (EFL), educator self-efficacy has a significant impact on the educators' everyday lives as well as on their learners and is regarded as an important factor in successful education and instruction. Furthermore, as one of the characteristics, teacher resilience is a multifaceted and developmental concept that has newly captured the interest of some scholars, specifically in the last 20 years, allowing educators not only to face difficult situations to survive but also to recover and prosper. To this end, the current review tries to emphasize these two significant factors in regulating learners' success. Corresponding to this review, some suggestions for further research are provided and pedagogical implications are proposed.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 361
Shah Khusro ◽  
Babar Shah ◽  
Inayat Khan ◽  
Sumayya Rahman

Feedback is one of the significant factors for the mental mapping of an environment. It is the communication of spatial information to blind people to perceive the surroundings. The assistive smartphone technologies deliver feedback for different activities using several feedback mediums, including voice, sonification and vibration. Researchers 0have proposed various solutions for conveying feedback messages to blind people using these mediums. Voice and sonification feedback are effective solutions to convey information. However, these solutions are not applicable in a noisy environment and may occupy the most important auditory sense. The privacy of a blind user can also be compromised with speech feedback. The vibration feedback could effectively be used as an alternative approach to these mediums. This paper proposes a real-time feedback system specifically designed for blind people to convey information to them based on vibration patterns. The proposed solution has been evaluated through an empirical study by collecting data from 24 blind people through a mixed-mode survey using a questionnaire. Results show the average recognition accuracy for 10 different vibration patterns are 90%, 82%, 75%, 87%, 65%, and 70%.

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