Significant Factors
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2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Laura Rodríguez-Rebés ◽  
Julio Navío-Marco ◽  
Raquel Ibar-Alonso

PurposeThis research focuses on establishing relationships between eco-innovation and organisational innovation and innovation in general to characterise organisational eco-innovation in European Union companies. We also aim to investigate the forms of innovations that eco-innovative companies use as well as the factors or determinants of eco-innovation in the corporate environment that impel the use of organisational innovation.Design/methodology/approachWe use the estimation of different binary logistic regression models with maximum likelihood applied to a sample obtained from the Eurostat's Community Innovation Survey 2014 database as a starting point.FindingsThe results suggest that the type of organisational innovation most closely related to eco-innovation is found in work responsibility and decision-making methods. Some less frequently studied significant factors are highlighted, such as training or aspects related to intellectual capital and knowledge management, since significant indications of the importance and acquisition of existing know-how have appeared, in contrast to internal knowledge generation.Originality/valueThe study seeks to observe what specific quantitative drivers (external or internal) are used for organisational eco-innovation, as a specific subtype of eco-innovation. This can improve our understanding of the ways in which organisational innovation can be used by corporations to provide environmental benefits. The academic literature provides information on the drivers and determinants for both organisational innovation and eco-innovation separately, but we believe this article offers a new approach by looking at the specific eco-innovation drivers achieved through organisational innovation.

Nawat Watanachai ◽  
Janejit Choovuthayakorn ◽  
Susama Chokesuwattanaskul ◽  
Chaipot Photcharapongsakul ◽  
Praelada Wongsirimeteekul ◽  

Abstract Background To describe the epidemiology, characteristics, risk factors, and outcomes of post-traumatic endophthalmitis. Main body Medical records of consecutive open globe injury patients admitted and primarily treated between January 2006 and December 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were defined as having or not having associated endophthalmitis. Data of demographics, injury characteristics, clinical presentations, and visual outcomes were collected. The potential risks and significant factors for visual outcomes of post-traumatic endophthalmitis were determined. There were 591 patients included in this study. Among these, 118 patients were clinically diagnosed as having accompanied endophthalmitis. Higher proportions of intraocular foreign body (IOFB) (55.1% vs. 27.3%) and injury related to high-velocity objects (55.9% vs. 32.6%) were noted in patients with endophthalmitis compared to patients without endophthalmitis. Anterior wound location (odds ratio [OR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 3.7; P = 0.020), presence of IOFB (OR, 1.9; 95% CI 1.2 to 3.0; P = 0.005), and delayed presentation of > 24 h (OR, 3.9; 95% CI 2.3 to 6.4; P < 0.001) were significant risk factors for associated endophthalmitis. Final visual acuity (VA) of the overall population improved significantly from 2.4 (0.6) logMAR to 1.4 (0.1) logMAR, P < 0.001, however, patients in the endophthalmitis group achieved a worse final VA than the non-endophthalmitis group (66.1% vs. 43.5%, P < 0.001). Conclusion High proportions of post-traumatic endophthalmitis patients had subsequent poor visual outcomes. Therefore, safety and protective measurements, especially when performing activities related to high-velocity objects, and the institution of prophylactic antibiotics in high-risk groups should be promptly considered to reduce the incidence.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (3) ◽  
pp. 8-22

This article examines significant factors that y influenced the formation of the Ukrainian legal system, the structure of the judiciary, in particular, and political development in general. The main focus is the influence of the Orthodox Church. The normative provision of ecclesiastical jurisdiction, which was formed in the first centuries after Christianisation, was reflected in the complex of sources of law. The symbiosis of national and foreign, ecclesiastical and secular regulations, as well as the need to understand Greek sources, gave rise to the need to create their own codification collections called Kormcha Books, which became the main source of law for ecclesiastical practice in Ukraine. The jurisdiction of the Orthodox Church in the Ukrainian territories included the administration of justice in specific categories of cases, which are analysed in detail in this article. Subsequently, the separation of jurisdiction between church and secular authorities formed the basis for the formation of tense state-church relations, which provided each other with political support. The influence of the Orthodoxy on the formation of the judiciary is analysed, as the church institution becomes one of its structural elements, as well as the influence on the legal system because religion is a catalyst for the formation of new legal norms that meet the principles of justice and morality. As a result, the influence of the church on the formation of civil society in modern Ukraine, which should operate on religious and ethical values, becomes obvious. The structure of the church judiciary in Kyivan Rus had a three-tier system, which can be assessed as a prototype for the formation of the later secular system of justice in modern Ukraine. The article also analyses the jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical court in Kyivan Rus, which was clearly defined, enshrined state origin in the sources of ecclesiastical law, and remained unchanged throughout the existence of the state. Additionally, it traces the process of consideration of cases in the ecclesiastical courts of the Kyivan Rus state, which had special features. The first is that in Kyivan Rus, slaves and servants who were not subjects of secular legal relations had the right to take part in the process. It seems probable that the change in approaches to determining the circle of participants in the church-judicial process was due to the need to spread Christian ideas, precepts, and principles to the general public, including servants and slaves. For the Orthodox Church, which promoted its doctrine and came under the rule of polytheism, the priority was to gain recognition and public support, to conduct missionary and educational activities, and to use cultural and educational influence to root its religion and canonical precepts in all parts of the Kyivan Rus state

Abdolrasoul Gharaati ◽  
Mandana Mohammadi ◽  
Leila Rejaei

The soliton waves are one of the nonlinear phenomena which can propagate in the different types of plasma such as multiple particles of plasma, nonthermal plasma, and space plasma. Using the Sagdeev potential technique, the stability conditions of the soliton waves in the nonthermal plasma have been theoretically studied. One of the significant factors that can affect the propagation of the soliton waves is the distribution function such as nonMaxwellian distribution function or Kappa distribution function. In this paper, we try to investigate the soliton wave in the unmagnetized multi-component plasma consisting of the nonthermal electron and the nonthermal ion, positron and dust with Kappa distribution function. Then by using the Sagdeev potential, the nonlinear equation for the potential is obtained and then the compression and rarefaction soliton waves are computed with the numerical method for this nonlinear wave. Finally, by imposing the Sagdeev potential condition, we discuss the stability of these soliton waves.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Rebecca Otten ◽  
Máille Faughnan ◽  
Megan Flattley ◽  
Samantha Fleurinor

Purpose Social innovation education aims to equip students with the skills and mindsets to pursue sustainable and just solutions to complex challenges, yet many programs fail to address the power dynamics underlying unjust social structures. This paper aims to examine a social innovation course that integrates equity, diversity and inclusion principles through critical service-learning. Design/methodology/approach Researchers conducted semi-structured interviews of 25 students and 5 key informants in a qualitative, single case design to understand multiple perspectives on significant factors in transformative learning. Document review and auto-ethnographic insights provide additional case background. Findings Students identified the service experience as unique and high impact. Significant factors included the atypical service structure, the EDI framework, and the partner organization as an exemplar in the field. Students displayed a spectrum of learning, from recall and comprehension to critical evaluation, new worldviews, and behavior change. Research limitations/implications The findings of this qualitative study pertain to one partnership but are generalizable to theories. These findings are plausibly transferable to other experiential social innovation courses embedded in elite, private, predominately white research universities. Originality/value This empirical case examines a unique pedagogical and curricular innovation. By seeking to understand factors and outcomes of experiential learning, this study contributes to the literature on social innovation education and critical service-learning. The analysis produced novel insights for faculty and institutions aiming to integrate equity, diversity, and inclusion goals into social innovation programs.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (7) ◽  
pp. 1278-1295
Shonchalai Ch. SOYAN ◽  

Subject. The article deals with the forecast of the population of the Tyva Republic in the short term, based on correlation and regression analysis. Objectives. The aim is to forecast the population of the Tyva Republic, using the correlation and regression analysis. Methods. The study draws on the correlation and regression analysis, as one of the methods of multivariate statistical analysis, in which the form and intensity of relationship are presented in the form of mathematical equations and formulas. We also apply methods of comparison, dynamics, table and image format of visualization of the study results. Results. The correlation and regression analysis provides forecast data relating to the population of the Tyva Republic for 2020, which is very close to the actual population for this year. The analysis of indicators for development of the population revealed an annual increase, despite the declining fertility rates and unstable trend in mortality. The paper estimates the parameters of the regression equation, which describes the relationship between fertility, mortality, migration and population size. The findings may help create programs for demographic policy, socio-economic development of the territory, improvement of living standards in the region. Conclusions. The use of correlation and regression analysis will serve as a fairly reliable method to solve the problem. The study unveils significant factors that affect the growth or decline of population in the region.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Abubakar Nasiru Galadima ◽  
Nor Afiah Mohd Zulkefli ◽  
Salmiah Md Said ◽  
Norliza Ahmad

Abstract Background Vaccine preventable diseases are still the most common cause of childhood mortality, with an estimated 3 million deaths every year, mainly in Africa and Asia. An estimate of 29% deaths among children aged 1–59 months were due to vaccine preventable diseases. Despite the benefits of childhood immunisation, routine vaccination coverage for all recommended Expanded Programme on Immunization vaccines has remained poor in some African countries, such as Nigeria (31%), Ethiopia (43%), Uganda (55%) and Ghana (57%). The aim of this study is to collate evidence on the factors that influence childhood immunisation uptake in Africa, as well as to provide evidence for future researchers in developing, implementing and evaluating intervention among African populations which will improve childhood immunisation uptake. Methods We conducted a systematic review of articles on the factors influencing under-five childhood immunisation uptake in Africa. This was achieved by using various keywords and searching multiple databases (Medline, PubMed, CINAHL and Psychology & Behavioral Sciences Collection) dating back from inception to 2020. Results Out of 18,708 recorded citations retrieved, 10,396 titles were filtered and 324 titles remained. These 324 abstracts were screened leading to 51 included studies. Statistically significant factors found to influence childhood immunisation uptake were classified into modifiable and non-modifiable factors and were further categorised into different groups based on relevance. The modifiable factors include obstetric factors, maternal knowledge, maternal attitude, self-efficacy and maternal outcome expectation, whereas non-modifiable factors were sociodemographic factors of parent and child, logistic and administration factors. Conclusion Different factors were found to influence under-five childhood immunisation uptake among parents in Africa. Immunisation health education intervention among pregnant women, focusing on the significant findings from this systematic review, would hopefully improve childhood immunisation uptake in African countries with poor coverage rates.

Simon Orlob ◽  
Johannes Wittig ◽  
Christoph Hobisch ◽  
Daniel Auinger ◽  
Gabriel Honnef ◽  

Abstract Background Previous studies have stated that hyperventilation often occurs in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) mainly due to excessive ventilation frequencies, especially when a manual valve bag is used. Transport ventilators may provide mandatory ventilation with predetermined tidal volumes and without the risk of hyperventilation. Nonetheless, interactions between chest compressions and ventilations are likely to occur. We investigated whether transport ventilators can provide adequate alveolar ventilation during continuous chest compression in adult CPR. Methods A three-period crossover study with three common transport ventilators in a cadaver model of CPR was carried out. The three ventilators ‘MEDUMAT Standard²’, ‘Oxylog 3000 plus’, and ‘Monnal T60’ represent three different interventions, providing volume-controlled continuous mandatory ventilation (VC-CMV) via an endotracheal tube with a tidal volume of 6 mL/kg predicted body weight. Proximal airflow was measured, and the net tidal volume was derived for each respiratory cycle. The deviation from the predetermined tidal volume was calculated and analysed. Several mixed linear models were calculated with the cadaver as a random factor and ventilator, height, sex, crossover period and incremental number of each ventilation within the period as covariates to evaluate differences between ventilators. Results Overall median deviation of net tidal volume from predetermined tidal volume was − 21.2 % (IQR: 19.6, range: [− 87.9 %; 25.8 %]) corresponding to a tidal volume of 4.75 mL/kg predicted body weight (IQR: 1.2, range: [0.7; 7.6]). In a mixed linear model, the ventilator model, the crossover period, and the cadaver’s height were significant factors for decreased tidal volume. The estimated effects of tidal volume deviation for each ventilator were − 14.5 % [95 %-CI: −22.5; −6.5] (p = 0.0004) for ‘Monnal T60’, − 30.6 % [95 %-CI: −38.6; −22.6] (p < 0.0001) for ‘Oxylog 3000 plus’ and − 31.0 % [95 %-CI: −38.9; −23.0] (p < 0.0001) for ‘MEDUMAT Standard²’. Conclusions All investigated transport ventilators were able to provide alveolar ventilation even though chest compressions considerably decreased tidal volumes. Our results support the concept of using ventilators to avoid excessive ventilatory rates in CPR. This experimental study suggests that healthcare professionals should carefully monitor actual tidal volumes to recognise the occurrence of hypoventilation during continuous chest compressions.

Disabilities ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (3) ◽  
pp. 187-201
Seungsu Kim ◽  
Jihye Park ◽  
Young Jin Ko

To improve the independence of brain impairment patients in ADL, we sought to identify influential parameters from information commonly collected in hospitals, prioritize the factors, and specify the degree to which those factors are necessary. In total, 64 patients with hemiplegia, who had been admitted to the one of the authors, were examined using various evaluation tools. Afterwards, we checked the difference between the capable group and the incapable group with an independent t-test or chi-squared test to determine the significant factors, and we prioritized the significant factors with Spearman’s rho test. The degree of their necessity was determined with the ROC curve. Standing balancing ability and hip joint and knee extensor strength are necessary in most ADL except for eating. In order to independently perform most ADL except eating and one gait cycle, the strength of the knee extensor and hip flexor was required to exceed grade 3 on the MRC scale. However, one gait cycle was possible even if the strength of the hip joint and knee extensors rated lower than 3 on the MRC scale. Additionally, upper limb motor recovery was required up to the distal parts in the order of bathing, dressing, and grooming.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (7) ◽  
pp. e0255253
Kenji Fujiwara ◽  
Atsushi Abe ◽  
Toshihiro Masatsugu ◽  
Tatsuya Hirano ◽  
Kiyohisa Hiraka ◽  

Background The preoperative distinction between uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis is important to determine the appropriate treatments, such as antibiotics, surgery, or interval appendectomy. Computed tomography (CT) plays an important role; however, combining clinical and imaging factors may make preoperative evaluation more reliable. This study evaluated and analyzed cases and the usefulness of several preoperative factors and clinical scoring models to detect complicated appendicitis. Methods A total of 203 patients preoperatively diagnosed with acute appendicitis at our facility were included. Complicated appendicitis was defined as appendicitis with gangrene, perforated appendix, and/or abscess formation. Preoperative factors were collected from published clinical scoring models; patient information, symptoms, signs, results of laboratory tests, and findings of CT. Factors were analyzed using a chi-squared test and the Mann-Whitney U test. Results The preoperative factors were compared between 151 uncomplicated and 52 complicated appendicitis patients. The significant factors were age ≥40, duration of symptoms >24 hours, body temperature ≥37.3°C, high levels of CRP, findings in CT scan (appendix diameter ≥10 mm, stranding of the adjacent fat, presence of fluid collection, and suspicion of abscess or perforation). We also evaluated the usefulness of clinical scoring models for the detection of complicated appendicitis and found the Appendicitis Inflammatory Response score and two prediction models (Atema score and Imaoka score) showed significance (p < 0.05). High serum CRP level was significantly associated with complicated appendicitis (p < 0.001), and the predicted existence rates of complicated appendicitis were 52.7% for serum CRP level ≥50mg/L, 74.4% for ≥100mg/L, and 82.6% for ≥150mg/L. Conclusion The results demonstrated several preoperative factors and clinical scoring models to increase suspicion of complicated appendicitis. Specifically, high serum levels of CRP may be a useful factor in predicting complicated appendicitis prior to surgery when supported by clinical findings and imaging; however, further research is needed.

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