clinical scenarios
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Eye ◽  
2022 ◽  
Susmit Das ◽  
Helen J. Kuht ◽  
Ian De Silva ◽  
Sundeep S. Deol ◽  
Lina Osman ◽  

Abstract Background/objectives Handheld fundus cameras are portable and cheaper alternatives to table-top counterparts. To date there have been no studies comparing feasibility and clinical utility of handheld fundus cameras to table-top devices. We compare the feasibility and clinical utility of four handheld fundus cameras (Remidio NMFOP, Volk Pictor Plus, Volk iNview, oDocs visoScope) to a table-top camera (Zeiss VisucamNM/FA). Subjects/methods Healthy participants (n = 10, mean age ± SD = 21.0 ± 0.9 years) underwent fundus photography with five fundus cameras to assess success/failure rates of image acquisition. Participants with optic disc abnormalities (n = 8, mean age ± SD = 26.8 ± 15.9) and macular abnormalities (n = 10, mean age ± SD = 71.6 ± 15.4) underwent imaging with the top three scoring fundus cameras. Images were randomised and subsequently validated by ophthalmologists masked to the diagnoses and devices used. Results Image acquisition success rates (100%) were achieved in non-mydriatic and mydriatic settings for Zeiss, Remidio and Pictor, compared with lower success rates for iNview and oDocs. Image quality and gradeability were significantly higher for Zeiss, Remidio and Pictor (p < 0.0001) compared to iNview and oDocs. For cup:disc ratio estimates, similar levels of bias were seen for Zeiss (−0.09 ± SD:0.15), Remidio (−0.07 ± SD:0.14) and Pictor (−0.05 ± SD:0.16). Diagnostic sensitivities were highest for Zeiss (84.9%; 95% CI, 78.2–91.5%) followed by Pictor (78.1%; 95% CI, 66.6–89.5%) and Remidio (77.5%; 95% CI, 65.9–89.0%). Conclusions Remidio and Pictor achieve comparable results to the Zeiss table-top camera. Both devices achieved similar scores in feasibility, image quality, image gradeability and diagnostic sensitivity. This suggests that these devices potentially offer a more cost-effective alternative in certain clinical scenarios.

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
Ruqayyah Turabi ◽  
Ian Horsely ◽  
Helen Birch ◽  
Anju Jaggi

Abstract Aim To investigate if there is a correlation between grip strength (GS) and rotator cuff (RC) strength in patients with atraumatic shoulder instability (ASI) and to compare the relationship between these two measures with that previously published for a healthy population. Moreover, to determine if testing GS could be incorporated as a surrogate clinical assessment for RC strength in these patients. Methods A total of 20 subjects with ASI were included. Out of the 20 patients, eight presented with bilateral instability, which constituted a total of 28 atraumatic unstable shoulders (N = 28). GS was measured using a Jamar hand-dynamometer. External rotation (ER) and internal rotation (IR) strength was tested in inner and outer ranges using a hand-held dynamometer (HHD). Pearson’s correlation test was computed to investigate the relationship. Multiple linear regression was conducted to predict GS based on RC strength. Results Significant and strong positive correlations were found between GS and inner-range IR (r = 0.764, P < 0.001), inner-range ER (r = 0.611, P = 0.001), outer-range IR (r = 0.817, P < 0.001), and outer-range ER (r = 0.736, P < 0.001). A significant regression equation was found (F (4, 23) = 13.254, P < 0.001), with an R2 of 0.697 indicating that RC strength explained 69.7% of the variance in GS. Conclusions The results support the hypothesis showing that GS is strongly associated with RC strength in ASI patients. The simplicity of handgrip testing allows it to be used in clinical scenarios where sophisticated assessment tools are not available. GS is a convenient means to monitor patient progress during shoulder rehabilitation programs.

Biya Tang ◽  
Kirsten Barnes ◽  
Andrew Geers ◽  
Evan Livesey ◽  
Ben Colagiuri

Abstract Background Choice has been proposed as a method of enhancing placebo effects. However, there have been no attempts to systematically evaluate the magnitude, reliability, and moderators of the influence of choice on the placebo effect. Purpose To estimate the effect size of choice on the placebo effect and identify any moderators of this effect. Methods Web of Science, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and PubMed were systematically searched from inception to May 2021 for studies comparing placebo treatment with any form of choice over its administration (e.g., type, timing) to placebo treatment without choice, on any health-related outcome. Random-effects meta-analysis was then used to estimate the effect size associated with the influence of choice on the placebo effect. Meta-regression was subsequently employed to determine the moderating effect of factors such as type of choice, frequency of choice, and size of the placebo effect without choice. Results Fifteen independent studies (N = 1,506) assessing a range of conditions, including pain, discomfort, sleep difficulty, and anxiety, met inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis revealed that choice did significantly enhance the placebo effect (Hedges’ g = 0.298). Size of the placebo effect without choice was the only reliable moderator of this effect, whereby a greater effect of choice was associated with smaller placebo effects without choice. Conclusions Treatment choice can effectively facilitate the placebo effect, but this effect appears more pronounced in contexts where the placebo effect without choice is weaker. Because most evidence to date is experimental, translational studies are needed to test whether providing choice in clinical scenarios where placebo effects are weaker may help boost the placebo effect and thereby improve patient outcomes.

Heiko Schöder ◽  
Thomas A. Hope ◽  
Michael Knopp ◽  
William K. Kelly ◽  
Jeff M. Michalski ◽  

PURPOSE As prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography (PET) becomes increasingly available in the United States, the greater sensitivity of the technology in comparison to conventional imaging poses challenges for clinical trials. The NCI Clinical Imaging Steering Committee (CISC) PSMA PET Working Group was convened to coordinate the identification of these challenges in various clinical scenarios and to develop consensus recommendations on how best to integrate PSMA PET into ongoing and upcoming National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN) trials. METHODS NCI CISC and NCI Genitourinary Steering Committee members and leadership nominated clinicians, biostatisticians, patient advocates, and other imaging experts for inclusion in the PSMA PET Working Group. From April to July 2021, the working group met independently and in conjunction with the CISC to frame challenges, including stage migration, response assessment, trial logistics, and statistical challenges, and to discuss proposed solutions. An anonymous, open-ended survey was distributed to members to collect feedback on challenges faced. Representatives from each NCTN group were invited to present an overview of affected trials. From these discussions, the consensus document was developed and circulated for the inclusion of multiple rounds of feedback from both the Working Group and CISC. RESULTS The current consensus document outlines the key challenges for clinical prostate cancer trials resulting from the increasing availability of PSMA PET. We discuss implications for patient selection and definition of end points and provide guidance and potential solutions for different clinical scenarios, particularly with regard to best practices in defining eligibility criteria and outcome measures. RECOMMENDATIONS This article provides guidance regarding clinical trial design and conduct, and the interpretation of trial results.

Arpita Sahu ◽  
Vineeth Kurki ◽  
Antariksh Vijan ◽  
Amit Janu ◽  
Prakash Shetty ◽  

Abstract Background The extent of resection for brain tumors is a critical factor in determining the oncologic outcome for a patient. However, a balance between preservation of neurological function and maximal resection is essential for true benefit.Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is one of the approaches that augments the neurosurgeon's ability to attain maximal safe resection by providing preoperative mapping. It may not be possible to perform awake craniotomy with intraoperative localization by direct cortical stimulation in all patients, such as children and those with neurocognitive impairment. Task-based fMRI may have limited value in these cases due to low patient cooperability. Methods In this article we present in a case-based format, the various clinical scenarios where resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) can be helpful in guiding neurosurgical resection. rs-fMRI of the patients has been acquired on Philips 1.5 T system. Seed voxel method has been used for processing and analysis. Conclusion rs-fMRI does not require active patient cooperation to generate useful information and thus can be a promising tool in patients unable to cooperate for task-based studies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
José-Ángel Hernández-Rivas ◽  
Rafael Ríos-Tamayo ◽  
Cristina Encinas ◽  
Rafael Alonso ◽  
Juan-José Lahuerta

AbstractThe increase in the number of therapeutic alternatives for both newly diagnosed and relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) patients has widened the clinical scenario, leading to a level of complexity that no algorithm has been able to cover up to date. At present, this complexity increases due to the wide variety of clinical situations found in MM patients before they reach the status of relapsed/refractory disease. These different backgrounds may include primary refractoriness, early relapse after completion of first-line therapy with latest-generation agents, or very late relapse after chemotherapy or autologous transplantation. It is also important to bear in mind that many patient profiles are not fully represented in the main randomized clinical trials (RCT), and this further complicates treatment decision-making. In RRMM patients, the choice of previously unused drugs and the number and duration of previous therapeutic regimens until progression has a greater impact on treatment efficacy than the adverse biological characteristics of MM itself. In addition to proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs, anti-CD38 antibodies and corticosteroids, a new generation of drugs such as XPO inhibitors, BCL-2 inhibitors, new alkylators and, above all, immunotherapy based on conjugated anti-BCMA antibodies and CAR-T cells, have been developed to fight RRMM. This comprehensive review addresses the fundamentals and controversies regarding RRMM, and discusses the main aspects of management and treatment. The basis for the clinical management of RRMM (complexity of clinical scenarios, key factors to consider before choosing an appropriate treatment, or when to treat), the arsenal of new drugs with no cross resistance with previously administered standard first line regimens (main phase 3 clinical trials), the future outlook including the usefulness of abandoned resources, together with the controversies surrounding the clinical management of RRMM patients will be reviewed in detail.

2022 ◽  
pp. 003693302110584
Priyanka H Krishnaswamy ◽  
Marie-Anne Ledingham ◽  
Veenu Tyagi ◽  
Karen Lesley Guerrero

This is a review of the learning points from the Independent Medicines and Medical Devices Safety Review, 1 chaired by Baroness Julia Cumberlege CBE DL. This system-wide review was initiated by the then Secretary of State for Health and Social Care, following patient-led campaigns. It looked at how the “healthcare system reacted as a whole, and how that response can be made more robust, speedy and appropriate”. We aim to highlight the learning points for doctors in Obstetrics and Gynaecology as these are relevant to our current practice and future changes in our healthcare system. These are: Aims of the review: why it was initiated and how it was conducted Overarching themes and missed opportunities to prevent avoidable harm Three clinical scenarios: their histories, issues and adverse events associated with their use and the current response in Scotland The hormone pregnancy test - Primodos The anti-epileptic drug - sodium valproate Surgical mesh for prolapse & incontinence The recommendations made by the review and implementation guidance Responses to the review, such as apologies issued by BSUG 2 /BAUS 3 /RCOG, 4 and compensations schemes such as the Scottish scheme as recommended by the review

F1000Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 337
Alok Atreya ◽  
Suman Baral ◽  
Ritesh G Menezes ◽  
Samata Nepal

Background: Male genital injuries are urological emergencies which if not promptly treated with correct therapeutic intervention may lead to loss of fertility due to infections and anatomical disruption of normalcy. This study highlights the clinical scenarios, etiology and outcome of male genital injury cases that were managed at a tertiary care center in Nepal. Such injuries are not frequently encountered as patients are hesitant to report such injuries. The present study is the first from Nepal which depicts a comprehensive report on male genital injuries.   Methods: A retrospective analysis of discharge summaries of the cases of male genital injuries was reviewed during June 2020. All the treated cases during the two-year period from April 2018 to April 2020 at Lumbini Medical College, Nepal were included in the study.  Results: There were eight cases of genital trauma admitted and treated during the study period. All the patients were males and age ranged from six to 71 years with a mean age of 33 ± 21.45 years. Fall injury and road traffic accidents (RTA) were observed to be the primary cause in the majority of cases.  Conclusion: Superficial injuries to the penis and scrotum do not require surgical exploration and could be managed conservatively. However, deeper and complicated injuries, testicular preservation, the functionality of the part and cosmetic issues are taken into consideration which might require a multi-disciplinary approach. Apart from the medical issues pertaining to genital injuries, there are legal and psychological aspects of such events too which should not be ignored.

Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 131
Kaoru Murakami ◽  
Ian Pagano ◽  
Hideki Furuya ◽  
Timothy Daskivich ◽  
Dave Mori ◽  

Oncuria™ is a validated quantitative multiplex immunoassay capable of detecting bladder cancer from a voided urine sample. Herein, we sought to determine whether Oncuria™ affects physicians’ use of non-invasive and invasive diagnostic tests for microhematuria, gross hematuria, and bladder cancer surveillance. We conducted a survey-based study to assess physician management of nine clinical scenarios involving real-world data from patients with gross hematuria, microhematuria, and bladder cancer on surveillance. We randomly sampled 15 practicing urologists and generated data including 135 patient-by-urologist interactions and 2160 decision points. Urologists recommended a selection of diagnostic tests and procedures before and after Oncuria™ results were provided. We assessed changes in provider use of non-invasive and invasive diagnostic tests after Oncuria™ results were provided. Over 90% of all urologists changed their diagnostic behavior in at least one patient case with the addition of Oncuria™ results. The total number of diagnostic procedures was reduced by 31% following the disclosure of a negative Oncuria™ test and 27% following the disclosure of a positive Oncuria™ test. This is pilot study has the potential to shed light on the analysis of our four large multicenter international studies deploying OncuriaTM. The Oncuria™ urine-based test, a molecular diagnostic capable of ruling out the presence of bladder cancer, reduces both unnecessary invasive and non-invasive diagnostics and has the potential to reduce costs and improve patient outcomes.

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