high energy density
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Mohd Firdaus Mohd Ab Halim ◽  
Erwan Sulaiman ◽  
Mahyuzie Jenal ◽  
Raja Nor Firdaus Kashfi Raja Othman ◽  
Syed Muhammad Naufal Syed Othman

The inclusion of a high energy density permanent magnet into magnetic gear improves the machine's torque density. However, it also contributes to eddy current loss, especially in a high-speed application such in electric vehicle. In this paper, the losses from eddy current and iron loss are investigated on concentric magnetic gear (CMG). Torque multiplier CMG is designed with 8/3 gear ratio for this study. Iron loss and eddy current loss are compared and discussed. Based on this study, eddy current loss contributes to almost 96% of the total loss. This finding is hoped to direct the researcher to focus more on reducing loss associated with eddy current loss.

2022 ◽  
Vol 429 ◽  
pp. 132258
Wenpeng Zang ◽  
Xueying Liu ◽  
Junjie Li ◽  
Yingjie Jiang ◽  
Bing Yu ◽  

Maria Pia Valdivia Leiva ◽  
Gilbert W Collins IV ◽  
Fabio Conti ◽  
Farhat Beg

Abstract Talbot-Lau X-ray Deflectometry (TXD) enables refraction-based imaging for high-energy-density physics (HEDP) experiments, and thus, it has been studied and developed with the goal of diagnosing plasmas relevant to Inertial Confinement and Magnetic Liner Inertial Fusion. X-pinches, known for reliably generating fast (~1 ns), small (~1 µm) x-ray sources, were driven on the compact current driver GenASIS (~200 kA, 150 ns) as a potential backlighter source for TXD. Considering that different X-pinch configurations have characteristic advantages and drawbacks as x-ray generating loads, three distinct copper X-pinch configurations were studied: the wire X-pinch, the hybrid X-pinch, and the laser-cut X-pinch. The Cu K-shell emission from each configuration was characterized and analyzed regarding the specific backlighter requirements for an 8 keV TXD system: spatial and temporal resolution, number of sources, time of emission, spectrum, and reproducibility. Recommendations for future experimental improvements and applications are presented. The electron density of static objects was retrieved from Moiré images obtained through TXD. This allowed to calculate the mass density of static samples within 4% of the expected value for laser-cut X-pinches, which were found to be the optimal X-pinch configuration for TXD due to their high reproducibility, small source size (≤5 µm), short duration (~1 ns FWHM), and up to 10^6 W peak power near 8 keV photon energy. Plasma loads were imaged through TXD for the first-time using laser-cut X-pinch backlighting. Experimental images were compared with simulations from the X-ray Wave-Front Propagation code, demonstrating that TXD can be a powerful x-ray refraction-based diagnostic for dense Z-pinch loads. Future plans for Talbot-Lau Interferometry diagnostics in the pulsed-power environment are described.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Gang Jian ◽  
Yong Jiao ◽  
Liang Feng ◽  
Qingzhen Meng ◽  
Ning Yang ◽  

AbstractDielectric substances exhibit great potential for high-power capacitors due to their high stability and fast charge–discharge; however, a long-term challenge is to enhance energy density. Here, we propose a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) composite utilizing BaTiO3 nanoparticle@TiO2 nanosheet (BT@TO ns) 2D nanohybrids as fillers, aiming at combining the interfacial strategy of using a core–shell filler and the electron scattering of a 2D filler to improve the energy density. With 4 wt% filler, the composite possesses the largest breakdown strength (Eb) of 561.2 MV m−1, which is significantly enhanced from the 407.6 MV m−1 of PVDF, and permittivity of 12.6 at 1 kHz, which is a 23% increase from that of PVDF. A superhigh energy density of 21.3 J cm−3 with an efficiency of 61% is obtained at 550 MV m−1. The 2D BT@TO ns-filled composite exhibits a higher energy density than composites filled with core–shell 1D BT@TO nws or non-core–shell 0D BT, 1D TO, or 2D TO particles. The Eb and energy density improvements are attributed to the buffer layer-based interface engineering and enhanced area scattering of electrons caused by the 2D hybrids, an effect similar to that of a ping-pong paddle to scatter electric field-induced charge migrations in composites. Thus, an effective hybrid strategy is presented for achieving high-performance polymer composites that can be used in energy storage devices.

Inorganics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 10
Svetlana Niketic ◽  
Chae-Ho Yim ◽  
Jigang Zhou ◽  
Jian Wang ◽  
Yaser Abu-Lebdeh

The high voltage spinel material LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 (LMNO) has the potential to increase the energy density of lithium batteries. However, its battery performance suffers from poor long-term cycling and high-temperature stability. In order to overcome these limitations, we have studied the effect of partial substitution of Mn with Ti and LiMn1.5−x Ni0.5TixO4 (x = 0.05, 0.1, 0.3), LMNTO, materials have been synthesized in a newly modified sol-gel method and then characterized by TEM, SEM (EDX), AC Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Soft X-ray Spectromicroscopy. We have demonstrated that the long-term cycling limitation with these types of materials can be resolved and herein 2000 cycles at a high C-rate have been demonstrated in half cells. We have attributed this behavior to a possible charge compensation mechanism as evidenced by a Soft X-ray Spectromicroscopy study of delithiated LMNTO materials. This work takes high energy density batteries based on high voltage spinel material one step further towards commercialization, and it is believed that further improvement can be achieved using new electrolyte formulations.

Jitao Liu ◽  
Yafeng Shu ◽  
Yanshi Zhang ◽  
Liangwen Chen ◽  
Canglong Wang ◽  

The radioisotope batteries have drawn extensive attention due to the high energy density. Nowadays, the radioisotope thermophotovoltaic systems are one of the most promising radioisotope batteries. In this work, the crystal emitter design and the associated performance of the radioisotope thermophotovoltaic generators are investigated. First, the design of photonic crystal emitter together with the adoptions of both the multi-layer insulation and supporting materials are discussed. In order to optimize the system efficiency, the effects of the area of emitters are mainly investigated. We have analyzed the efficiency of system using GaSb cells and Si cells, respectively. With Si cells, the system efficiency can computationally reach about [Formula: see text] with an output power of 7 W. When GaSb cells are employed, the system performance is estimated to an efficiency of [Formula: see text] with 61.6 W output.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Julian F. Baumgärtner ◽  
Frank Krumeich ◽  
Michael Wörle ◽  
Kostiantyn V. Kravchyk ◽  
Maksym V. Kovalenko

AbstractTowards enhancement of the energy density of Li-ion batteries, BiF3 has recently attracted considerable attention as a compelling conversion-type cathode material due to its high theoretical capacity of 302 mAh g−1, average discharge voltage of ca. 3.0 V vs. Li+/Li, the low theoretical volume change of ca. 1.7% upon lithiation, and an intrinsically high oxidative stability. Here we report a facile and scalable synthesis of phase-pure and highly crystalline orthorhombic BiF3via thermal decomposition of bismuth(III) trifluoroacetate at T = 300 °C under inert atmosphere. The electrochemical measurements of BiF3 in both carbonate (LiPF6-EC/DMC)- and ionic liquid-based (LiFSI-Pyr1,4TFSI) Li-ion electrolytes demonstrated that ionic liquids improve the cyclic stability of BiF3. In particular, BiF3 in 4.3 M LiFSI-Pyr1,4TFSI shows a high initial capacity of 208 mA g−1 and capacity retention of ca. 50% over at least 80 cycles at a current density of 30 mA g−1.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 776
Aditya Kachhwaha ◽  
Ghamgeen Izat Rashed ◽  
Akhil Ranjan Garg ◽  
Om Prakash Mahela ◽  
Baseem Khan ◽  

The electrical energy storage system faces numerous obstacles as green energy usage rises. The demand for electric vehicles (EVs) is growing in tandem with the technological advance of EV range on a single charge. To tackle the low-range EV problem, an effective electrical energy storage device is necessary. Traditionally, electric vehicles have been powered by a single source of power, which is insufficient to handle the EV’s dynamic demand. As a result, a unique storage medium is necessary to meet the EV load characteristics of high-energy density and high-power density. This EV storage system is made up of two complementing sources: chemical batteries and ultracapacitors/supercapacitors. The benefits of using ultracapacitors in a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) to meet the low-power electric car dynamic load are explored in this study. In this paper, a HESS technique for regulating the active power of low-powered EV simulations was tested in a MATLAB/Simulink environment with various dynamic loading situations. The feature of this design, as noted from the simulation results, is that it efficiently regulates the DC link voltage of an EV with a hybrid source while putting minimal load stress on the battery, resulting in longer battery life, lower costs, and increased vehicle range.

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